Canada Vol.2 (Manifesto 2015 of Liberal Party of Canada)

Here is Canada’s current ruling party’s manifesto in October 2015. Excerpts are on our own.

Real CHANGE: A NEW PLAN FOR A STRONG MIDDLE CLASS [PDF] | @liberal_party

Chapter 1.  Growth for the Middle Class
~ Economic security for the middle class
~ Investing to strengthen the middle class
p.12: PUBLIC TRANSIT
We will invest in public transit to shorten commute times, cut air pollution, strengthen our communities, and grow our economy.
Canadian cities have been growing at a rapid rate, but investment in public transit has not kept pace.
Stephen Harper’s failure to invest has led to worsening traffic congestion, making it harder for families to spend time together. This gridlock also costs our economy billions of dollars in lost productivity each year.
We will get our communities moving again, by giving our provinces, territories, and municipalities the long-term, predictable federal funding they need to make transit plans a reality.
Over the next decade, we will quadruple federal investment in public transit, investing almost $20 billion more in transit infrastructure.

In communities all across Canada, transit projects are ready to go.
In British Columbia’s Lower Mainland, for example, plans are in place to:
• increase SeaBus service to every ten minutes during morning and afternoon rushes;
• extend rapid transit service along Broadway, currently the busiest bus corridor in North America; and
• bring light rail transit to Surrey, one of the fastest growing parts of the region.
We will work with provinces and municipalities across the country to get projects like these done.

p.13-14: GREENER COMMUNITIES
We will invest in sustainable infrastructure that makes our communities safer and more resilient.
Responsible governments do not walk away from challenges, or pretend they do not exist. We will protect our communities from the challenges of climate change and grow our economy by making significant new investments in green infrastructure.
This includes investments in local water and wastewater facilities; clean energy; climate resilient infrastructure, including flood mitigation systems; and infrastructure to protect against changing weather.
We will boost investment in green infrastructure by nearly $6 billion over the next four years, and almost $20 billion over ten years.
When it comes to infrastructure that will help keep Canadians safe and better prepared for emergencies, local leaders know what needs to be done. What they need is a federal partner willing to invest to help build stronger, more resilient communities.
In St. John’s, this means upgrades to its wastewater plant.
In Trois-Rivières, this means improving the Maples and Cardinal-Roy reservoirs, and finding ways to mitigate the regular flooding of the Millette, Bettez, and Lacerte rivers.
In Calgary and Southern Alberta, this means investments in flood mitigation projects, to help protect local families and businesses.

p.16: AGRICULTURE
We will help Canada’s agriculture sector be more innovative, safer, and stronger.
Canada’s farmers and ranchers are the foundation of our food sector. The work that they do to feed Canada and the world is vital, but government support is needed to help them with challenges ranging from transportation to water management to research and food safety.
To attract investment and create good jobs in food processing, we will invest $160 million, over four years, in an Agri-Food Value Added Investment Fund. This will provide technical and marketing assistance to help food processors develop new
value-added products that reflect changing tastes and market opportunities.
To support innovation in the agricultural sector, we will invest an additional $100 million, over four years, in agricultural research. To better allocate research funding, we will establish a transparent process that involves food producers.
We will invest an additional $80 million, over four years, in the Canadian Food Inspection Agency for more food safety inspections of domestic and imported foods.
We will continue to defend Canadian interests during trade negotiations, including supply management.
We will also work with provinces, territories, and other willing partners, to better address water and soil conservation and development issues, including investments in appropriate infrastructure.

~ Help that works for modern Canadian families
p.21-22: CANADA’S NORTH
We will invest in Canada’s North, to help northern Canadians with the high cost of living, and help our northern economies grow.
Canada’s North is a vast and beautiful part of the world, home to a rich culture and tremendous economic potential. Because of its isolation, however, it is also a very expensive place to live.
The Northern Residents Deduction was designed to help mitigate these higher costs, and help attract workers to the North. Unfortunately, the deduction amount has not kept pace with inflation, making its help less valuable to those who need it.
To help northern residents with higher costs of living, and to help our northern economies grow, we will increase the residency component of the deduction by 33 percent to a maximum of $22 per day. We will also index this benefit so that it keeps pace with inflation.
To ensure that northern families have access to affordable, healthy food, we will increase investments in the Nutrition North program by $40 million, over four years. We will also work with northern and remote communities to ensure that the program is more transparent, effective, and accountable to northerners and other Canadians.
As part of new, ten-year investments in social infrastructure and green infrastructure, we will prioritize investment in affordable housing and climate change preparedness, both of which are important to the quality of life for northern Canadians.

For residents in Canada’s Northern Zone, our enhanced Northern Residents Deduction will provide a new annual maximum deduction of $8,000 per year, from the $6,022 currently available.
Those living in the Intermediate Zone will see their annual maximum deduction rise to $4,000 from $3,011 per year.
In total, this enhanced deduction represents a $50 million annual tax savings for Northern Canadians.

Chapter 2.  Fair and Open Government
~ Open and transparent government
~ Open and fair elections
~ Giving Canadians a voice in Ottawa
~ Better service for Canadians
~ Evidence-based policy

Chapter 3.  A Clean Environment and a Strong Economy
p.40-41: CLEAN JOBS
We will make it easier and more financially rewarding for Canadian businesses to invest in creating clean jobs.
Clean technology can deliver real benefits for our environment and our economy, including more good, middle class jobs.
We will invest $100 million more each year in clean technology producers, so that they can tackle Canada’s most pressing environmental challenges, and create more opportunities for Canadian workers.
We will deliver more support to emerging clean tech manufacturing companies, making it easier for them to conduct research and bring new products to market.
We will also invest $200 million more each year to support innovation and the use of clean technologies in our natural resource sectors, including the forestry, fisheries, mining, energy, and agricultural sectors.
To support both large- and community-scale renewable energy projects, the new Canada Infrastructure Bank will issue Green Bonds to fund projects like electric vehicle charging stations and networks, transmission lines for renewable energy, building retrofits, and clean power storage.
We will enhance existing tax measures to generate more clean technology investments, and work with the provinces and territories to make Canada the world’s most competitive tax jurisdiction for investments in the research, development, and manufacturing of clean technology.
We will deliver a better quality of life for all Canadians by working with the provinces to set stronger air quality standards, monitor emissions, and provide incentives for investments that lead to cleaner air and healthier communities.
As the country’s single largest employer, customer, and landlord, we will lead by example and increase government use of clean technologies. This will boost domestic demand for clean technology, support entrepreneurs, and fuel new jobs.
We will improve energy efficiency standards for consumer and commercial products, and use new financing instruments to encourage investments in energy-saving retrofits to Canada’s industrial, commercial, and residential buildings.
We will provide more support for our clean technology companies to successfully export their products by training trade officials and leading trade missions focused on clean technology. These companies will also be provided with useful training, data, and technical assistance on export opportunities in a more coordinated way.
We will look for ways for government to be an “early adopter” of emerging green technologies, and will support clean transportation by adding electric vehicle charging stations at federal parking lots, and rapidly expanding the federal fleet of electric vehicles.
To foster the creativity that leads to cutting-edge research, we will establish Canada Research Chairs in sustainable technology.
We will also work closely with the provinces and territories to develop a Canadian Energy Strategy to protect Canada’s energy security; encourage energy conservation; and bring cleaner, renewable energy onto the electricity grid.

p.43-44: WATER
We will protect our freshwater and oceans.
Canada is uniquely blessed with an abundance of freshwater, and marine and coastal areas that are not only ecologically diverse, but also economically significant: our ocean-based industries contribute nearly $40 billion each year to the Canadian economy.
To protect these valuable natural resources, we will deliver more robust and credible environmental assessments for all projects that could impact our freshwater and oceans.

Freshwater
We will treat our freshwater as a precious resource that deserves protection and careful stewardship. We will work with other orders of government to protect Canada’s freshwater using education, geo-mapping, watershed protection, and investments in the best wastewater treatment technologies.
To protect our freshwater ecosystems, we will renew our commitment to protect the Great Lakes, the St. Lawrence River Basin, and the Lake Winnipeg Basin. We will also act on the recommendations of the Cohen Commission on restoring sockeye salmon stocks in the Fraser River.
To aid in making the best possible decisions, we will restore $1.5 million in annual federal funding for freshwater research – a program that was cut by the Conservatives – and make new investments in Canada’s world-leading IISD Experimental Lakes Area.

Oceans
Stephen Harper’s failure to meet our international commitments to protect marine and coastal areas puts these areas and our international reputation at risk.
We will make up for Conservative inaction and increase the amount of Canada’s marine and coastal areas that are protected – to five percent by 2017, and ten percent by 2020.
To help achieve this, we will invest $8 million per year in community consultation and science.

Chapter 4.  A Strong Canada
~ A renewed relationship with Indigenous Peoples
~ The future we owe our veterans
~ Keeping Canadians safe
~ Investing in our cultural and creative industries
~ Supporting strong communities

Chapter 5.  Security and Opportunity
~ Opening the door to prosperity
~ A more compassionate Canada

~ Expanding exports and opportunities for Canadians
p.66-67: THE UNITED STATES AND MEXICO
We will renew and repair our relationships with our North American partners.
For the past decade, Stephen Harper has led a government that is increasingly partisan, suspicious, and hostile when dealing with our closest neighbours: the United States and Mexico. We will end this antagonism and work with our partners to advance our shared interests.
As a first step, we will immediately lift the Mexican visa requirement that unfairly restricts travel to Canada, and commit to rescheduling and hosting a new trilateral leaders’ summit with the United States and Mexico.
We will work with the United States and Mexico to develop a continent-wide clean energy and environment agreement.
Because Canada relies on international trade to create jobs and grow our economy, we will work to reduce the barriers that limit trade. With a re-focused Building Canada Fund, we will promote a steadier flow of goods and business travellers by modernizing border infrastructure and streamlining cargo inspections.
To underscore the importance of the United States to Canada, we will also create a Cabinet committee to oversee and manage our relationship.

~ Renewing Canada’s place in the world and strengthening our security

Chapter 6.  Fiscal Plan and Costing
p.74-75: OUR FISCAL APPROARCH
… In 2019/20, we will:
• Reduce the federal debt-to-GDP ratio to 27 percent
• Balance the budget …

p.76-77: PLANNING FRAMEWORK
With the Liberal plan, the federal government will have a modest short-term deficit of less than $10 billion in each of the next two fiscal years – less than half the average Harper deficit of over $20 billion per year. After the next two fiscal years, the deficit will decline and our investment plan will return Canada to a balanced budget in 2019/20. Combining fiscal prudence with investments in economic growth, we will end the Harper legacy of chronic deficits and reduce Canada’s federal debt-to-GDP ratio each year.
The Conservatives and the NDP have based their planning framework on assumptions from the April 2015 budget, before it was understood that Canada was in a recession. Our plan is transparent and honest about the weakened fiscal position that the federal government is facing.
Our plan includes measures that, according to Department of Finance multiplier projections, will have positive impacts on economic growth, particularly infrastructure investment and measures for lower-income Canadians.
This new economic growth would in turn improve the fiscal position of the federal government. With our plan’s level of investment, this would translate into additional billions per year for the fiscal bottom line. While these improvements to the bottom line would be material, consistent with Department of Finance practices, we have not included them in our planning framework.


Ireland Vol.3 (Manifestos 2016 of Fianna Fáil, Sinn Féin and Labour Party)

Here are manifestos in February 2016 of the current Irish opposition parties. Excerpts are on our own.

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An Ireland for all. Manifesto 2016 [PDF] | Fianna Fáil (The Republican Party)

[Fiscal Responsibility Commitment] p.2

[Our Four Core Priorities] p.3
1. Create decent jobs & support enterprise
2. Cut family costs & improve the services they rely on
3. Tackle crime & develop community services
4. Secure home ownership & tackle homelessness

[What our Priorities mean for you at each stage in your life] p.4-5
A fair start in life
The best education
Getting a decent job
Securing a home
Support with the quality & cost of living
A vibrant and safe community to live in
An independent retirement

[1. Create decent jobs & support enterprise] p.10-11
Help SMEs & Balance Regional development
Advance Science & Research
Support the Self-Employed

Bridge the Digital Divide across Ireland p.24-25
(i) Undertake a national mobile phone coverage audit
(ii) Launch a National Mobile Phone Infrastructure Plan
(iii) Secure Universal Fibre to the home broadband across Ireland
(iv) Develop Regional Digital Hubs

Secure a fair price for farmers & a successful Agri-Food Sector p.26-30
(i) Establish a national Food Ombudsman and work for new fair price legislation at EU level
(ii) Reform the inspections system
(iii) Restore Farm Assist and the Rural Social Scheme
(iv) Enhance and reform the Beef Genomics Scheme
(v) Introduce a new Primary School Farm Safety Programme
(vi) Roll out an “Island of Ireland” suckler beef label
(vii) Set up a Market Access unit in the Department of Agriculture
(viii) Fully Realise Food Harvest 2020 and Food Wise 2025
(ix) Encourage the next generation of farmers
(x) Use RDP underspend to increase payment under the Areas of Natural Constraints scheme
(xi) Review market intervention tools for the Dairy sector
(xii) Secure a strong Fisheries sector
(xiii) Secure Ireland’s place as the global leader in the Equine industry

Protect our Corporate Tax Rate & re-build the Eurozone p.31-32
(i) Protect and fully maintain our 12.5% Corporate Tax Rate
(ii) Rebuild Economic and Monetary Union to prevent a future crisis
(iii) Strengthen Banking Union
(iv) Fight for fairness on Bank-related debt
(v) Support a more substantial Fiscal and Transfer Union
(vi) Create a Rainy Day Fund

[2. Cut costs for families & improve the services they rely on] p.36-37
Reduce the cost of living
Lower childcare costs and help working parents
Create a fairer welfare system
Tackle big class sizes and create an education system for all
Support a publicly funded health care system
Reform the Public Sector

[3. Tackle crime & develop community services] p.70-71
Keep homes and communities safe
Establish a Community Services Guarantee for all citizens
Create a “Pathway to Inclusion” for people with a disability
Revitalise Irish town centres, cities & our capital
Improve the road network and protect public transport
Give local people power over local decisions

Build a strong all Ireland community p.98-102
(i) Establish a Border Economic Development Zone to foster growth in the border region
(ii) Launch Intertrade Ireland, IDA, Invest NI Joint Initiatives to attract international investment
(iii) Develop the Eastern Corridor in the new National Spatial Strategy
(iv) Secure funding for the complete development of the A5
(v) Build the Narrow Water Bridge
(vi) Increase shared Health Services
(vii) Build Education links with Dundalk and Letterkenny IT as well as opening up universities to more students from across the border
(viii) Increase Public Transport links
(ix) Work to prevent Brexit
(x) Facilitate specific Northern representation in the Seanad
(xi) Allow all Irish citizens Presidential Votes
(xii) Tackle sectarianism
(xiii) Develop the Cross Border Crime Agency

Ensure Ireland is a strong voice in the global community

[4. Secure home ownership & tackle homelessness] p.110-111
Strengthen the Right to Own p.112-113
(i) Introduce a First Time Buyers Saving Scheme for 80,000 New Buyers
(ii) Retain the Mortgage Interest Relief scheme
(iii) Tackle mortgage arrears and variable mortgage rates
(iv) Develop Credit Union Mortgage Lending

Build for families by investing in 150,000 new homes by 2021 p.114-115
(i) Establish a new Minister for Housing, Planning & Local Government
(ii) Create a National Home Building Bond (NHBB)
(iii) Encourage Residential Development in Town Centres
(iv) Strengthen the right to live in rural Ireland
(v) Increase the supply of family homes
(vi) Revise Density Levels
(vii) Introduce ‘use it or lose it’ automatic planning permission zonings

Create Homes for all by building 45,000 new Social Housing Homes p.117-119
(i) Start a new €5.4bn Home Building Programme
(ii) Restore Part V in full
(III) Develop Housing Associations Finance
(iv) Create NAMA Transfer Units
(v) Introduce a new Vacant/Derelict Home Refurbishment Scheme
(vi) Create a new Green Deal

Help Generation Rent p.120-122
(i) Establish Family Tenure to strengthen security for families and long term tenants renting their homes
(ii) Delivering affordable rent units for key workers
(iii) Improving quality of accommodation with a Local Authority Quality Certificate
(iv) Strengthen tenant rights and implement rent certainty measures
(v) Overhaul the PRTB

Eliminate long term Homelessness by 2021
Establish an Independent Living Contract for older people

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For A Fair Recovery – Níos fearr le Sinn Féin – Sinn Féin Manifesto General Election 2016 [PDF]

[Executive summary of measures] p.6-9
~ For a Fair Recovery ~
Bringing fairness to the tax system
■ We will abolish the Local Property Tax, saving 1.8 million homeowners an average of €244 per year.
■ We will scrap Water Charges, saving a family of two adults €260 per year.
■ We will make the tax system progressive by removing workers earning under €19,572 from the USC net, benefiting 277,000 employees.
■ We will ease the tax burden on the self-employed, moving towards the equalisation of the Self-Employed Tax Credit with the PAYE Tax Credit.

All-Ireland economy
■ We will have a planned approach to economic development across the island of Ireland, including one tax system and one currency.
■ We will create a Border Economic Development Zone to harmonise trade and maximise returns for border businesses.
■ We are committed to the A5 funding package as set out in the Fresh Start Agreement and to ensuring the Narrow Water Bridge project is completed.

A proper banking system
■ We will not be rushed into the sale of any State asset. The decision to sell any stake in Permanent TSB, Bank of Ireland or AIB must be based on the best interests of the Irish people in the long term.
■ We will immediately carry out a review of Credit Union regulations and look at lending restrictions, savings caps and restrictions on the types of investments and services Credit Unions can offer, including what more the sector can do to help develop small businesses.

~ Our plan for public services and quality of life ~
Building more houses
■ We will launch plans for 2030 – Project 100,000 to bring State ownership of housing stock to a minimum of 200,000. This will ensure a build of at least 70,000 social units and at least 30,000 cost purchase and cost rental housing units by 2030.
■ We will commit €5 billion (A cumulative €2.2 billion more than the government’s commitment) in capital spending in 2016-2021 and strengthen Part V to ensure the delivery of 36,500 social and affordable houses.
■ We will review all property-related tax reliefs that encourage speculation for profit.
■ We will re-examine urgently the practice of capping rent subsidies – simultaneous to the introduction of rent regulations, to ensure rents demanded by landlords do not escalate to meet any increase in the rent cap.
■ We will create rent certainty by linking rent increases to inflation.
■ We will make an additional €30 million available to local authorities and homelessness agencies in year one of government to house the homeless in emergency accommodation.
■ We will empower the Central Bank to set caps on mortgage interest rates chargeable by banks.

~ A new deal for rural Ireland ~
Addressing the imbalance
■ We will introduce a Rural Equality Bill to provide for carrying out rural impact assessments where measures affect rural areas.
■ We will develop a new enterprise spatial strategy to orientate infrastructural development and IDA and Enterprise Ireland development in a balanced regional manner.
■ We are committed to keeping open post offices, libraries, garda stations and other services that connect people with their local towns.
■ We will make up the shortfall in cuts to the Leader funding at EU level.
■ We will strive to ensure all householders and businesses have access to a minimum broadband speed of 100 Mbps.
■ We will introduce a pilot scheme for rural resettlement. This will provide a relocation package of up €5,000, including return flights for qualifying emigrant families to return to rural Ireland.
■ We will increase funding for the rural transport programme and provide a funding package for improving the condition of rural roads.
■ We will restore funding to local authorities for the LIS community involvement scheme for non-council roads.
■ We will ensure the retention of domestic turbary rights for families in the West of Ireland who cut turf to heat the family home, as has been part of Irish tradition and heritage for centuries.

A good deal for fishing and coastal communities
■ We will repeal the current penalty point system that criminalises fishermen and devalues their business.
■ We will fight for an adequate quotas and ensure their fairer distribution amongst Irish fishermen.
■ We will oppose further cuts to the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund, which exists to give financial assistance to coastal communities and the fishing industry.
■ We will pursue at a European level restrictions on factory vessels and super-trawlers in Irish waters.
■ We will negotiate a reform of the Common Fisheries Policy and related legislation to simplify regulations and put an added emphasis on development in coastal communities.

Fairness for farmers
■ We will implement the Charter of Rights for Farmers so that direct payments and farm schemes can be delivered to farmers efficiently and speedily.
■ We will establish a €12 million compensation fund for Hen Harrier designated conservation lands.
■ We will maintain the concept of income averaging for taxation purposes to compensate farmers for extreme income volatility.
■ We will work for the simplification of the Beef Data Genomics Programme to encourage wider uptake.
■ We will publish clear guidelines for farmers applying for Areas of Natural Constraint payments to avoid the lengthy waiting period thousands of farmers endured in 2015.
■ We will continue to oppose the proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP).
■ We will establish an all-island agri-food label for Irish produce.
■ We will reintroduce the Groceries Order with immediate effect to combat below-cost selling of products to ensure fair prices for producers.
■ We will restore €5 million of Farm Assist and create an additional 500 places on the Rural Social Scheme, expanding the current number of scheme places by 20%.

[Five years of Fine Gael and Labour chaos and broken promises] p.10
~ Chaos in Health ~
■ 601 patients on trolleys on one day alone.
■ 4,154 fewer nurses in the public health system.
■ 68,824 patients waiting for inpatient treatment.
■ 385,507 patients waiting for a hospital outpatient appointment.
■ 20% of people with absolutely no medical cover.
■ €159 million cut from the budget for disability services.
■ Only one in three cases, classified as serious, reached within the target time by the National Ambulance Service.

~ Chaos in Housing ~
■ 1,500 – the number of children sleeping in emergency accommodation every night.
■ 89,872 – the number of households on Local Authority waiting lists.
■ 92,291 – family homes in mortgage arrears in the 3rd quarter of 2015.
■ €1,358 – the average monthly rent in Dublin, with people paying on average over €1,000 in the rest of the State.
■ 1.8 million – the number of households paying an average of €244 a year in property taxes.
■ €2,000 – what a 1% reduction would save on average in annual interest payments for a family with a €200,000 mortgage if the government had taken action on interest rates.
■ €340 million – the subsidy paid by the State per annum to private landlords to house rent supplement recipients.

~ Chaos in Families ~
■ 200,000 – the number of young people who have emigrated since 2010.
■ 1.5 million – the number of home-help hours slashed.
■ €120 – the annual amount cut from the fuel allowance for the elderly and most vulnerable.
■ €36.80 – the amount slashed from the weekly invalidity pension for 65-year-olds.
■ €4,000 – the annual amount of money saved per garda station closed by this government. They shut down 139 stations.
■ €800 to €1,100 – the monthly cost of childcare for one child.

~ And through it all, they protected the Golden Circle ~
■ €156,380 – how much Enda Kenny pays his special advisors, breaching his own pay caps.
■ €12,000 – how much the Taoiseach will pocket through the abolition of the USC.
■ 250 – the number of individuals who saw their wealth increase by 16% to €75 billion in 2015.
■ €11 million – how much NAMA spent in wages for property developers in one year. Fifteen were paid between €150,000 to €199,000 per year.

[Balance sheet] p.11
[CASE STUDIES] p.12-13
[Part 1 – Better for Ireland] p.25-
[Part 2 – For a fair recovery] p.33-
[Part 3 – Improved public services and quality of life] p.43-
[Part 4 – Rural Ireland] p.53-

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Standing Up for Ireland’s Future – LABOUR MANIFESTO 2016 [PDF]

1. A STRONG ECONOMY FOR A DECENT SOCIETY
2. STANDING UP FOR WORKING PEOPLE
2.1 A new deal on income tax
p.17: In response to the economic crisis Fianna Fáil introduced the Universal Social Charge. The USC applied to all income provided the individual taxpayer earned more than €4,000 a year. Labour in Government increased this threshold to €13,000 and removed 700,000 taxpayers from the USC net. We have also reduced the rate of USC payable on the first €70,000 of income…
p.18:… The third part of our tax plan is to target additional relief at low and middle income working people, earning between €18,305 and €36,608. In the last Budget, we reduced the burden on low and middle income workers by introducing PRSI relief…

2.2 Improving living standards for working people
2.3 Making homes affordable
2.4 Providing security in retirement
3. STANDING UP FOR JOBS & OPPORTUNITY
3.1 A job for everyone who wants one by 2018
3.2 A skills revolution

3.3 Support for start-ups and small business
p.37:… The State currently owns 15% of Bank of Ireland, 99% of AIB, and all of Permanent TSB. We will proceed as planned with the planned disposal of 25% of AIB shares this year and will also initiate a strategic review of the Irish banking system… Within the Ireland Strategic Investment Fund we will create a €1bn dedicated Green Infrastructure Fund to invest in clean public transport and energy efficiency projects. This will be funded by €500m from the proceeds from the sale of bank shares, combined with private sector leveraging…

3.4 Bringing the recovery to every corner of Ireland
p.40 : Labour in government has prioritised balanced regional development and the rural economy. Our leadership on the implementation of the Commission for the Economic Development of Rural Areas (CEDRA) report and the Rural Economic Development Zones (REDZ), injected nearly €4 million into our rural economy. The Regional Action Plans for Jobs have been rolled out and we have delivered funding of €250 million for LEADER programmes in rural communities between 2014 and 2020. Our National Broadband Plan will deliver universal high-speed broadband access by 2020. We have delivered a thriving tourism sector through the introduction of the 9% VAT rate and scrapping the Air Travel Tax, The Gathering initiative, the development of the Wild Atlantic Way, Ireland’s Ancient East and more cycling greenways…

3.5 Investing in infrastructure
p.46: Labour in government launched a capital investment plan worth €17 billion in 2012, and in 2015, we launched a follow-up, six-year plan worth €42 billion. That plan represents over 3.5 percent of GNP each year between 2016 and 2021, and it will support more than 45,000 construction-related jobs.

3.6 Growing the green economy
p.50:… Labour in government enacted the State’s first climate change legislation and we have published a White Paper with ambitious proposals on the future of energy security and supply. We created a national mitigation plan to reduce emissions and a national adaptation plan to address the symptoms of climate change.
The 2015 Energy White Paper sets out a path to transform Ireland’s energy system. Our vision places citizen engagement at the heart of our energy future and its implementation. Over the next five years we will take the steps needed to make that transformation happen. In particular, we will encourage an increasing role for smaller, community-level renewable energy projects. As part of this, we will facilitate grid access for small-scale renewable energy projects. …

4. STANDING UP FOR FAMILIES & COMMUNITIES
4.1 Making all schools fit for the digital age
4.2 Quality childcare affordable for everyone
4.3 A new National Community Health Service
4.4 Improving quality of life in our communities
4.5 An age-friendly society
4.6 Independent living for people with disabilities
4.7 Action on child poverty
5. STANDING UP FOR A MODERN IRELAND
5.1 True equality for all
5.2 Law reform
5.3 Opening up government and empowering citizens
5.4 Constitutional change
5.5 Arts, culture and heritage

5.6 An active role in the world
p.119-120:… The Political Union and engagement with EU citizens must be strengthened. Labour wants to see a more effective role for national parliaments. We support a strengthening of the “yellow card” procedure, whereby national parliaments can question the merit of proposed European legislation, and the trialling of a “green card” procedure, where a number of national parliaments can come together to propose legislation at a European level.
The EU must also strengthen its response to the migration crisis and provide further relocation and resettlement of refugees. It must also provide greater assistance to bring peace and stability to war-torn countries in the region.
We will support social democratic efforts to reform the investor state dispute resolution mechanism within the Transatlantic Trade Investment Partnership. In this way we can ensure that member states enjoy benefits of free trade with North America, without running the risk of undermining our essential consumer protections.
We believe that it is in Ireland’s interests and in the interest of the EU as a whole that the United Kingdom should remain as a full and positively engaged member of the Union.
We will facilitate the negotiations with the UK insofar as it lies within our power to do so, provided that any negotiated arrangement with the UK does not infringe on the fundamental values and cornerstones of the Union. We will oppose any arrangement which serves to erect, whether by design or otherwise, barriers of any kind between Ireland and Northern Ireland.
We will work with our sister parties in the Party of European Socialists, including the British Labour Party, to ensure that the threat of UK exit is not exploited by conservative or xenophobic parties who might seek to weaken standards of workers’ rights, consumer protection, environmental law and the basic rights and protections guaranteed by the treaties to EU citizens.
Labour is committed to a strong all island economy and society. As we enter into a decade of commemoration in 2016, Labour wants to commence a national conversation about the future of our island and within it our many diverse communities.
This new national conversation must explore the potential for greater co-operation in developing our common languages, our many sporting and artistic organisations, increased interaction at local authority level and between state agencies.
Labour continue to support the Good Friday Agreement and the institutions created under it and we will press for the full implementation of the Stormont House Agreement to deal with outstanding issues and for securing agreement on key issues among the parties in Northern Ireland. …

6. LABOUR’S ECONOMIC PLAN & COSTINGS
p.123: Our Proposals
• Balance the budget and reduce our national debt to 75% of GDP by 2021
• Invest €3 in services for families and communities for every €1 reduction in tax
• This means that we will invest an additional €8.368bn in the services families and communities need and reduce tax by €2.866bn for low and middle income earners. …

Macro economic forecasts
p.124:… Labour is committed to tackling the national debt. EU fiscal rules require us to reduce our debt to GDP ratio by 1% a year over the lifetime of the next Government. However, we propose to achieve this at a faster rate of 3%, in order to get the debt ratio back to 75% or below by 2021. …

A balanced budget

Sustainable national debt p.125-126
Labour’s economic plan p.127

Improving living standards for working people
Investing in the services families & communities need


Ireland Vol.2 (Manifesto 2016 of Fine Gael – Irish ruling party since March 2011)

Here is Fine Gael’s manifesto in February 2016. After the eletion, the party formed a minority government. Excerpts are on our own.
@FineGael GENERAL ELECTION MANIFESTO 2016 – LET’s KEEP THE RECOVERY GOING [PDF]

[The Long Term Economic Plan – Three Steps to Keep the Recovery Going] p.9-10

[Agriculture and Food] p.13-15
By 2025, we will deliver:
• An increase in value of exports by 85% to €19bn
• An increase in value added by 70% to €13bn
• An increase in value of primary production by 65% to almost €10bn
• The creation of a further 23,000 jobs in the agri-food sector

Farm Gate Investment: Fine Gael has committed €4bn to on-farm investment through the Rural Development Programme (RDP). Schemes like GLAS, TAMS, the Beef Data and Genomics Programme, locally led environmental schemes, knowledge transfer programmes, horticulture, organics and Areas of Natural Constraint are being rolled out as a priority…

Beef:… The Beef Data and Genomics Programme will spend over €300m on modernising and improving efficiency in the beef herd as well as supporting farm incomes. This, in tandem with the introduction of a framework for producer organisations and knowledge transfer schemes (discussion groups), will support farmers in increasing efficiency and profitability.

Dairy: The abolition of milk quotas continues to represent the biggest opportunity for the Irish dairy sector and, as markets stabilise, Fine Gael will ensure that Irish producers are best placed to benefit from this, on the back of prudent investment. We will continue to convene a dairy forum to manage growth, ensure sustainability and address challenges within the sector. Fine Gael has invested heavily in the future of this sector through supports for processors expanding their enterprises, and this is being matched by on-farm capital investment through TAMS and knowledge transfer schemes. We have also supported farmers through the recent period of market volatility with a €25m compensation fund. We will also encourage the establishment of a futures market for dairy produce and encourage price stabilisation tools to combat price volatility.

Sheepmeat: Developing the sheep sector is a key focus of the Food Wise 2025 strategy. We will improve efficiency and profitability in the sector through the knowledge transfer programme (discussion groups). We will further support sheep farmers through GLAS, the Areas of Natural Constraint scheme and TAMS…

Poultry:…
Pigmeat:…

Horticulture: We recognise the importance of the horticulture sector and will continue to prioritise capital investment for development in this area. We recognise the potential to grow the output value of this sector to over €500m in the medium term and will deliver on the actions in the Food Wise Strategy to achieve this target. We are conscious of the need to safeguard this sector from potential unfair practices in the grocery sector and will monitor the impact of new legislation in this area in that context.

Forestry: The role of forestry in the effort to mitigate against climate change is very significant. Fine Gael will implement the Forestry Programme 2014-2020. The programme targets an increase in planting each year over the lifetime of the programme, commencing with 6,000 ha of new forests in year one, increasing to 8,290 ha in 2020. The programme will aim to build on research by COFORD on the eligible land considered suitable for forestry across the country.

[Economy, Public Finances and Taxation] p.43-44
Corporation Tax: Fine Gael defended our corporation tax regime throughout the financial crisis and we are committed to maintaining the 12.5% rate into the future…

Capital Gains Tax Relief for Start-Up Companies:…Gains arising on chargeable business assets acquired from 2017 and held for 5 years will be charged at a rate of 10% on disposal, up to a maximum liability of €10m.

[Housing] p.73-74
Framework to Support Mortgage Holders in Arrears:…Fine Gael wants to keep people in their homes and, building on the progress which has seen the number in mortgage arrears decline for 9 consecutive quarters, we will continue to adapt and strengthen the existing mortgage arrears framework as necessary…

Increasing Home Building: To meet housing demand Fine Gael will support an increase in the annual housing output to a sustainable level of 25,000 by 2021. As part of this goal, we will support NAMA to deliver on their target of 20,000 residential units before the end of 2020.

Investing Strategically: Fine Gael will improve the availability of finance for new home construction, with a €500m joint venture to finance the building of 11,000 new homes through the Ireland Strategic Investment Fund (ISIF)…

[Jobs, Enterprise and Regional Growth] p.78-80
Local Enterprise Offices (LEOs): Enterprise Ireland (EI) will support the LEO network to develop their own capacity and their range of policy tools, to grow their base of start-ups and small businesses…

Export-Led Growth:…government-supported, Irish-owned companies will grow exports by 40%, or €10bn, by 2020, by driving client companies to target new markets, and by increasing the value of sales in existing markets.

Innovating to Drive Growth: Fine Gael will implement Innovation 2020, Ireland’s 5-year strategy for research and development, science and technology. …reaching our overall goal of increasing public and private investment in research and development (R & D) to 2.5% of GNP by 2020. This will amount to an almost doubling of current levels of investment. As part of this, €1.25bn in funding will be drawn down from the EU Horizon 2020 programme…

Smart Regulation:… We will publish new guidelines, taking account of the latest EU and OECD smart regulation practices…

[Local Government and Communities] p.89
Local Enterprise Offices (LEOs): Enterprise Ireland (EI) will support the LEO network to develop their own capacity and their range of policy tools, to grow their base of start-ups and small businesses…

[Northern Ireland, European and Foreign Affairs] p.92-95
Outstanding Commitments: We will support efforts to implement the unfulfilled commitments under previous Agreements, including the establishment of a North-South Consultative Forum; the establishment of a public inquiry into the murder of Pat Finucane; and the promulgation of a Bill of Rights for Northern Ireland.

Ireland-UK Relations: Building on the successful state visits of 2011 and 2014, we will continue to enhance Ireland’s relationship with the United Kingdom, including under the Good Friday Agreement, through the British-Irish Council and the annual summits between the Taoiseach and British Prime Minister. We will strengthen cooperation with all devolved administrations.

Economic Cooperation: Fine Gael pioneered trade missions jointly led by Jobs ministers north and south. …boost economic growth in the North West through the North West Gateway initiative, the upgrading of the A5 road and the further development of the Ulster Canal…

Narrow Water Bridge:…
Atlantic Youth Trust Initiative:…

North South Ministerial Council: …(NSMC) and harness the potential of the Stormont House Agreement to develop new areas of cooperation in areas such as trade, health, tourism, sport and security.

EU Supports: …benefit from EU funding through the INTERREG and PEACE programmes.
Addressing External Threats:…
Effective Institutions:…
UK Membership:…
The European People’s Party (EPP):…
Taxation:…
EU Competitiveness and Growth:…
Trade Missions:…
New Cross-Sectoral Trade Strategies:…
Continuing Reform and Modernisation:…

[Public Sector Reform and Public Procurement] p.105
Better Regulation: We will mandate the Cabinet Secretariat within the Department of An Taoiseach to act as a centre of expertise for, and enforce compliance with, the regulatory impact assessment procedures for all major regulatory and legislative proposals. To promote the better regulation agenda the Taoiseach will also host an annual meeting of economic regulators to discuss ways to promote greater efficiency in the regulated industries.

[Rural Ireland] p.111-114
Local Enterprise Offices (LEOs) (see the Jobs, Enterprise and Regional Growth chapter for further detail):…
Agriculture (see the Agriculture and Food chapter for further detail):…
Technological Universities:…
Rural Transport:…

Community Involvement Schemes (CIS) and Local Improvement Schemes (LIS): We will provide funding for Community Involvement schemes and Local Improvement Schemes, on an annual basis. As part of our commitment to local government reform we will also give councils greater discretion in how they spend their money on local and regional roads.

Greenways (see the Tourism and Sport chapter for further detail): During a second term of government, Fine Gael will build on the success of the development of the Greenway network and establish a central fund for supporting the network across the country. While we will continue to expand the network, we are also conscious of the rights of farmers and landowners and will work with them to ensure that the expansion of the network is beneficial for both users and landowners.

Regional Airports (see the Transport chapter for further detail): We will invest €28m under the Capital Plan for safety and security enhancements across the regional airports. We will also look to establish a fund to assist developing new flight routes from all airports outside of Dublin.

Spreading Growth in Tourism throughout Ireland (see the Tourism and Sport chapter for further detail): During a second term of government we will build on successes such as the Wild Atlantic Way to drive tourism to all parts of the country, in accordance with their potential.

Post Offices:…

[Seafood and the Marine] p.115-116
FOOD WISE 2025 – SEAFOOD
One of the most significant growth areas in our strategy for the agri-food industry, Food Wise 2025, is the seafood sector. With an increase of 37% in seafood exports since 2011 and an estimated 40 million tonnes of seafood required globally by 2030, our target is to increase the share of value-added seafood by 30-50%, maximising the value from our raw material base.
We will invest €24m from the Seafood Development Programme in seafood processing to support investment in capital infrastructure, innovation and business planning, scaling and new market development.

INVESTMENT and LEADERSHIP
Fine Gael has secured an EU co-funded Seafood Development Programme worth €240m, which will be central to achieving our ambition for growth in the seafood sector. This is more than double the size of the previous Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) fund. This investment will be targeted at a range of supports for fishermen to adapt to the challenges of the new CFP, seafood processing and marketing, aquaculture, inshore fisheries, Fisheries Local Action Groups (FLAGS), data collection and enforcement.

THE NEW COMMON FISHERIES POLICY (CFP)
Ending Discards:… €45m will be made available to support the industry in adapting to the new CFP. Additional quota to cover the increased landings has been negotiated. For 2016, this uplift has resulted in a 10% increase in whitefish quota, with a value of €9m.
Setting Quotas Based on Science:…

[Transport] p.125-126
Public Transport Investment: We will invest €3.6bn across the lifetime of the next Capital Plan to enable a number of major public transport projects to proceed, and to fund additional capacity to meet existing and future commuter needs…

Sustainable Transport:… Under the Capital Plan, €100m is being committed to smarter travel and carbon reduction measures, including Greenways, to ensure that the transport sector makes a major contribution to climate change mitigation targets.
Electric Vehicles:…
Roads Investment:…

[Tourism and Sport] p.128-129
Dublin Airport:…
Cork Airport:…
Shannon Airport:…
Regional Airports: Fine Gael understands the continued importance of Donegal, Kerry, Ireland West Airport Knock (IWAK) and Waterford airports, due to the level of international connectivity that they bring to their respective regions, both in terms of tourism and business. To this end, we will invest €28m under the Capital Plan for safety and security enhancements across the regional airports. We will continue to provide funding to assist developing new flight routes from all airports outside of Dublin. This would be similar to a recent UK initiative which has been shown to be permissible under EU rules.

[Appendices] p.134-136


UK Vol.53 (Post-EUref tweets Vol.5)

Here is really just a part of (analytical) tweets concerning the Brexit through earlier July.

@EvanLSolomon on the questions that Brexit poses for the Three Amigos and political parties | @MacleansMag

My column, on why Brexit seems so uncertain, and what a Canadian PM can do | @InklessPW

Recent interview with CFPS faculty fellow Ruben Zaiotti: Six Things for Atlantic Canadians to know about BREXIT vote | @dalcfps

Suddenly very relevant legal analysis | @benjaminwittes @opiniojuris

The defensive reflex of legal liberalism: more process. | @avermeule

Brexit – What’s next? [Soundcloud] | @LowyInstitute

Where is globalisation after Brexit? Me on @TurnbullMalcolm’s mixed messages | @SamRoggeveen

Here’s our Exec Director on how Brexit will influence Australian politics | @McKellInstitute

Our @cooneymj pondered brexit and #ausvotes last November in Queries for @FEPS_Europe | @ChifleyResearch

‘The worst impact of Brexit will come as a result of Britain’s shrinking international defence and security role.’ | @ASPI_org

The view from London: avoiding a European meltdown after Brexit | @JEyal_RUSI @ASPI_org

What Brexit Decision Means for Australia – @wellings_ben | @ausoutlook

Russia and Europe’s Far Right – James Leask | @ausoutlook

How will a Brexit vote play out around the world? Here’s what our experts had to say [Soundcloud] | @APPSPolicyForum

Should I stay or should I go? Asia-Pacific views on Brexit [Soundcloud] | @APPSPolicyForum

REGREXIT aftermath –  @GraftonQuentin and @theshepherdsdog on leadership gone wrong | @APPSPolicyForum

Nice piece on Brexit from a post colonial perspective by @RowCouch | @RDNS_TAI

What a Brexit Vote Means for Australia – Lee Smales | @ausoutlook

Brilliant new issue of Journal of Australian Political Economy @ProfSteveKeen @JimboStanford @grhutchens | @AdamDavidMorton

Brexit is a gift to Moscow – a geopolitical blunder. An emboldened Russia will benefit from division in the EU. | @actoncavanough

Sharpest ever fall in the pound. 10 % in a matter of hours. @BBCWorld | @actoncavanough

How will NATO’s European members adapt to Brexit? Via @Macquarie_Uni’s John Andrews | @ProSyn

ANU Law expert Anne McNaughton discusses the broader geo-political repercussions of a Brexit @RNSundayExtra | @ANU_Law

Brexit serves as a warning: An ascendant Asia doesn’t guarantee ASEAN’s survival – @DrMattDavies, @ANUBellSchool | @aseanstrategic

Brexit is a great setback for the security of the Western world, ANU expert Stephan Fruehling says @ANUBellSchool | @ANUmedia

Brexit shows we need to reform the EU + contest xenophobic populism w/ Prof Philomena Murray | @unimelb

Could the Brexit vote result in the UK remaining in the EU on improved terms?, Associate Professor Mark Melatos | @USydneyEcon

For the English, Brexit will mean economic pain: by Professor Stephen King via@conversation | @MonashUni

Brexit stage right: what Britain’s decision to leave the EU means for Australia via @ConversationEDU | @MonashUni

Witless white noise, virulent ugliness: Brexit debate plays out its last scenes via @ConversationEDU | @MonashUni

Anger, fear & excitement. UQ’s Elizabeth Brown shares implications of the Brexit vote. | @UQ_News

Want to know more about Brexit and the Bregrets that have followed? [Podcast] | @UQ_News

What now for Australian research in a post-Brexit world? via @ConversationEDU | @uwanews

The Brexit effect goes way beyond finances and will impact global security – @JohnBlaxland1 | @ABCthedrum

Britain has voted to exit the European Union. So what happens now? | @smh

Brexit protest draws thousands of people in London | @FinancialReview

Here are Bruce Yandle’s predictions for the US economy through 2016 | @mercatus

Has the Brexit referendum resulted in a years-long waiting game? #EWInextgen | @EWInstitute

See what Brookings experts are saying about the historic Brexit Vote, what it means for the US, and more | @BrookingsInst

Prof Kim Schoenholtz on fundamental questions related to global financial stability after Brexit @MoneyBanking1 | @NYUStern

Brexit might have cost banks $165 billion, @nyustern economists find | @nyuniversity

Prof Brad Hintz on the challenges to the European banking industry & the financial market impact of Brexit | @NYUStern

Brexit claims its first victim: the environment. New UK PM May shuts down Department f/ Energy & Climate Change | @BerkeleyLawCLEE

Pluralist political orders may be real losers in Brexit, writes @SSestanovich: @politico | @ColumbiaSIPA

Actual process of Brexit “is going to drag on for quite a while,” says Seamus O’Cleireacain: @pbsnewshour | @ColumbiaSIPA

Does Brexit vote make trade deals less attractive to Latin America? @ChrisSabatini: @foxnewslatino | @ColumbiaSIPA

“Brexit is a symptom of globalization’s deeper ills,” writes @JeffDSachs: @BostonGlobe | @ColumbiaSIPA

CGEG Director @Jan_Svejnar answers 5 questions re: Brexit; what is next for Great Britain & European Union | @CGEG_Columbia

What Comes Next for Europe? @YaleSOM professors talk Brexit implications. | @YaleInsights

David R. Cameron, professor of political science and director of the program in EU studies, comments on Britain… | @YaleMacMillan

Professor Jon Macey talks to @CNBC about how lawyers may be winners in a Brexit divorce | @YaleLawSch

Faculty Associate Harold James on Brexit: “Brexit’s supporters must now prove that they made the right choice.” | @PrincetonLISD

Jeremy Siegel and Joao Gomes tell us what the Brexit means for the US Economy [w Podcast] | @PennWhartonPPI

The IMF warns that the Brexit will affect the Eurozone’s economic growth | @PennWhartonPPI

Brexit signifies a new world where once robust democracies have grown fragile. @stephenWalt explains what went wrong | @BelferCenter

Brexit: Legal Implications by @sullcrom | @HarvardCorpGov

Economically, Brexit very bad but if any EU member could overcome withdrawal symptoms, UK might be the one | @PankajGhemawat

Ultimate backstabbing. I just love british politics. | @ThomasPHI2

“Brexit was a courageous thing to do” argues @cohen_eliot in his latest for @aminterest | @SAISStrat

Europe’s Loan Borrowers Rush to Refinance Before Brexit Vote. | @michaelgofman

@USCMarshall @TheNickVyas @USC_GSC Larry Harris share what you need to know about Brexit

Will Brexit affect you? | @SFStateCoB

There’s one group who isn’t the slightest bit surprised by Britain’s shock vote to leave the EU: the psychologists. | @LifeAtPAU

What the Brexit Vote Means for the US Economy | @TheFiscalTimes

How hard will Brexit hit the US economy? | @csmonitor

What the Brexit vote means for the US economy | @YahooFinance

What Brexit means for the US economy | @voxdotcom

Hillary Clinton on Brexit: ‘first task’ is to ensure ‘uncertainty created by these events does not hurt’ US economy | @ABCPolitics

What does today’s Brexit vote mean for the US economy? @Aarondklein explores | @BrookingsEcon

US is unprepared for potential post-Brexit financial panic | @SputnikInt

JUST IN: Yellen warns Brexit could have “significant repercussions” on US economy | @thehill

Thoughtful post-brexit proposals for “responsible nationalism” by @LHSummers | @jacklgoldsmith

UK citizens would start paying a high price from the morning after a vote for Brexit, Nick Bloom @Stanford @CEP_LSE

@GregDaco discusses the risks related to Brexit, impact on US economy & markets via @CNBC @PowerLunch | @OxfordEconomics

Great read on the BREXIT by @transferwise founder @taavet – an Estonian immigrant living in London, working in tech | @ElianCarsenat

Still undecided on #EUref ? Check out our dedicated Brexit page here | @CCBSCrossBorder

Irish Government Brexit Contingency Plans Announced | @merrionstreet

READ: Statement by Minister @CharlieFlanagan in response to the outcome of the UK referendum | @dfatirl

Irish Taoiseach Enda Kenny in Brexit row after saying Scotland shouldn’t be “dragged out” of EU. #ScotlandinEurope | @1johnmacdonald

On brexit, social mobility and political participationfrom @latimes | @csinuffield

BBC’s surprisingly negative view of legal stops 2 Brexit, based mostly on theory that Parliament will fall into line | @mfroomkin

Around 20 banks, unfazed by Brexit, to invest 500 million sterling in Britain: PwC | @Reuters

@fsb_policy & other business groups call for clear leadership & action Brexit Vote

Today @fsb_policy wrote to @OliverLetwinMP to fight for smallbiz post Brexit

Government must give ‘shot in the arm’ to businesses following Brexit vote @szupingc | @fsb_policy

@GoodwinMJ speaking at @fsb_policy report launch, discussing post-Brexit politics

Post #EURefResults – what @fsb_policy is doing to help smaller businesses

Small business confidence marked record plunge ahead of Brexit vote, @fsb_policy says | @telebusiness

See full @SEUPB statement on the referendum decision

This article in Spiegel on EU views of Brexit is well worth reading | @D_G_Alexander

After ‘Brexit,’ Amsterdam is top 1 EU financial center contender @liamstack (@nytimes) | @FDIMagnet

The lessons Latin America can learn from Brexit and the EU | @TheEconomist

Central banks key defence after Brexit. Source: The Straits Times | @UBS

What’s the impact of Brexit on European stocks? | @UBS

After Brexit: 10 asset classes you did not necessarily think about, by CIO Mark Haefele | @UBS

What are the currency options for Scotland if it leaves the UK? Read $BK Simon Derrick’s blog | @BNYMellon

After the Brexit? Analysts differ of opinion if the foreseen lower State budget must effect defence expenditures. | @martinbroek

The world’s markets brace for the harsh effects of Brexit | @rahksharma

Data regulation: Britain faces data privacy issues after Brexit #cyber #DataOps #OpenData | @JohnSnowLabs

Brexit has negative consequences for the UK economy, but how it will impact the rest of the Europe? | @CreditSuisse

How low can the pound go Post Brexit? Shahab Jalinoos discusses on @BloombergTV | @CreditSuisse

Official Statement from Credit Suisse CEO, Tidjane Thiam on the UK Referendum Results | @CreditSuisse

How will Brexit impact oil demand? @CreditSuisse’s David Hewitt explains to @CNBC | @csapac

Brexit Will Curtail UK’s Engagement in Balkans, Experts :: @BalkanInsight | @BesarLikmeta

Read our Brexit dossier. Also featuring Professors Clapham, Tille, @BaldwinRE & Hanhimäki. | @IHEID

3 factors that could hold Europe together: by @iheid alumnus Jennifer Blanke | @IHEID

@james_rogers and @LuisSimn write about the strategic implications of Brexit for @EuroGeostrategy…


UK Vol.51 (Post-EUref tweets Vol.4)

Here is just a part of (analytical) tweets concerning the Brexit through AM 4 July (BST). Excerpts are on our own.

The Political Economy of Brexit – new @UniofBathIPR blog from @IPR_NickP | @UniofBath
…productivity gains in manufacturing steadily reduce employment in the sector, shifting workers into services… Workers are also exposed to globalisation in very different ways. High union density in Scandinavia means that the open, trading economies of the Nordic countries are combined with collective wage setting and strong social protection. …Germany has a highly paid skilled working class in its export sectors, combined with burgeoning low skilled, deregulated service sector employment.
Post-industrial areas – particularly in Wales and Northern Ireland – benefit significantly from EU structural funds, and their governments will advocate on their behalf. But these funds aside, who will speak in the Brexit negotiations for the interests of those people who have just voted to leave?…
Labour is the historic political arm of these workers but it now faces a double bind. If it advocates staying in the single market on EEA terms, which is critical to exporters like Nissan and Airbus, as much as to the City, it will have to concede free movement. Its metropolitan strongholds are proud of their diversity, and the welcome they give to migrants, but its post-industrial heartlands are not…
Let us then say that Britain cannot obtain good terms for Brexit. In the current febrile state of EU politics, there will be a phalanx of states that are unwilling to let the UK have the best of both worlds. There are national government veto points too, particularly if the deal is “mixed”…
Article 50 is silent on whether a country…can reverse its position and withdraw its notification. …another reading is that the text becomes one those creative non-spaces that Europe has used repeatedly in its passage to union. Constitutional experts suggest that it may be possible to “withdraw a withdrawal” – though the ECJ might be asked to provide a ruling. …
Instead of arguing that parliamentarians should ignore the referendum result, refuse to trigger Article 50, or simply propose the UK should remain in the EU, pro-European parties should commit to a second referendum, and put pressure on the Conservative Party to do the same…

A Treaty Revision too far – @PoLIS_Bath Alim Baluch responds to Brexit | @UniofBath
Prof Charlie Lees:…now one of the unforeseen consequences will be that Scotland is likely to have another referendum on Independence, which the SNP is highly likely to win, and in Northern Ireland there will be renewed questions over Irish unification…
Dr Nick Startin: If the EU is to survive, the reform agenda…must be embraced as a matter of urgency. Transparency, accountability and democracy are the key…
Prof Chris Martin:…the greatest worry is the very sharp drop in the share price of major banks. The financial crisis of 2008-9 showed the almost existential dangers of a financially vulnerable banking system…
Dr Susan Milner:… First, anger and disappointment of those who felt left behind by economic development translated into a classic rejection vote. The voting count showed this starkly as a geographical divide. Second, the Leave campaign was able in the last few weeks to channel the sense of democratic renewal which had galvanised the earlier Scottish referendum campaign and to articulate it in the theme of ‘regaining control’. In this they were undoubtedly assisted by EU leaders’ own failure to frame European integration as a people’s rather than an elite project…
Prof Nick Pearce:…The 20th century was a story of the contraction of England and the end of Empire. But only now is the reverse logic of Seeley’s master narrative being fully realised… What is England now? What is her role in the world? Alas, the referendum debate told us nothing of these things; it was sour, parochial and mendacious…
Prof Bill Durodié:…Despite the economic and migration concerns of the elites thrown up in the referendum debate it is those from whom power and authority truly derive who have now spoken the clearest. The European Union now stands discredited with an uncertain future as other electorates will surely take their lead from the United Kingdom and demand their own referenda to leave too.
Prof Graham Room:…Many expect the EU to negotiate a hard bargain, if only to discourage others who might think of heading for the exit, and in order to counter the right-wing nationalist elements which many of them face within their own countries… Nothing in the EU Treaty would prevent the UK government from doing this: and then allowing the result of that second referendum to abort the withdrawal process…
Dr Ali Baluch:… But it is exactly this Treaty Revision which went too far for many Eurosceptics… It generally opposes the Treaty Revision of Lisbon which effectively strengthened the European Parliament, thus reducing the democratic deficit. But it is exactly this Treaty Revision which went too far for many Eurosceptics…

Our #EUreferendum report published earlier this month made exactly the same warning [w PDF] | @UniofBathIPR
Figure one: Demand-side variables as influences and impacts on referendum outcome
· Immigration – freedom of movement, Schengen, refugee crisis
· Security – terrorism, borders, Fortress Europe
· Economic Crisis – the ‘Rational Choice’ debate – how much does
the EU cost? Is the UK better off in or out?
· Climate Change – should the EU take a lead? Are fossil fuels
‘man-made’?
· EU ‘democratic deficit’ – sovereignty, transparency, reform? –
EU positives?
Figure two: Supply-side variables as influences and impacts on referendum outcome
· Political parties and civil society groups
· Domestic political leaders/elites
· Civil society and business leaders/elites
· The campaigns: Britain Stronger in Europe, Vote Leave, and Leave.EU
· EU, EU nation-state and international leaders
· Media: broadcasting media (BBC, Sky), the tabloid press and social media

Game theory offers a better way forward in Britain’s EU drama @BathSofM @ConversationUK | @UniofBath
…The looming referendum was designed to increase the UK’s bargaining power, but it fell flat and the other leaders called his bluff, making limited concessions.
An important concept in game theory when it comes to winning negotiations is the idea of making “credible threats”. For Cameron’s threat to be credible (and therefore effective) it required the other EU leaders to believe he had such influence over the referendum outcome that he could determine a vote to remain or leave…
… Step in behavioural economics and behavioural game theory, which incorporates psychology, emotions and social preferences – such as our sense of fairness, trust and empathy – into the standard economics models. It recognises that people may care about others – and particularly working with others for a common goal. …if we add empathy into models of the prisoner’s dilemma – where each player cares sufficiently about the other – it can transform the game into one of mutual cooperation, enabling a win-win situation for both players…

#EURef & the lack of a politics of hope – @aurelmondon @PoLIS_Bath writes for @openDemocracy | @UniofBath
… As reported by a recent IPSOS MORI survey for the Observer, ‘the biggest survey of its kind ever conducted,’ ‘Nine out of 10 of the country’s top economists working across academia, the City, industry, small businesses and the public sector believe the British economy will be harmed by Brexit’.
This confirms other claims by prominent experts and stakeholders that if one believes that neo-liberalism and the capitalist system are the basis of a strong national economy, then leaving the European Union would be a terrible, even stupid, idea.
This therefore begs the question as to why the Prime Minister, who has declared that he ‘yields to no-one’ in his ‘enthusiasm for capitalism’, would promise a referendum on the question in the first place. … The choice is between a neo-liberal UK within a neo-liberal EU and a neo-liberal UK without a neo-liberal EU…
… As the General Election campaign made clear, the referendum promise was dictated by the Conservatives’ lack of faith in their own beliefs and driven by their fear of a radical right upsurge. In a poorly thought-through manoeuvre, Cameron moved rightward in an attempt to occupy a gap partly filled by UKIP.
… Cameron was right on two out of three counts: Labour’s role in the campaign has been minimal and UKIP has been rendered almost voiceless, even before the referendum takes place. However, the price he paid to keep the hyped threat of UKIP in check was probably not worth the reward.
After all, UKIP has failed to have a real electoral impact beyond the EU parliament apart from forcing a short-sighted promise on the referendum, something for which the Tories have only themselves to blame.
… Brexiters will in fact be willing to reclaim position in a party whose leadership they have virulently attacked and threatened for months…
… What we are thus witnessing in this campaign is not a debate about two different worlds, it is a debate about two visions of the same thing, one bad and the other worse. This is not politics. This is not democracy. This is not what we deserve. This referendum will take us no closer to a better Europe. However, it will have unleashed yet another wave of identitarian politics that will come crashing against the already greatly weakened defences built by those who strive for a just and equal society. …

@Lord_Sugar made his case for Bremain this morning, but what would Brexit mean for London? | @UniofBathIPR
…The single market guarantees free movement of goods, services, labour and capital. The rules ensuring these “four freedoms” are enforced by the ECJ. The ECB is taking an increasingly prominent role in ensuring the stability of the financial system in the Eurozone. It has ultimate supervisory responsibility for all banks in the Eurozone and has direct supervision of the largest Eurozone banks…
…There are two broad types of banking, retail (for example, bank lending to firms and households) and wholesale (for example, trading on foreign exchange markets or buying and selling financial securities and derivatives). Within Europe, the City of London dominates the latter.  Average daily turnover in the UK foreign exchange market exceeds US$2.5 trillion per day. London is the largest global centre in Euro foreign exchange markets, with daily trade of over US$ 1 trillion. This is nearly 45% of global trades, a figure that far exceeds any country that belongs to the Eurozone. The City is also dominant in markets for swaps, especially interest rate swaps.  Although these are obscure and complex financial products, they are central to the daily business of large financial institutions. London-based trades in these assets amount to over US$ 1.3 trillion per day…
…account for 10% of GDP and 12% of UK tax receipts. Directly or indirectly, they employ over 330,000 people, many in high-skill, high wage jobs. Banking and Financial Services is one of the few areas where the UK has a large and consistent trade surplus, of nearly £47bn…
…Optimists argue that Brexit would allow the City to flourish in a low regulatory environment as the UK frees itself from the burdensome regulations of Brussels.  But this is highly subjective…
… Although the long-term impact of Brexit is deeply uncertain, it is clear that the UK would have to do very well in the negotiations that would follow a vote for Brexit in June. Just to keep things as they are, three things would have to happen. First, the UK would need continued access to the single market, with recourse to the ECJ for adjudication and enforcement of the rules of the single market…similar to those negotiated with Switzerland or Norway… Second, the UK would need continued access to the TARGET system for clearing payments in the Eurozone. Although not a member of the Eurozone, the UK used the rules of the single market to gain access to TARGET. Access to this allows UK-based financial institutions to more easily participate in inter-bank and other short-term money markets in the Eurozone. …non-Eurozone EU members should have the same ability to transact in the common currency as Eurozone members.  …continued access to TARGET would be problematic in the event of Brexit.  Thirdly, the UK would have to negotiate arrangements similar to the current passport system of financial regulation. Currently, the UK benefits greatly from the “passport” system whereby financial institutions based in the UK can provide financial services in all EU countries without further financial regulatory requirements. In effect financial institutions can use their compliance with UK financial regulations as a “passport” to operate anywhere in the EU. The financial services passport is a major reason why many foreign banks, especially American and Swiss ones, have large UK-based subsidiary operations. The presence of these large banks then encourages Eurozone-based banks like BNP-Paribas and Deutsche Bank to also base a large part of their operations in the UK…

In an #euref debate growing more heated and strident by the day, Dr Papadopoulos presents a higher cause to remain | @UniofBathIPR
Sir Humphrey: Minister, Britain has had the same foreign policy objective for at least the last five hundred years: to create a disunited Europe. In that cause we have fought with the Dutch against the Spanish, with the Germans against the French, with the French and Italians against the Germans, and with the French against the Germans and Italians. Divide and rule, you see. Why should we change now, when it’s worked so well?
Hacker: That’s all ancient history, surely?
Sir Humphrey: Yes, and current policy. We ‘had’ to break the whole thing [the EEC] up, so we had to get inside. We tried to break it up from the outside, but that wouldn’t work. Now that we’re inside we can make a complete pig’s breakfast of the whole thing…
Sir Humphrey: Well, for the same reason. It’s just like the United Nations, in fact; the more members it has, the more arguments it can stir up, the more futile and impotent it becomes.
Hacker: What appalling cynicism.
Sir Humphrey: Yes… We call it diplomacy, Minister.

How democratic is the EU? Our Euro integration expert @bathsofm gives his verdict. May not be what you think | @UniofBath
… Smaller states are over-represented in the European Parliament and voter turnout at elections is usually significantly lower than turnout for national government elections – although this is hardly the European Parliament’s fault. …

New @PoLIS_Bath blog on #EUReferendum from Dr @NicholasStartin – Brexit or Bremain? | @UniofBath
The EPP, which in effect, comprises Centre Right MEPs from across the member states including the German CDU and the French neo-Gaullist Republicans, remains the largest party in the EP. Historically it has had, and still retains, a pro-EU outlook. The Conservative party famously withdrew from the group following the European elections in 2009 and set up the smaller, more EU-critical grouping called the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR)…

Latest piece: Is the EU anywhere near getting its own army? with @sjasmith brexit @UniofBathIPR @UniofBath | @DJGalbreath
…But in a speech on May 9 outlining why the UK would be more secure if it remained in the EU, the prime minister, David Cameron, said suggestions of an EU army were “fanciful” and that the UK would veto any suggestion of it.
As Cameron pointed out, there is a significant gap between the rhetoric and reality of the establishment of a fully functional European army.
The creation of a European army is a long way off and by no means inevitable. Even the most supportive nations, such as Germany, would acknowledge this reality.

Debate on post-Brexit national security has been heated this week; for cooler analysis, read @DJGalbreath’s blog | @UniofBathIPR
…Policing, intelligence and military officials have seen the EU become an important part of their portfolio since the 1980s. As the foreign policy scholar Professor Christopher Hill has argued, European policy has become ubiquitous for UK departments and agencies as they seek to engage with the problems that face the UK and Europe. To see this as simply the EU intervening in UK policy areas across the board is misleading because this is to ignore the effort that successive UK governments have taken to enable the EU to do regional security better, especially in areas that do not concern territorial defence…
…outside we are less coordinated against a transnational problem, while inside we are subject to the challenges of free mobility that the EU’s Schengen zone presents to a borderless Europe. The UK already maintains its own borders and remains outside the Schengen zone; however, the UK has been a victim of ‘home grown’ terrorists, such as the 7/7 bombers…
…the focus on national sovereignty versus EU member status is misleading because in an ever-increasing globalised and trans-national world, the benefits of both are lower. Perhaps even more importantly for the UK, the main sources of political violence are those who are born and raised in Britain. While there is a trans-national quality to their indoctrination, their threat to public safety is not impacted by debates about borders. They are very local problems that will not cease with the settlement of the Brexit referendum…

Should voters take Carney’s Brexit warning seriously? Dr B. Morley examines Britain’s economic future in this blog | @UniofBathIPR
…When the UK was considering joining the Euro in 2003, the UK government published five criteria to determine if joining would be in the UK’s national interest. In many respects the broader issues addressed by these points are still relevant when considering the UK’s relationship with the Eurozone…
…in 2014, 44.6% of UK exports were to the EU and 53.2% of UK imports were from the EU, however the UK’s trade deficit with the EU, reached £59 billion (exports minus imports) in 2014, although in the same year it recorded a surplus of £15.4 billion in the service sector…
… Under the single rule book, the European Banking Authority (EBA) will ensure that Basle III is implemented in a consistent manner across the EU. However Basle III is a voluntary code and there are already suggestions that its implementation will impede world economic growth by between -0.05 and -0.15% per annum (OECD, 2011), so there are reservations among some member states about implementing it…
…This has directly affected the UK financial system previously, when a previous write down of Greek sovereign debt in 2012 involved private investors in Greek government debts having to accept a 50% write down in the value of the debt, known as a haircut.
However over recent months this problem has been reduced, following the decision of the European Central Bank (ECB) to carry out Quantitative Easing (QE). This mainly involves the ECB buying government bonds from all the Eurozone member states in proportion to the size of their respective economies…
…None of the bailouts or financial strategies used so far are really confronting the fundamental problems in the Greek economy or the Eurozone as a whole. In particular the structural differences in the economies across the Eurozone, which mean that a common monetary policy is not always appropriate. The fundamental problem is arguably a lack of convergence across the Euozone economies and the moves to encourage greater convergence could affect the non-Eurozone members too…
the Euro depreciates when the risk of a Eurozone break up increases, in addition it also created increased volatility in the currency. However a devalued Euro is not necessarily all bad news for the Eurozone, as it can encourage their exports and economic growth. Although, countries that rely on exporting to the Eurozone, such as the UK will potentially suffer…
This recent crisis has again highlighted the need for a longer term solution to the problems in the Eurozone… This could possibly involve greater fiscal integration within the monetary union and many economists… a fiscal union should be formed in order to prevent future crises…

Is it about to get lonelier at the top? New blog by @mcbaluch on the German view of Brexit and uncertain #EUfuture | @UniofBathIPR
Following the financial crisis of 2007/08, which affected Germany far less than other countries of the EU, Germany’s economic dominance is more pronounced than ever before, leaving German governments more exposed to meet leadership expectations from the United States and its European partners…
All the major European integration projects have been designed or strongly endorsed by Germany whether it is the Single European Act, the Schengen Zone, the Economic and Monetary Union or enlargement. The European Central Bank (ECB) has been designed using the German Federal Bank as its role model. …
The alienation between the two conservative parties started long before Cameron became Prime Minister…
A significant proportion of the isolation felt by the Tories in Europe has to be seen in correlation with a change of course in the European Parliament, i.e. Cameron’s decision that his party was to leave the European People’s Party (EPP), which came despite several warnings by other European conservatives that such a step would not be without consequences. …
While British Europhiles can be quick to criticise Cameron’s clumsy diplomacy, the German response was not helpful either. On the domestic front, party leader Cameron was not only trying to keep UKIP small but was also under pressure from influential Eurosceptic groups in his own party. Publicly threatening him to reconsider his course of action made it almost impossible for him to adjust his position without losing face. …
…Once a tolerated pariah in the EPP, the Tories have since reinvented themselves as the most prominent and influential member of the smaller ECR…
German-British relations were further strained when the German right-wing populists of the Alternative für Deutschland (AfD) joined the ECR in summer 2014. …
…There was considerable unease with the AfD members over a meeting with the far-right Freedom Party of Austria FPÖ and remarks that using firearms was a legitimate way of protecting borders against refugees…
For German governments of the future, Brexit would mean the loss of the second largest economy within the EU. The historically problematic picture of German domination in Europe would be even more difficult to conceal… “It would leave Europe exposed to a dominance of Germany that Germany doesn’t want and no one else wants.”
From a German perspective, Merkel’s handling of the EU will be extolled against the long shadow of history. Her impact will be compared to Willy Brandt’s vision for Europe, whose short Chancellorship managed to change gears from East-West confrontation to “change through rapprochement”…
…Cameron will be expected to renegotiate the agreement from February and other Eurosceptic parties can use this example as leverage in election campaigns. What many European voters may perceive as the carrot can, in a Hegelian twist, very well be Merkel’s stick.
…Brexit or even just the example set by the British referendum can boost the Nexit camp…

What Thatcher did for pro-Europeanism and other issues. New blog on the social bases of the EU referendum camps | @IPR_NickP
In the 1960s and 1970s, it was the Conservative Party that led Britain into membership of the European Economic Community. Seeking a new anchor for Britain’s geo-political interests after decolonisation and the fiasco of Suez, and despairing of the capacity of Britain’s post-war Keynesian economic settlement to solve its class conflicts, Conservative leaders orientated towards Europe’s successful social market models…
Both positions were upended by Thatcherism, which imposed a new political economic settlement on the UK that dispensed with the coordination of class interests, while shifting to a more aggressive Atlanticism in foreign policy. Europe was no longer a source of inspiration for economic policy, but instead an enlarged free market for British trade…
The prominence of finance services in Britain’s post-Thatcher economic model – and the taxes they contribute to the financing of public services – ensures that their interests have considerable political support…
Similarly, access to the single market explains the solid support for the EU amongst large companies, in both manufacturing and service sectors…

“There is no fixed EU to remain in” says Prof Bill Durodié @PoLIS_Bath in his latest #EURef blogpost. | @UniofBath
…In Italy, in part due to the once seemingly endless saga surrounding Sylvio Berlusconi and his eventual replacement by an unelected EU bureaucrat in 2011, there are several parties fighting for the accolade of being anti-elite, which include the Lega Nord that adopts a regionalist perspective and comedian Beppe Grillo’s Five Star Movement, which campaigns against corruption in politics…

Listen again to @CharlesLees2 @PoLIS_Bath on @ABCaustralia talking Corbyn Labour & Brexit | @UniofBath

Brexit special podcast @ConversationUK with Prof Bill Durodie of @PoLIS_Bath on what #EURef means for the UK

Juppe: pragmatic over Brexit terms but would scrap Le Touquet & return border controls from Northern France to UK | @IPR_NickP

Brexit is is on – experts including @PoLIS_Bath ‘s Bill Durodie respond for @ConversationUK | @UniofBath
Here, leading experts offering explanations and opinions on what is an unprecedented geopolitical and economic situation.

Boris bails – or are we falling for another trick by magic Johnson? – @CharlesLees2 @PoLIS_Bath / @ConversationUK | @UniofBath

Superb – David Runciman on Brexit for @Juncture_IPPR | @IPR_NickP

@IPR_NickP blog on the worldview of Dominic Cummings and Michael Gove | @UniofBathIPR

@POLIS_Bath’s Professor @CharlesLees2 for @ConversationUK on the impact of Brexit for the Conservatives | @UniofBath

ICYMI: Experts from @UniofBath have their say on Brexit vote | @BathChron

Catch @NicholasStartin @PoLIS_Bath Down Under on @ABCaustralia talking Brexit shortly | @UniofBath

England has voted to leave the European Union and in so doing has imperilled her own union | @UniofBathIPR

Russia’s leaders are happy about Brexit, it won’t help the regime at homewrites @JPaulGoode in @washingtonpost | @UniofBath

New Dr Felia Allum & Annarita Criscitiello blogpost for @UniofBathIPR – What does Italy think about Brexit? | @IPR_NickP

Blog on the political economy of Brexit and some musings on Article 50 and a 2nd referendum | @IPR_NickP

How Marketers Brought Britain to Brexit – by @DrGiesler and @avishankar @SchulichSchool @BathSofM | @DrGiesler

Clear thinking and sound analysis as always from @IPR_NickP HT @GavinJKelly1 The Political Economy of Brexit | @juliaunwin

Brexit could start EU domino effect, warns new @UniofBathIPR Policy Brief | @UniofBath

As Britain goes to the polls @NicholasStartin @PoLIS_Bath gives his analysis on the #EURef campaign to @ABCaustralia | @UniofBath

Couldn’t join us for the #EURefBath debate yesterday? Read about the key moments | @UniofBathIPR

The #EUreferendum 1 month countdown starts….now –  @PoLIS_Bath @UniofBathIPR

To understand the Brexit debate it may help to know what other EU states think. The IPR blog gives the big picture | @UniofBathIPR

Labour is caught in a bind between its metropolitan and working-class heartlands says @IPR_NickP in @guardian | @UniofBath

Jeremy Corbyn could transform the Brexit debate – but does he want to? @CharlesLees2 writes for @ConversationUK | @UniofBath

Read the response by @SKinnock to essay by @IPR_NickP and me | @GavinJKelly1

Great comparative analysis of EU & UK democracy and the sovereignty question by @Barristerblog. #EURef | @StAndrewsUniCGC
… The British economic success story has been closely linked to trade with the single market. 44.7% of British exports now go to the EU (and another 8% if we include single market members Norway and Switzerland): in purely economic terms it would be deeply reckless to risk damaging that market without a very clear strategy of how Brexit would be managed…
…Most divorces have two characteristics: first, they are always worse than anyone thought imaginable; secondly it is the children who suffer the most. This one will be no exception. If we walk out of the EU it is our children who will pay, with economic stagnation and unemployment, all the more bitter for having been foreseeable and avoidable.
The central political arguments are these: The EU is undemocratic; The EU has removed sovereignty from the UK Parliament.
…If you are going to have a single market there is a need for common regulations about trade; and if there are to be common regulations there has to be some sort of supranational authority to make them. Without some such authority it is hard to see how the EU, and certainly not the single market, could function in anything like its current form. On many important issues: education, social services, health, most criminal law and most taxation…
…In 2015 the EU’s total budget was about £128 billion: by comparison in 2014 – 15 total UK spending was nearly 6 times that at £735 billion. Despite being the fourth biggest net contributor to the EU, the UK pays just 0.6% of its Gross National Income to Brussels. Largely thanks to Mrs Thatcher, this is by some way the smallest proportion of GNI paid by any EU member…
…Participation in European elections is generally low throughout Europe: in the UK it hovers around 35%, roughly the same level as vote in most local council elections…
…Part of the difficulty is that… They perceive that increasing democracy in the EU would in all probability lead to increasing its power…
How important is the EU’s lack of democracy? Most written democratic constitutions – that of the United States is an obvious example – deliberately include undemocratic elements… two examples from the US constitution: the President is chosen not by popular vote, but by an electoral college made up of representatives from the states of the Union… US Supreme Court judges, who have enormous power, including the power to overturn statutes, are unelected, unaccountable and for practical purposes unsackable…
The democratic camouflage is that a draft of any of these regulations (known as “statutory instruments”) must be laid before each house of Parliament before they become law.
The reality is that in practice statutory instruments are barely scrutinised by Parliament at all…
…For practical purposes they are far less scrutinised than EU legislation.
…since 1979 the House of Commons has not rejected a single one…

Britain’s Democratic Failure by Kenneth Rogoff via @ProSyn | @StAndrewsUniCGC

Very interesting – Five legal points about the Leave victory | @StAndrewsUniCGC

A way to keep Scotland in EU & UK? Detoxifying UK’s exit from EU: a multi-national compromise is possible via @brexitvote | @StAndrewsUniCGC

Cogent piece by Prof Colin Kidd: the golden opportunity that could become Sturgeon’s nightmare via @guardian | @StAndrewsIR

The NHS and Europe: Five must reads | @CPPHdurham

In today’s @IrishTimes, Dr @aoifemod writes, ‘Brexit: Villiers can’t claim border controls won’t be reintroduced’ | @DurhamLawSchool

Professor Nigel Driffield says the UK’s Inward investment will suffer long-term damage following Brexit | @WarwickBSchool
“Those championing Brexit often comment on how trade would be unaffected, so long as we were to stay within some looser trading arrangement with the EU, but most seem to assume that inward investment would remain unchanged.
Our research has found that is not the case, it would greatly reduce the level of FDI to the UK and for those people who think there might be just a short-term ‘blip’ we have found it will take four years to recover and even then the long-term trajectory will be lower…”
…turnover by foreign-owned businesses in the UK is more than £12.5 billion, with the North of England, Wales and Scotland being much more reliant on foreign-owned manufacturing…
“Out of all of these possible events only two positively affected the long-term trend: entry into the EEC in 1973, and entering the single market in 1992.
Meanwhile, only two events caused a reduction in the long-term level of inward investment flows: the UK leaving the European Exchange Rate Mechanism in 1992 and Harold Wilson devaluing sterling in 1967…”
…Inward investment is of vital importance to the UK economy, not merely because of the employment opportunities foreign firms create, which often occur in areas of high unemployment, but also because it creates technology transfer and secondary employment through the supply chain…

@LouiseHBeaumont @ftlive have we reached peak uncertainty? This man might know | @WarwickBSchool

Farming was all but ignored in the #EUref media debate despite major economic implications | @lboroCRCC

Here’s what our @lboroCRCC team discovered this week about #EUref media coverage | @lborouniversity

Article 50 press mentions increase from 1.8 to 49.5 times per day following Brexit | @lborouniPR

80% press coverage pro-Brexit, Loughborough analysis finds | @lborouniversity

Brexit had an 82% advantage over Remain in terms of newspaper coverage | @lboroCRCC

Which papers support brexit? Loughborough research behind @HuffingtonPost article | @lborouniversity

Women accounted for just 16.5% of all politicians on TV & 14.9% in the press | @lboroCRCC

Did Corbyn fail to get his message heard? @bbcworldservice features our research | @lborouniversity

Statement from our Vice-Chancellor Professor Robert Allison on #EURefResults | @lborouniversity

“Imperial is, and will remain, a European university” | @imperialcollege

What happens now? The UK post-Brexit. Prof Alison Harcourt’s article in Politics Home. | @UofESSIS

UK votes to leave the European Union – what does this mean for us? | @UniofExeter

What could brexit mean for language learning? Read @guardian’s article on this topic | @UofEHumanities

Blockchain: what happens now? Phil Godsiff reports @sbsatsurrey @unisurreynews @philgodsiff | @SurreyCoDE

Economist @geraintjohnes discusses the options which the UK faces after the EU Referendum on TRT World | @LancasterManage

Brexit and Forecasting: In this blog, Robert Fildes offers his thoughts on the forecasts made during the campaign | @LancasterManage

How divided is the UK post-Brexit vote? Lancaster’s Dr Mark Garnett debates on @AJEnglish | @LancasterUni

V.good: social class + low turnout of under 25s explains (most) of Brexit vote, R.Johnson et al.  @LSEpoliticsblog | @simonjhix

David Runciman on how the “Remainers” can, and will, bypass the result of the referendum | @prospect_uk

“This isn’t over. Gove did need Boris. And Boris hasn’t spoken yet.’ Behind the scenes of the drama | @BBCMarkMardell