US Policy Changes Vol.3 (Immigration Vol.1)

Here are articles on immigration. Excerpts are on our own.

Key Points
…most academic research finds little long run effect on Americans’ wages.
…immigration leads to more innovation, a better educated workforce…and higher overall economic productivity.
Immigration also has a net positive effect on combined federal, state, and local budgets. But not all taxpayers benefit equally. … (e.g. California v. New Jersey)
Economists generally agree that the effects of immigration on the U.S. economy are broadly positive. …immigration may actually have significant long-term benefits for the native-born, pushing them into higher-paying occupations and raising the overall pace of innovation and productivity growth. …a net positive return on the investment over the long term.

Examining U.S. Immigration’s Economic Impact (10/20/2016) | @HilaryKTuttle @RiskMgmtMonitor
see Immigration’s Long-Term Impacts on Overall Wages and Employment of Native-Born U.S. Workers Very Small, Although Low-Skilled Workers May Be Affected, New Report Finds; Impacts on Economic Growth Positive, While Effects on Government Budgets Mixed (9/21/2016) | @theNASEM
Some of the study’s key findings and conclusions include:
… There is little evidence that immigration significantly affects the overall employment levels of native-born workers.
…there may be positive wage effects for some subgroups of native-born workers, and other benefits to the economy more broadly.
Immigration has an overall positive impact on long-run economic growth in the U.S.
… However, as adults, the children of immigrants (the second generation) are among the strongest economic and fiscal contributors in the U.S. population, contributing more in taxes than either their parents or the rest of the native-born population.
Over the long term, the impacts of immigrants on government budgets are generally positive at the federal level but remain negative at the state and local level — but…

How U.S. Immigration Policy Has Changed Since 9/11:Terrorism, the refugee crisis and Donald Trump have all shaped today’s immigration debate. (9/9/2016) | @willafrej @HuffingtonPost
… Formed in November 2002 with the passing of the Homeland Security Act… The three main bodies created within the DHS consist of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). …
… “The threat to the U.S. homeland from refugees has been relatively low,” @SethGJones, director of the International Security and Defense Policy Center at ‏@RANDCorporation, testified to Congress in 2015. …
… “In many ways, this has nothing to do with 9/11.” Yet if Trump were to reduce legal immigration into the U.S., as he’s implied with his proposed Muslim ban, it would represent “the first time in recent history that any political party has called for any such reduction,” according to Chishti. …

The Immigration Act of 1990: Unfinished Business a Quarter-Century Later (w PDF; Jul 2016) | Muzaffar Chishti & @syaleloehr @MigrationPolicy
A. Immigrant Visa Changes
… The 1990 law carved the 140,000 employment-based (EB) immigrant visas into five categories…
The 1990 Act also called for a three-year pilot program under which the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) was to decide whether labor shortages or surpluses existed in up to ten occupational classifications. …
… Beginning on October 1, 1994, the law provided for a new stream of immigrants, known as “diversity” immigrants.
B. Nonimmigrant Visa Changes
1. Visa Waiver Pilot Program
IRCA authorized a three-year nonimmigrant visa waiver pilot program for business visitors and tourists from designated countries. …
Currently, 38 countries participate in the Visa Waiver Program (see Table 1). More than 21 million people entered the United States in FY 2014 on a visa waiver…
2. H Visas for Temporary Workers
Congress originally enacted an H nonimmigrant visa category for temporary workers in 1952. IRCA subdivided the category:
H-1 visas were for individuals of “distinguished merit and ability.” …
H-2A visas were for temporary workers coming to perform agricultural labor or services. …
A. Shifts in Legal Immigration Patterns
Table 3. Top Ten Countries of Origin for New Legal Permanent Residents, 1990 and 2014
B. H-1B Temporary Professional Workers
The H-1B Visa Reform Act of 2004, enacted as part of a consolidated appropriations bill, returned to the original cap of 65,000, but added a separate annual cap of 20,000 for H-1B applicants with advanced U.S. degrees. …
… In FY 2016, USCIS received almost 233,000 H-1B petitions during the same period. That meant that employers had only about a 25 percent chance of getting an H-1B petition accepted for adjudication. …
… These reports have found that of the 20 companies that received the most H-1B visas in 2014, for example, 13 were global outsourcing firms. The top 20 companies received about 40 percent of the visas, while more than 10,000 other firms received far fewer visas.
C. EB-5: The Rise of Immigrant Investors
… In FY 2014, the EB-5 category reached its annual cap of approximately 10,000 for the first time. USCIS currently has a backlog of more than 20,000 EB-5 petitions awaiting adjudication.
… The critical lesson from the 1990 Act and from both the important milestone immigration laws that preceded it — the Immigration Act of 1965 and IRCA in 1986 — is that they were achieved in a culture of greater political trust and bipartisanship than exists today, even though there were strong policy disagreements and divided government.

Through the Prism of National Security: Major Immigration Policy and Program Changes in the Decade since 9/11 (w PDF; Aug 2011) | Michelle Mittelstadt, Burke Speaker, Doris Meissner & Muzaffar Chishti @MigrationPolicy

What it will take for President Trump to deport millions and build the wall (w Videos; 11/9/2016) | @chicoharlan,@JerryMarkon @Wonkblog
…John Sandweg, a former acting director of @ICEgov, a part of @DHSgov… Trump has tremendous flexibility to reverse course on all those policies.”
… The estimated 11 million people living in the United States without documentation are here either because they entered the country illegally or overstayed their visas. … Trump has said they have only one way to gain legal status: leave and return with a visa, something that could require years of waiting.
Trump initially indicated that any undocumented immigrant was vulnerable to deportation and then said that he would first target those with criminal records. … But Trump would dramatically expand the pace. …
“The president can do a lot simply by changing the imperatives of the bureaucracy,” said @wstock215, president of @AILANational. …most of the 11 million [undocumented] immigrants have been here for well more than 5 years. …
Trump has said he wants to triple the number of @ICEgov agents. …
… also pledged to clamp down on so-called sanctuary cities, places in which local authorities decide not to proactively ask immigrants for paperwork, even if they believe they’re undocumented. …
But DACA is not a law; it was not even created by an executive order. It was established by a policy memo sent out by former homeland security secretary Janet Napolitano. …

The Good, Bad And Plausible Points Of Trump’s Immigration Plan (9/1/2016) | @ASemotiuk @forbes

What Trump’s Presidency Means For Illegal Immigrants And Immigration To The U.S. (11/10/2016) | @ASemotiuk @forbes

The History of Immigration Policies in the U.S. | @NETWORKLobby