World Vol.152 (U.S.)

Science and Technology Vol.70 (coronavirus drugs)

Science and Technology Vol.69 (silver, etc.)

World Vol.151 (U.S., U.K., etc.)

UK Vol.186

World Vol.150 (U.S., Australia, etc.)

Science and Technology Vol.68 (semiconductor materials)

Semiconductor Materials | @IEEEorg
What are the most used semiconductor materials?
The most used semiconductor materials are silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide. Of the three, germanium was one of the earliest semiconductor materials used. Germanium has four valence electrons, which are electrons located on the outer shell of the atom.
The number of valence electrons in a semiconductor material determines its conductivity. While an important step in the evolution of semiconductor materials, germanium has largely fallen into disuse in favor of the current king of semiconductor materials—silicon.
Silicon has seen extensive use as a semiconductor material since the 1950s. The most abundant element on earth after carbon, silicon has four valence electrons and melts at a higher temperature than germanium (1,414 degrees Celsius in comparison to germanium’s 938.3 degrees Celsius).
Silicon is abundantly available in quartzite. Extraction, purification, and crystallization processes for silicon are both efficient and economical. The element crystallizes in a diamond form for a relatively robust bond, giving silicon crystals strong mechanical properties.
Gallium arsenide is the second most common semiconductor in use today. Unlike silicon and germanium, gallium arsenide is a compound, not an element, and is made by combining gallium, with its three valence electrons, with arsenic, which has five valence electrons.
Eight valence electrons make gallium-arsenide devices respond quickly to electric signals, making the compound well suited for amplifying the high-frequency signals seen in television satellites. Gallium arsenide has some limitations, however: the compound is more difficult to manufacture en masse than silicon, and the chemicals used in gallium arsenide production are quite toxic.
What are the most effective semiconductor materials?
In addition to gallium arsenide, the compound silicon dioxide has characteristics superior to silicon, allowing it to be used as an insulator, passivation layer, and a building layer in metal-oxide silicon (MOS) devices, a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor. Silicon dioxide has a high dielectric strength and wider band gap than silicon, making it an effective insulator, and the compound is easily deposited on other materials.

Semiconductor Materials | @MiNetTechnology

Robust Growth And Strong Outlook For Semiconductor Materials (05/20/2021) | @SemiEngineering

Silicon Wafer Manufacturers – Materials Used to Make Semiconductors (15/04/2018) | @WaferWorldInc

Beyond silicon: the search for new semiconductors (03/10/2016) | @ConversationEDU

Silicon semiconductors to convert heat into power (13/07/2012) | @dwnews

Why are Silicon Wafers Used Semiconductor Chip Production? | @UniversityWafer

Silicon Semiconductor (10/27/2020) | @electrical4u1

What is silicon wafer? | SUMCO

How a semiconductor wafer is made | USJC

What is a Semiconductor Wafer? (08/25/2016) | @WaferPro

What are SiC Semiconductors? | @ROHMsemi

What is a Silicon Carbide Semiconductor? (05/01/2019) | @wolfspeed


Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFETs | @onsemi

Germanium (Ge) Semiconductors | AZO materials

Germanium Wafer – The Different Applications of Germanium as a Semiconductor (29/10/2019) | @WaferWorldInc

Germanium as Semiconductor – Properties | Nuclear Power for Everybody

Germanium Can Take Transistors Where Silicon Can’t (29/11/2016) | @IEEESpectrum

Silicon and Germanium | Hyperphysics

Semiconductor Materials | @tuvienna

Compound Semiconductor | Sumitomo Electric

Semiconductor Materials | TOSHIBA

Semiconductor Materials |

Virginia Semiconductor Inc.

World Vol.149 (U.S., New Zealand, etc.)

World Vol.148 / Science and Technology Vol.67 (semiconductor)

Top USA and International Semiconductor Manufacturers | @Thomasnet


The Semiconductor Supply Chain: Assessing National Competitiveness (PDF; 01/2021) | Center for Security and Emerging Technology (CSET)

Overview Of The Semiconductor Capital Equipment Industry (01/15/2019) | @SeekingAlpha
Memory chips are used to store data electronically in the form of bits (8bits = 1 byte). The most common types of memory chips made by the industry today are Dynamic Random Access Memory (“DRAM”) and NAND flash. DRAM is volatile memory, which means it temporarily stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor while the associated device is powered on. DRAM is commonly used by data servers and mobile devices. NAND (short for NAND flash) is non-volatile memory (“NVM”), which means it stores data even if the power is switched off. It’s called NAND because it’s a type of memory that resembles the NAND (not-and) logic. NAND is commonly used in memory cards and solid state drives (“SSD”). The major trend in memory today is the switch to three-dimensional (3D) memory where memory cells are built vertically, instead of horizontally (planar), which increases memory bit density.
Logic chips are the fundamental building blocks for digital electronics. Logic chips are constructed from connecting individual digital logic gates that perform logical operations of AND, OR and NOT on binary numbers. (This is where the NAND or not-and comes from). Logic chips perform calculations that drive computer processing.
Semiconductor manufacturers are generally focused on designing chips for various device applications. The semiconductor capital equipment industry (“semi-cap” for short) provides the equipment for these manufacturers.
The semiconductor industry is to electronics what the mining industry is to finished metal products. Taking this one step further, the semi-cap industry supplies the “picks and shovels” for the broader semiconductor industry.

The Main Types of Chips Produced by Semiconductor Companies (05/19/2020) | @investopia
Memory Chips; Microprocessors; Graphic Processing Units (GPUs); Standard Chips (Commodity ICs); Analog Chips; Mixed Circuit Semiconductors

Understanding Memory – An inside look at different memory types and how they work. (02/15/2018) | @semiEngineering
While logic chips work as the “brains” of an electronic device, performing functions using mathematical operations, memory chips store data. The basic building block of a memory chip is a cell, a tiny circuit with a capacitor (which stores data as a charge) and one or more transistors (which activate data). The capacitor is either charged or discharged, corresponding to the two possible data values (“1” or “0”), where this smallest unit of data is known as a “bit”.
The cells are arranged in a row and have a bit line structure that connects into a memory “address” called a word line. The address provides a means of identifying a location for data storage, and the word line forms an electrical path allowing all the memory cells on that row to be activated at the same time for storage (“write”) or retrieval (“read”). Data access is initiated with electrical signals – a row address strobe (RAS) and a column address strobe (CAS) – that together pinpoint a cell’s location within an array. If a charge is stored in the selected cell’s capacitor, these signals cause the transistor to conduct, transferring the charge to the connected bit line, causing a slight voltage increase that reads as a “1”.

The basics of microchips | ASML


Types of Semiconductor Devices | TOSHIBA

Guide to the major types of computer chips (03/26/2019) | @theburninhub

The global semiconductor silicon wafer market is expected to reach an estimated $17.4 billion by 2026 with a CAGR of 6.4% from 2020 to 2026 (06/14/2021) | @GlobeNewswire

Global Logic Semiconductor Market to Surpass $129 Billion by 2024 – Featuring Intel, Samsung Electronics, Xilinx, and NXP Semiconductors – (05/17/2019) | @BusinessWire

Global Logic Semiconductor Market – Industry Trends and Forecast to 2028 (05/2021) | DATA BRIDGE

What is Semiconductor Memory? | @ROHMsemi

World Vol.147 (BBC, AFP)

World Vol.146 (TorontoStar, AP, etc.)

World Vol.145 (G7 Summit 2021 in Cornwall)

World Vol.144 (G7 Summit 2021 in Cornwall)

World Vol.143 (U.S., etc.)

World Vol.142

World Vol.141 (U.S., etc.)

Science and Technology Vol.66 (copper, silicon…/gallium…, etc.)

Tech Spotlight Casebook 2021 (w PDF; 05/2021) | @BelferCenter

World Vol.140 (U.S., etc.)

Belfer Center Annual Report 2020 (w PDF; 01/2021) | @BelferCenter

World Vol.139 (semiconductor)

Intel (INTC); Samsung Electronics; Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. (TSMC); SK Hynix Inc.; Broadcom Corporation; Qualcomm; Micron Technology; Applied Materials; Nvidia Corporation; Texas Instruments Inc.

15 Biggest Semiconductor Companies in the World (01/07/2021) | @yahoolife
Intel (NASDAQ: INTC); Samsung; Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. (NYSE: TSM); Qualcomm (NASDAQ: QCOM); SK Hynix; Micron Technology (NASDAQ: MU); Broadcom (NASDAQ: AVGO); Applied Materials (NASDAQ: AMAT); Texas Instruments (NASDAQ: TXN); NVIDIA (NASDAQ: NVDA); STMicroelectronics NV (NYSE: STM); Lam Research (NASDAQ: LRCX); Advanced Micro Devices (NASDAQ: AMD); Infineon Technologies; NXP Semiconductors (NASDAQ: NXPI)

20 Most Promising Semiconductor Companies (2017) | @SINewsUpdates
SIERRA CIRCUITS; AppliedMicro; Cadence Design Systems; Infineon Technologies; OmniPHY; Applied Materials; Broadcom; Cactus Semiconductor; Cavium; DXCorr Design; GeneSiC Semiconductor; GigaCom Semiconductor; Intel [NASDAQ:INTC]; InvenSense [NYSE:INVN]; KLA Tencor [NASDAQ:KLAC]; MaxLinear [NYSE:MXL]; Microchip Technology [NASDAQ:MCHP]; Moschip [BSE:532407]; Qualcomm [NASDAQ:QCOM]; Synopsys [NASDAQ:SNPS]

10 Biggest Semiconductor Companies (07/30/2020) | @Investopedia
Intel Corp. (INTC); Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (TSM); Qualcomm Inc. (QCOM); Broadcom Inc. (AVGO); Micron Technology Inc. (MU); Texas Instruments Inc. (TXN); ASE Technology Holding Co. Ltd. (ASX); NVIDIA Corp. (NVDA); STMicroelectronics NV (STM); NXP Semiconductors NV (NXPI)

Top 50 Semiconductor Manufacturing Companies in the World (05/31/2021) | @rayguide
Top 10 Best Semiconductor Manufacturing Companies in the World; List of Next Top 40 Best Semiconductor Manufacturing Companies in the World


TSMC dominance as the world’s largest chipmaker explained (04/02/2021) | @TechWireAsia

EU Weighs Deal With TSMC, Samsung for Semiconductor Foundry To Fix Supply Chain Risk (02/10/2021) | @business

2 charts show how much the world depends on Taiwan for semiconductors (03/15/2021) | @CNBC

Semiconductor Companies: Where Are They In The Chip Cycle? (05/24/2021) | @IBDinvestors

Boom quarter for top 10 semiconductor companies (05/25/2021) | @eeNewsEurope

Regaining The Edge In U.S. Chip Manufacturing (10/26/2020) | @SemiEngineering

How to Create a Vibrant Semiconductor Manufacturing Industry in the United States (07/13/2020) | @3DInCites

Top IC design companies worldwide 2020 (03/31/2021) | @StatistaCharts

Revenue of Top 10 IC Design (Fabless) Companies for 2020 Undergoes 26.4% Increase YoY Due to High Demand for Notebooks and Networking Products, Says TrendForce (03/25/2021) | @designreuse

Global Top Ten IC Design Companies Ranked by Revenue; Only Qualcomm and MediaTek Suffered Decreases (03/04/2019) | @designreuse

Fabless Semiconductor Companies Stocks List | @SwingTradeBot

Lagging but motivated: The state of China’s semiconductor industry (01/07/2021) | @BrookingsInst

Fab Or Fabless: Which One Do You Choose? (03/27/2017) | Sigenics

U.S. companies maintain largest share of fabless company IC sales | Semiconductor Digest

Fabless Companies vs. IDMs in the Semiconductor Industry (10/23/2012) | @Samsung

The Future of Semiconductor Industry from “Fabless” Perspective (PDF; 02/01/2008) | @Berkeley_EECS

Why Fabless Semiconductor Companies Rely on Tensoft SemiOps (w Video; 05/03/2021) | @erpsoftwareblog

5 Fabs Own 54% of Global Semiconductor Capacity (02/10/2021) | @EPSNewsonline
Samsung; TSMC; Micron; SK Hynix; Kioxia/WD
Five Semiconductor Companies Hold 53% of Global Wafer Capacity (02/13/2020) | IC Insights, Inc.

If Intel Builds A Fab In The U.S. It Should Focus On Developing Its Foundry Business Model (05/11/2020) | @Forbes

Top 10 Semiconductor Foundries of The World in 2020 (12/18/2020) | @Technosports

Top 5 Vendors in the Global Semiconductor Foundry Market from 2017 to 2021: Technavio (07/14/2017) | @BusinessWire

5 Top Semiconductor Fab Stocks to Invest in During the Global Chip Shortage: It’s a good time to be in the chip-manufacturing business. (04/02/2021) | @TheMotleyFool

Top 3 Semiconductor Foundry Stocks To Buy (03/21/2019) | @SeekingAlpha

Foundries Services | @AnySilicon

SK Telecom calls for bigger investment in semiconductor foundry (04/22/2021) | Aju Business Daily


Leading semiconductor foundries revenue worldwide from 2019 to 2021, by quarter (in million U.S. dollars) | @StatistaChart

Can China Become the World Leader in Semiconductors?: China’s semiconductor industry faces considerable challenges in reaching global leadership status. But don’t assume it’s impossible. (09/25/2020) | @Diplomat_APAC

Foundries Multi-Projects Wafer (MPW) | Mirror Semiconductor, Inc.

World Vol.138 (G7, etc.)

Science and Technology Vol.65 (semiconductor)

Semiconductor Materials Types” Groups & Classifications | @ElecNotes
Germanium; Silicon; Gallium arsenide; Silicon carbide; Gallium Nitride; Gallium phosphide; Cadmium sulphide; Lead sulphide …

What is a Semiconductor? Types, Examples & Applications | @SyedZainNasir

Semiconductor Devices and Circuits, Applications | ElProCus

Different Types of Semiconductor Devices | @eh_org

Understanding the difference between n- and p-type semiconductors (03/03/2021) | Mesago Messe Frankfurt GmbH

P-Type, N-Type Semiconductors | LibreTexts

Semiconductors | lumen

Semiconductors | The Fact Factor

Types of Semiconductor Devices | @ToshibaUSA

Semiconductors | BYJU’S

Doped Semiconductors | Hyperphysics

Semiconductor (05/18/2020) | Investopia
Types of Semiconductors
Broadly speaking, semiconductors fall into four main product categories:
Memory: Memory chips serve as temporary storehouses of data and pass information to and from computer devices’ brains. The consolidation of the memory market continues, driving memory prices so low that only a few giants like Toshiba, Samsung and NEC can afford to stay in the game.
Microprocessors: These are central processing units that contain the basic logic to perform tasks. Intel’s domination of the microprocessor segment has forced nearly every other competitor, with the exception of Advanced Micro Devices, out of the mainstream market and into smaller niches or different segments altogether.
Commodity Integrated Circuit: Sometimes called “standard chips”, these are produced in huge batches for routine processing purposes. Dominated by very large Asian chip manufacturers, this segment offers razor-thin profit margins that only the biggest semiconductor companies can compete for.
Complex SOC: “System on a Chip” is essentially all about the creation of an integrated circuit chip with an entire system’s capability on it. The market revolves around growing demand for consumer products that combine new features and lower prices. With the doors to the memory, microprocessor and commodity integrated circuit markets tightly shut, the SOC segment is arguably the only one left with enough opportunity to attract a wide range of companies.

How Semiconductors Work (02/11/2021) | @HowStuffWorks

What are semiconductors? | @HitachiGlobal

Semiconductor Industry Association | @SIAAmerica

Semiconductor | Britannica

The Chip Shortage Keeps Getting Worse. Why Can’t We Just Make More? (05/06/2021) | @business
… it takes years to build semiconductor fabrication facilities and billions of dollars—and even then the economics are so brutal that you can lose out if your manufacturing expertise is a fraction behind the competition. …
Manufacturing a chip typically takes more than three months and involves giant factories, dust-free rooms, multi-million-dollar machines, molten tin and lasers. The end goal is to transform wafers of silicon—an element extracted from plain sand—into a network of billions of tiny switches called transistors…

Can Investors Profit From the Semiconductor Shortage?: Yes, you can. Here’s how. (05/28/2021) | @TMFZahrim,@TheMotleyFoolUK

The 2021 Technology Outlook for Silicon Carbide Semiconductors (03/08/2021) | @onsemi

Electronics Basics: What Is a Semiconductor? | @ForDummies

American Semiconductor, Inc

Semiconductor | @3M

Why there is a global semiconductor shortage, how it started, who it is hurting, and how long it could last (12/05/2021) | @scmp

America’s Semiconductor Industry Doesn’t Need $52 Billion in New Subsidies To Stay Ahead of China: Industrial policy is the wrong answer to a problem that mostly doesn’t exist. (05/27/2021) | @reason

Teradyne: Robots, 5G, Semiconductors – A Winning Formula For Sustainable Growth (05/30/2021) | @Teradyneinc,@SeekingAlpha