Canada Vol.34 (Ontario, Victoria Day)

#VictoriaDay     2017 Victoria Day Niagara Falls (5/17/2017) | Marriott Fallsview     Victoria Day? May Two-Four? What do you call the long weekend? (5/16/2017) | @cbcradio

Ontario

cf. About Ontario | @ONgov     @NorthOntarioBiz     Northern Ontario | @ONmunicipal     Exploring Ontario | #OntarioImmigration     Top Attractions in Huron | @attcanada     The Counties on Lake Erie | @carolinianzone     Where To Fish | @OntarioTravel     Ontario | @lakesuperiormag     @ontariotourism1     @AlgonquinPark     About London | @tourism_london     @PEConca     Landing an international sale is great. Getting paid is even better. (12/16/2015) | @CityBrampton      Bayfield, Ontario     Do Business | @cityofstratford     Business | @MississaugaEDO     Doing Business | @cityofhamilton     Doing Business | @townhuntsville     Business in Burlington | @cityburlington

CanadaOntarioVictoriaday


Canada Vol.33 (Québec Vol.2)

cf. Canada Vol.3 (Québec)     THE QUÉBEC ECONOMIC PLAN (PDF; 3/2017) | @FinancesQuebec       Too Much Tax Kills (9/26/2013) | Michel Kelly-Gagnon @ Montreal Economic Institute @HuffPostCanada      Quebec’s Economic Future: A Hard Road Ahead (9/6/2012) | @HodgsonGlen @confboardofcda      Quebec’s economy through the lens of GDP: Gains outweigh losses (PDF; 4-5/2015) | @DesjardinsGroup      When it comes to the economy, Quebec has earned top bragging rights in Canada (w Videos & Voice; 4/10/2017) | @ealini @globalnews        Lack of transfer plan could doom small Quebec business (3/15/2017) | @business @mtlgazette        A More Equitable Economy Exists Right Next Door – In Quebec, co-ops and non-profit businesses account for 8-10 percent of GDP (3/22/2017) | @JayWalljasper @AlterNet        Montreal flood-zone map for hard-hit Pierrefonds is decades out of date (5/12/2017) | @jbernstien & @robroc @CBC        @TourismQuebec        History of Quebec | ProvinceQuebec     Québec-France Agreement on the Mutual Recognition of professional Qualifications (3/17/2017) | @MRIF_Quebec

2017floodEasternCanada


Canada Vol.32 (Prince Edward Island)

(There are some broken links…)

cf. Canada Vol.18 (PEI econ)    PEI Economy | @InfoPEI    Strategic Sectors | @Innovation_PEI    The Prince Edward Island Bioscience Cluster Economic Impact Analysis (PDF; 3/2014) | @PEIBIOALLIANCE @jupia   PROVINCIAL OUTLOOK: PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND (PDF; 3/2017) | @RBC   Open for Business: Sectors | @ChtownPE   Charlottetown, PEI home neighbourhoods, realtors, and movers | @movingincanada

Cf. #Easter  The Bunnies Are Ready For Easter Breakfast Tablesetting (4/15/2017) | @PEIBistro   Classic French Easter Menu Fresh Spring Flavor for Paques (4/10/2017) | Rebecca Franklin


Easter 2017

Here are articles on Easter. Excerpts are on our own.

The Economics Of Easter (4/12/2017) | Rutger Bloemenkarr @The_MarketMogul   … According to @NRFnews’s annual Easter Spending Survey, which surveyed 7411 American customers about their Easter Sunday plans at the beginning of March, the total amount that is expected to be spent in the US is $18.4bn in 2017, which is approximately $152 dollar a person. This is considered to be the highest amount in 14 years, up by about 6% compared to 2016. …consumers are expected to spend $5.8bn on food, $3.3bn on clothes, $2.9bn on gifts, $2.6bn on candy, $1.2bn on flowers, $1.1bn on decorations, and $788mn on greeting cards. … The majority of Americans, about 58% to precise, visit discount stores to purchase their gift of preference, while the remainder visit department stores (46%), local stores (26%), or online stores (27%). … Almost two out of three Americans (61%) will visit their family and/or friends for Easter, 57% will cook a holiday-oriented meal, a majority visit church (52%), and a small portion go to a restaurant (17%). Additionally, more than one-third of the consumers surveyed (35%) are expected to have a so-called Easter egg hunt. Lastly, 16%…  According to @smallbiztrends…

Easter in Canada | @dgreetings   … – Eggs are forbidden during Lent but after fasting they are consumed mixed with maple syrup. Also special Easter passion plays and songs are performed at the major theatres and community halls of the major cities of Canada.    – A typical Canadian Easter is characterized by its mouthwatering and sumptuous recipes of ‘Maple Baked Beans’, ‘Potatoes Nicoise’, ‘Cape Breton Scones’ and apple tart. Thus, Easter in Canada is an event worth enjoying for its wide festive activities.

The Easter Egg Hunt, the Economy and the New Game (6/4/2015) | @LearntSchool @HuffPostUK   … @charliehoehn,@FreeRangeHumans,@ajjuliani …

Britain to benefit from 1.8 per cent boost to economy this Easter:  BRITAIN’S economy will grow by 1.8 per cent this year according to upgraded forecasts from the EY ITEM Club, thanks to a recovery in global trade. (9/4/2017) | Geoff Ho @Daily_Express    Easter: Quarter of UK Christians do not believe in the resurrection of Jesus Christ, survey reveals (11/4/2017)     Irish business owners urged to be vigilant this Easter (13/4/2017) | Robert McHugh @BusinessWorldIE

Canberra’s experts divided over economics of Easter holidays (10/4/2017) | @DavidTuckwell3 @The_RiotACT   … According to @CBRBusiness, the territory’s top business lobby, the effect can be negative as public holidays mean penalty rates, and penalty rates mean unemployment. “Generally speaking, penalty rates on public holidays make businesses think staying open on a public holiday is just not viable,”… “Some businesses – particularly small businesses – look at their cost of operation compared to potential income and think it’s not commercially viable to open.” … “The problem with this entire penalty rates debate is the ‘fallacy of composition’,” says @MattGrudnoff, an economist at @TheAusInstitute, a left-leaning think tank based in Civic. … According to Professor Phil Lewis, an economist at @UniCanberra, there are both moral and economic considerations to keep in mind. “If you have a public holiday, employers who pay the award will be obliged to pay $45 an hour for a person on the lowest wage. …some businesses will stay open, especially family-owned businesses, as family members won’t demand penalty rate…

Retailers baffled by Easter trading laws (11/4/2017) | Matthew Theunissen @nzherald   … A recent law change gave local councils the authority to permit Easter Sunday trading and 25 mostly smaller councils have so far taken up the option. … Five councils have continued with the the ban while all major centres are yet to reach decisions. Shops which open in the restricted areas risk a prosecution and $1000 fine. … There are exemptions to the Easter trading laws, and some of them are quite unusual. Dunedin’s Carnegie Centre has an exemption to sell arts, crafts, children’s toys and books on Easter Sunday. “Toys and books sold only while performances happening on the mezzanine floor,”… In Nelson, crafts can be sold “whenever Founders Park is open”. @nelsoncitynz has been approached for clarification on whether this means any shop can sell crafts while the park is open, or only shops within the park. A clearer definition of “crafts” was also sought from the council. … Other exemptions include dairies, service stations, takeaways, bars, restaurants and cafes, duty-free stores and shops providing services rather than selling goods, such as a hairdresser. … The industry had fought hard to get the exemption and Odering could not understand why it didn’t include Friday, too. … Since 1992, Odering said the his business had paid in excess of $20,000 in fines, Department of Labour Fees and court costs because they had refused to shut shop over Easter. @RetailNZ spokesman… @MBIEgovtnz data shows that prosecutions for shops illegally opening over Easter steadily declined from 63 in 2006, to 34 in 2008, 28 in 2010, 25 in 2012, 0 in 2014 and 3 in 2016. …

Easter to bring a million foreign tourists to Netherlands (4/13/2017) | Janene Pieters   About 950 thousand foreign tourists will spend Easter weekend in the Netherlands, according to calculations by @NBTC. “It is expected to be very busy”, a spokesperson said to @NOS. “In comparison with last year, we expect 100 thousand more tourists.” Most foreign visitors come from Germany, about 600 thousand. And over 200 thousand Belgians are expected to visit this weekend. …increasing since 2009… Last year 15.8 million foreigners visited our country. This can partly be attributed to the recovering economy in Europe and America. And due to the weak euro, it is relatively cheap for non-euro countries to visit the Netherlands on holiday. The threat of terrorist attacks in European cities such as Paris and Brussels also…

Norwegian Easter Traditions   … In old times, people would climb mountains on Easter Sunday morn to watch the sunrise as they thought the sun danced with joy for the resurrection of Christ.  It is suggested that this could have started the Norwegian habit of ‘going up the mounatins’ at Easter time.  This day was also a day to predict the weather for the Summer.  If it was a good day then the Summer would be good too.  If there was frost the night before the Sunday then the Summer would come late.  For some reason, the Bunad is not worn during Easter. Easter Sunday breakfast is a grand affair.  Anything and everything is put on the table, cured meats and especially eggs – boiled, scrambled, fried, (and even fish eggs!), you name it.  The boiled eggs are often dyed or painted before eating.  Traditionally the Winter stores are low from the long Winter, so there is not much cooking or baking, especially compared to Christmas time.  However, egg dishes are in abundance, especially when there has been a lot of egg decorating with lots of leftover whites and yolks.  Pancakes are also a popular treat at Easter. … The Easter egg hunt is a common tradition around the world and in Norway children look for a brightly decorated paper eggshell filled with small lollies.  The eggs used to be real chicken eggs…

Easter | @denmarkdotdk   …most Danes regard Easter as a holiday. A national survey in 2000 showed that 48% of the Danes attached particular importance to the family spending time together during Easter and 37% regarded it as a holiday; only 10% mentioned ‘attending Church’ and ‘the Christian message’ as the main feature of Easter. … Many homes and shops are decorated for Easter in green and yellow, especially with new-leaved branches and daffodils. The main symbol of Easter is still the egg. The eggs used for decoration may be ordinary hen’s eggs which have been blown out and coloured or they may be imitation eggs or various kinds of sugar and chocolate eggs. Other decorations include small artificial hens and chickens and gradually also the Easter hare, which formerly was almost exclusively common in the areas by the German border. There is a unique Danish Easter tradition, viz. the custom of sending teaser letters. In the weeks before Easter especially children cut out elaborate letters, on which they write a so-called teaser verse. The letter is anonymous, but signed with a number of dots corresponding to the number of letters in the sender’s name, so that the recipient has a chance of guessing who sent it. The pledge is a chocolate Easter egg redeemed at Easter. The letter is accompanied by a snowdrop, which is regarded as the first flower of the year. …

Easter in Sweden (4/12/2017) | @Sweden_Belgrade   …most people celebrate it at home with their families and relatives. … Nowadays, eggs are a favourite accompaniment to the dish of pickled herring that is the centrepiece of most Swedes’ Easter meals. And few associate the omnipresent birch twigs − nowadays decorated with brightly coloured feathers − with the suffering of Christ. Easter has its own rituals. Children dress up as Easter witches; clad in discarded clothes, gaily coloured headscarves and red-painted cheeks, they go from house to house in the neighbourhood and present the occupants with paintings and drawings in the hope of getting sweets in return. Having consumed all these sweets, they are then given Easter eggs filled with yet more. … A traditional Easter lunch is likely to consist of different varieties of pickled herring, cured salmon and Jansson’s Temptation (potato, onion and pickled anchovies baked in cream). … At dinner, people eat roast lamb with potato gratin and asparagus, or some other suitable side dish.


Canada Vol.31 (Nunavut Vol.1)

Nunavut Entered Confederation: 1999 (April 1) | @LibraryArchives        The Road to Nunavut: A Chronological History

cf.


Canada Vol.30 (Newfoundland and Labrador Vol.1)

History: March 31, 1949, Canada completed! (31/3/2015) | Marc Montgomery @RCInet

cf.

History @NLtweets    NLimmigration.ca    ///


Canada Vol.29 (Manitoba Vol.2)


Canada Vol.28 (British Columbia Vol.2)

cf. Economic Analysis of British Columbia (August 2015; PDF) | @Central1CU


Canada Vol.27 (Alberta Vol.1)

cf. Alberta’s economy in 2016 is a gambler’s dream (1/5/2016) | @ABeconomist   Alberta’s economic diversification plan wins praise from trades industry (2/1/2016) | @CBC

cf. Albertans raise ‘Kobe’ hogs on hazelnuts and beer mash (5/14/2015) | @CBC   Why Agrium Inc. Is Poised to Become a Top Canadian Dividend Stock (5/20/2015) | @AdamMancini4 @TheMotleyFoolCA   Making the case in the neonic debate (4/29/2015) | @arpee_AG @CntryGuide


Washington Vol.1

cf. Manufacturing… @RentonTech #aerospace


Canada Vol.26 (Nova Scotia Vol.3)

Canada Vol.13   Canada Vol.1

cf. Canada Vol.19 (@DalEngineering Riley Griffen – distillery)   Boston’s Christmas Tree Tradition Rooted In A Canadian Thank You


Canada Vol.25 (Trudeau administration Vol.1)

Here is a list of Current Ministry (Cabinet) | PARLIAMENT of CANADA (* CABINET SHUFFLE 2017.01.10; # Minister Mandate Letter from Prime Minister). Excerpts are on our own.

Innovation, science and economic development: NAVDEEP SINGH BAINS
Indigenous and Northern Affairs: CAROLYN BENNETT
International development and La Francophonie: MARIE-CLAUDE BIBEAU
Treasury Board president: SCOTT BRISON
Natural resources: JIM CARR
*Foreign affairs #: *Chrystia Freeland (Preceded by STÉPHANE DION)
Families, Children and Social Development: JEAN-YVES DUCLOS
Science: KIRSTY DUNCAN
Public services and procurement: JUDY FOOTE
*International trade #: *François-Philippe Champagne (Preceded by CHRYSTIA FREELAND)
Transport: MARC GARNEAU
Public safety and emergency preparedness: RALPH GOODALE
*Status of Women: *Maryam Monsef (Preceded by PATTY HAJDU)
Minister of Veterans Affairs and Associate Minister of National Defence: KENT HEHR
Canadian Heritage: MÉLANIE JOLY
Small Business and Tourism: BARDISH CHAGGER
Government House Leader: BARDISH CHAGGER
National Revenue: DIANE LEBOUTHILLIER
Agriculture and agri-food: LAWRENCE MACAULAY
*Immigration, refugees and citizenship #: *Ahmed Hussen (Preceded by JOHN MCCALLUM)
Environment and Climate Change: CATHERINE MCKENNA
*Employment, Workforce Development and Labour #: *Patty Hajdu (Preceded by MARYANNE MIHYCHUK)
*Democratic Institutions: *Karina Gould (Preceded by MARYAM MONSEF)
Finance: BILL MORNEAU
Health: JANE PHILPOTT
Sport and Persons with Disabilities: CARLA QUALTROUGH
National Defence: HARJIT SINGH SAJJAN
Infrastructure and Communities: AMARJEET SOHI
Fisheries, Oceans and the Canadian Coast Guard: DOMINIC LEBLANC
Justice and attorney-general: JODY WILSON-RAYBOULD
cf.
THE TRUDEAU CABINET (1/5/2017) | @globepolitics
Here are all 30 cabinet ministers at a glance (11/5/2015) | @OttawaCitizen

The 3 new faces of Justin Trudeau’s Liberal cabinet (1/10/2017) | @JPTasker @CBCNews
Long-time Liberal MP John McCallum is leaving federal politics for Beijing, where he will become Canada’s ambassador to China, and he will cede his immigration post to Ahmed Hussen, the first black Canadian to serve in Trudeau’s cabinet. …
Gould’s appointment as minister of democratic institutions will lower the average age of cabinet ministers considerably. …
Gould, 29, is the youngest female cabinet minister in Canadian history. …
… Champagne takes over the hot file as support for global trade wanes in much of the Western world amid an ascendency of protectionist rhetoric.
Champagne has one notable supporter in his corner: former prime minister Jean Chrétien. …

New Hands, Not Enough Cards (1/21/2017) | @RLindenFraser @NATOCanada
… With rising nationalism in Belgium, France and Germany, Canada will have to play a nervous game of wait-and-see.
… She carries the cachet of successfully concluding CETA negotiations in Europe. …
… The US government is not Wallonia, and Canada’s trade negotiators won’t have 28 EU governments on their side, as they did in the final dash to conclude CETA. …
… The risk of renegotiating, then, is not that America will punish Canada directly. The danger is that an American administration dead-set on Mexican concessions (anything, for example, that could be spun as payment for a certain wall) will throw the Canadian baby out with the NAFTA bathwater. It leaves Canadian officials with a classic dilemma: do they band together with Mexico, and risk handing everyone a worse deal, or do they strike out on their own, aim at a better agreement for Canada, and leave their erstwhile partners out in the cold? John Nash would have been proud.

In a major shuffle, Justin Trudeau re-tools cabinet in preparation for the Donald Trump era (1/12/2017) | @davidakin @calgaryherald
… McCallum had been Trudeau’s immigration minister and distinguished himself on that file by executing, albeit a bit tardily, on Trudeau’s campaign promise to bring thousands of Syrian refugees out of harms’s way and into Canada. …
Trudeau, at a House of Commons press conference after Tuesday’s shuffle, said he has asked Dion to take on a “senior role” and hinted that it will involve some sort of diplomatic role. …
Trudeau’s pick of Freeland is particularly interesting given that Freeland, whose family has roots in Ukraine and who speaks fluent Russian, is persona non grata in Russia. …
Trudeau said it’s clear the Trump presidency is likely to focus on jobs and growth.
“So it makes sense for the person who is responsible for foreign relations in the United States to also have the ability and responsibility…
Trudeau preserves the gender balance with this cabinet shuffle but has broadend cabinet’s ethnic diversity. Gould and Hussen are, respectively, the second Jewish and Muslim members of cabinet.
Monsef, the other Muslim member of cabinet, had badly handled the electoral reform file…
The former status of women minister, Patty Hajdu of Thunder Bay, Ont., will be rewarded for what the PMO believes has been a strong performance by being promoted to the labour portfolio. …

*Chrystia Freeland (Foreign affairs – moved from International trade)
*Maryam Monsef (Status of Women – moved from Democratic Institutions)
*Patty Hajdu (Employment, Workforce Development and Labour – moved from Status of Women)
*François-Philippe Champagne (International trade) @FPCChampagne
*Ahmed Hussen (Immigration, refugees and citizenship) @AhmedDHussen
*Karina Gould (Democratic Institutions) @karinagould


Canada Vol.17 (Manifesto 2015 of Conservative Party of Canada)

Here is PROTECTING OUR ECONOMY: OUR CONSERVATIVE PLAN (pdf) | @CPC_HQ in October 2015. Excerpts are on our own.

OUR CONSERVATIVE PLAN FOR A BALANCED BUDGET AND LOW TAXES
OUR CONSERVATIVE PLAN FOR A STRONGER ECONOMY
Keeping taxes low

Opening markets for Canadian businesses p.21-23
From the days of the French and British traders who first laid the foundations of our modern economy, Canada has been a trading nation. Trade is the lifeblood of our economy. It accounts for 60 percent of our GDP, and one in five Canadian jobs. Canadian businesses and workers know instinctively that we can compete with the world’s best as long as the playing field is level. We also know that we’re better off when our goods and services can reach global markets without barriers and restrictions.
Yet previous governments failed Canadians when it came to negotiating trade access for Canadian products. While other countries were busy signing free-trade deals and receiving preferential access to important markets, the Liberals weren’t even at the negotiating table. And Canadian businesses and workers suffered.

Our Conservative Government has reversed this inaction and opened up new markets for Canadian products and services.
When we took office Canada had free trade agreements with only five other countries. We’ve now reached agreements with 44, countries, encompassing more than half the global marketplace, including historic trade deals with South Korea and the European Union, with its 500-million person, $18-trillion economy. These agreements have given Canadian businesses and their workers access to more than half the global marketplace.

Yet there’s more to accomplish. In the past few days we have concluded the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement with 11 other founding countries, including the United States, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. The TPP is the largest free trade deal in history. It gives greater access for Canadian goods and services to almost 800 million consumers throughout the fast-growing Asia-Pacific region.
It’s a great deal for Canada that will significantly benefit our economy and Canadians’ prosperity. The TPP will protect and create jobs, grow Canada’s economy, and provide financial security to workers and businesses in all regions of the country. It guarantees preferential access for Canadian goods and services in a range of sectors including agriculture and agri-food, fish and seafood, forestry, metals and mining, and manufactured industrial goods.
~ The Trans-Pacific Partnership is a historic agreement that will protect and create jobs, and grow Canada’s economy now and in the future. That’s why a re-elected Conservative Government will ratify and implement the TPP.

As part of the TPP negotiations, we’ve defended and protected Canada’s supply management system, as we committed to. We’ve limited access to only three and one quarter percent of our dairy market. And we’ve announced key programs to ensure Canada’s supply-managed sectors
— and the communities that depend on them
— continue to thrive. To ensure stability for supply-managed farmers through the implementation of our trade agreements, we’ve established long-term income and quota guarantee programs.
And we’re supporting investment in cutting-edge technologies for our processing sector and marketing of world-class Canadian products, which are of the highest quality.

Free trade only works when it’s also fair – and this means a modern and effective system of remedy when a Canadian company has been treated unjustly.
A re-elected Conservative Government will take steps to modernize our system and ensure that it’s comparable with the practices and policies of our main trading partners. To this end we’ll:
~ Mandate the Canada Border Services Agency to carry out a full investigation of trade complaints even in cases when preliminary reviews by the Canadian International Trade Tribunal come back negative.
~ Require the Canadian International Trade Tribunal to carry out an automatic five-year review of every finding of non-compliance, to ensure the conflict has been resolved in a satisfactory manner.
~ Continue to work with stakeholders such as the Canadian Steel Producers Association to ensure that the system is effective and accessible, and ultimately creates a level-playing field for Canadian businesses.

The federal government provides a wide range of programs and services to firms looking to invest in Canada and to Canadian businesses trying to sell their goods and services abroad. These initiatives help attract investment and job creation in Canada and support export-oriented Canadian businesses in their search for new market opportunities and new customers.
There remains, however, room for improvement.
The system can be difficult for small firms to navigate. Government efforts to attract investment and promote job creation can sometimes be stymied by a lack of coordination.
~ A re-elected Conservative Government will establish an Investment and Trade Promotion Office with a mandate to coordinate the government’s various efforts to encourage businesses in other countries to invest in Canada, and to promote Canadian exports abroad. The Office will be a one-stop shop to attract investment and product mandates to Canada and help growing Canadian businesses enter new markets.

Cutting red tape

Manufacturing strategy p.26-28
In a fast-changing world, here’s one thing that hasn’t changed: Canada’s manufacturing sector is absolutely vital to our growing economy. It accounts for about 11 percent of our GDP, 61 percent of Canadian exports, and provides good, secure jobs to almost 1.7 million Canadians across the country. Indirectly, it employs many millions more. Manufacturing firms pay out $1.85 billion weekly in salaries to Canadian workers across the country.
But what is changing is the nature of the work. It’s becoming more skilled, more specialized, and more globally competitive.

Liberal leader Justin Trudeau says that manufacturing’s time is passed, that it’s time for Canada to “transition away” from manufacturing. Our Conservative Government disagrees. Manufacturing has played a key role in Canada’s economy since before Confederation – and, with the right plan, will continue to sustain high-quality, high-paying jobs and economic activity across the country.

Our Conservative Government has a positive plan to sustain our manufacturing sector. We’re:
~ Lowering taxes to make it easier for manufacturers to invest in advanced technology and equipment.
~ Helping Canadians acquire the skills and training they need to take advantage of new opportunities in manufacturing.
~ Opening new markets for manufacturers to find customers and sell their products.
~ Making strategic investments to encourage research and development and the creation of new products and technologies.

This is what our manufacturing strategy is all about. And it’s working. Manufacturing wages are up nearly 20 percent since we’ve come to office.
But there’s more to be done to support what the Canadian Manufacturers & Exporters have called our “manufacturing renaissance.”
Manufacturers need to invest in new machinery and equipment to remain globally competitive, expand their businesses, and create good new jobs. To help with this, we’ve reduced taxes steadily on these investments.
~ A re-elected Conservative Government will carry out our ten-year plan to lower the tax burden on Canadian manufacturers that acquire the machinery and equipment they need to succeed.

Canada is attracting high-quality, value-added manufacturing investment. But more can be done to bolster advanced manufacturing across the country.
~ A re-elected Conservative Government will support a new Advanced Manufacturing Hub in partnership with employers, our colleges and universities, and other stakeholders to encourage the development of new cutting-edge products and technologies. The new center, located in Southwestern Ontario, will become a catalyst for high-quality, value-added investment and jobs in the manufacturing sector.
~ A re-elected Conservative Government will establish a $100-million Manufacturing Technology Demonstration Fund to support large-scale, cutting-edge manufacturing projects in the developmental, pre-commercial stages. This fund will build on our existing significant investments in science and technology to make Canada a world leader in new manufacturing technologies.
~ We’ll also renew the Automotive Innovation Fund for ten years, beginning in 2018-19, at baseline funding of $100 million per year. This will help to create a stable, predictable environment for new automotive investment in Canada.
~ In addition, we’ll change the program’s parameters in the immediate term to include bricks and mortar as eligible expenses and offer grants rather than repayable loans for greenfield investments and investments in existing facilities that guarantee a long-term presence and operation.

We still believe the phrase “Made in Canada” translates well around the world: It means high-quality goods built by highly skilled workers, and it inspires confidence that a product is the very best. And on our watch, Canada will never turn away from this legacy of excellence.

Skills training for new and better jobs
Our world-leading immigration system

Spurring innovation and research and development p.35-37
The marketplace is dynamic. Canadian businesses grow and succeed by staying ahead of the competition. This means adopting new technologies and developing new goods, services, and processes. Staying ahead means never growing complacent and always innovating.
Our Conservative Government has helped Canadian businesses invest an targeted tax relief, new financing to develop products and processes, and partnerships with universities, colleges, and polytechnics to test out new ideas and turn them into the next big technology success story.

A re-elected Conservative Government will continue to help Canadian businesses adopt advanced technologies and carry out research and development by:
~ Implementing the $100 million Automotive Supplier Innovation Program to support product development and technology demonstration by Canadian automotive parts suppliers.
~ Rolling out the $200 million Advanced Manufacturing Fund to support new and innovative products and production methods in Ontario.
~ Working with Canada’s world-leading aerospace industry to develop a national supplier development initiative to ensure Canada’s aerospace industry remains a global technology leader and a major source of high-quality jobs.
~ Continuing our participation in the International Space Station which will mean new opportunities for Canada’s space industry, and expanding support for Canada’s satellite telecommunications sector through its partnership with the European Space Agency.
~ Providing ongoing support to the National Research Council’s transformation to better serve the research and development needs of Canadian businesses. This includes ongoing support for the Industrial Research Assistance Program which is helping small- and medium-sized businesses finance research initiatives.
~ Expanding our support for the National Optics Institute in Quebec City, to continue its leadership in business-oriented optic and photonic research.

We’ll also continue to support research and development at Canada’s universities, colleges, and polytechnics. Our Government has invested over $13 billion in science, technology and innovation since 2006. And Canada has consistently ranked first in the G-7 for research and development spending in the higher education sector as a share of GDP.
A re-elected Conservative Government will continue to support basic and applied post-secondary research by:
~ Implementing the $1.5 billion Canada First Research Excellence Fund to support world-leading research projects that create long-term economic advantage for Canada.
~ Continuing to support the Canadian Foundation for Innovation to finance research infrastructure on university, college, and polytechnic campuses. We’ll provide $1.33 billion over six years, starting in 2017-18, to support the Foundation’s ongoing work.
~ Investing in ongoing support for the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council.

Creating opportunity for Canada’s farmers p.38-40
It’s no exaggeration to say that the family farm is the foundation of the Canada we love today. The products have evolved, the markets have changed, and the technology has advanced, but some things remain constant: From before the sun comes up to long after it goes down, farmers across Canada do the backbreaking work that feeds the country. The work is hard, and financially risky – but absolutely vital to Canadians.
It’s also vital to our economy. The agriculture and agri-food sectors account for more than $100 billion in economic activity every year, and employ more than two million Canadians. The importance of agriculture to our national interest can’t be overstated. And our Conservative Government’s support for farmers is unwavering.

A significant part of our support for the sector has been dedicated to innovation and crop science.
Our Government has consistently supported strategic research and development by industry into agricultural technologies, processes, practices and services – research that drives growth and creates jobs and opportunities in the industry by making it more sustainable and more globally competitive.
The projects we are supporting are as diverse as the industry itself. The Agri-Innovation program, for instance, has been used to develop pest-management tools in the blueberry industry; to find new and innovative ways to turn food by-products into environmentally friendly, value-added goods; and to increase the competitiveness of our food-processing industry while making our food better, healthier, and safer.
~ A re-elected Conservative Government will increase funding to the Agri-Innovation program by $100 million over three years, and make projects driven by universities and colleges eligible for financing.

Our farmers and their produce can compete with the best in the world. Our Government has been there to help them enter global markets and find new customers. We established the Market Access Secretariat in 2009 to serve as a single-window to help Canadian farmers with trade-related issues.
We’ve hired trade commissioners dedicated to agriculture issues. And we’ve co-funded marketing activities with industry to enhance Canada’s agricultural presence in priority markets.
~ A re-elected Conservative Government will increase support for the Agri-Marketing Program to help promote Canada’s agricultural and agri-food products around the world, building on our international reputation for excellence and increasing the visibility of the Canadian brand in important markets.
~ We’ll also continue to expand the activities of the Market Access Secretariat to help Canadian farmers diversify into new markets.
~ As we open new markets for agricultural products, we’ll continue to stand up for Canadian farmers and industries by defending our system of supply management in all international forums and trade negotiations.

We understand that market access also requires a robust transportation system with fair rules and accountabilities. Our Government passed the Fair Rail for Grain Farmers Act in May 2014 to provide more certainty and better service standards with respect to grain volumes for farmers and shippers.
We also launched a broader review of our transportation system to determine what policy changes should be made to address key issues facing the transportation sector, including ensuring Canada’s supply chains have the capacity, flexibility and resiliency to meet future demands. The review panel, led by the Honourable David Emerson, will provide recommendations to the government later this year.
~ A re-elected Conservative Government will take action to improve Canada’s transportation network and support market access for Canadian farmers, based upon the recommendations of the transportation review.

Promoting Canada’s fisheries p.41-43
Commercial fishing has been a pillar of the Canadian economy since the 16th century.
Today, Canada’s commercial fishery employs, directly and indirectly, about 80,000 Canadians, and exports about $5 billion worth of fish and other seafood every year.
Our Government has a strong record of supporting Canadians who make their living on the water, and is committed to the continued success of this industry and the prosperity of the Canadians it employs. Among our accomplishments are:
~ New measures targeting fish harvesters who are not compliant with the Preserving the Independence of the Inshore Fleet in Canada’s Atlantic Fisheries Policy.
~ Ongoing maintenance and upgrades to Canada’s small craft harbours – including more than 250 small craft harbour improvement projects planned over the next two years.
~ Establishing and expanding the Recreational Fisheries Conservation Partnerships Program to conserve and protect Canada’s recreational fisheries. The program has funded nearly 300 conservation projects across the country to date.

A re-elected Conservative Government will continue to build on these initiatives with a focus on science, marine conservation, and promote Canadian products in new markets including through the Trans-Pacific Partnership.

Canada’s most important commercial fishery is lobster, with exports generating more than $1 billion a year. It has supported Canadian fishing families for more than a century, and plays a substantial role in the economies of coastal communities in Atlantic Canada and Quebec.
Our Government has seen the lobster fishery through good times and bad, including investing significant funds through the Community Adjustment Fund-Lobster Initiative and the Short-Term Transitional Measures Program to help the industry through the global recession. And the Atlantic Lobster Sustainability Measures Program provided support for restructuring and rationalization, as well as conservation and stewardship programs to support the long-term sustainability of the industry.
We’ll continue these efforts.
~ A re-elected Conservative Government will fund a new lobster branding initiative to be carried out in co-operation with the Lobster Council of Canada. This measure will support the Council’s work promoting the Canada Lobster Brand both here at home and in export markets around the world. We’ll also pursue new markets for Canadian lobster.
~ A re-elected Conservative Government will also work in collaboration with the provinces and the University of Prince Edward Island’s AVC Lobster Science Centre to pursue biomass research, gaining valuable information that will inform policy decisions affecting the lobster fishery for years to come.
~ We’ll also support the Atlantic salmon fishery by confronting Greenland on the issue of overfishing Canada’s Atlantic salmon stock and increasing the harvest of striped bass to improve the survival of juvenile Atlantic salmon, following receipt of an upcoming Department of Fisheries and Oceans scientific study.

Our sealing industry is of vital importance to many coastal communities, in particular among Canada’s Aboriginal peoples.
~ A re-elected Conservative Government will continue to pursue new and expanded markets for these products, including establishing a system of certification to demonstrate that products resulting from Aboriginal hunting meet European Union standards.

As part of the completion of the Canada-EU Free Trade Agreement, we’ve committed to working with the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador to provide support for those affected by the elimination of minimum processing requirements (MPRs) in the fishery sector.
~ A re-elected Conservative Government will continue to work with the province to provide compensation for losses arising from the gradual elimination of these requirements. We have set aside $280 million ($93 million per year over 3 years) for this purpose which is intended to be matched 70:30 by the province. In the event that we cannot reach an agreement with the province to deliver a joint compensation program, we’ll compensate workers directly who have been negatively impacted by MPR phase-outs.

Supporting Canada’s forestry sector and its workers

Expanding new mining opportunities p.46-47
Canada is a global leader in the mining sector.
From Yukon’s gold to Labrador’s iron, the industry provides almost 400,000 Canadians across the country with jobs that, for the most part, are the highest-paying industrial jobs in the country. It’s the main business for 150 communities in rural and northern Canada, and employs the largest number, proportionally, of Aboriginal Canadians of any industry.
We’re committed to ensuring this vital sector remains a source of jobs and opportunity for Canadians for generations to come.

The Mineral Exploration Tax Credit has helped junior mining companies raise more than $5.5 billion for exploration since 2006. In 2013 alone, more than 250 companies used the credit to raise financing from 19,000 individual investors.
~ A re-elected Conservative Government will extend the Mineral Exploration Tax Credit for three years to support further mining exploration and investment.

Meanwhile, the development of hundreds of potential mining projects in this great, vast country – such as the Ring of Fire in Northern Ontario and Plan Nord in Quebec – is challenged by the high cost of working far from transportation routes and supply centres.
Many of these ventures could be economic game-changers for the Canadians living in the surrounding regions.
~ A re-elected Conservative Government will support economic development in these communities by establishing an enhanced Mining Exploration Tax Credit for northern and remote mining projects.

These new commitments build on our current plan to support Canada’s mining sector.
~ A re-elected Conservative Government will continue to support jobs and growth in the mining industry by following through on our plan to invest further in the Targeted Geoscience Initiative, to promote increased mineral exploration by the private sector.
~ We’ll also expand the eligible costs under the Canadian Exploration Expenses policy to include environmental studies and community consultations.

Responsible resource development p.48-49
Canada is one of the world’s great energy suppliers, providing the world with everything from oil and natural gas to coal, uranium, and biofuels.
Not surprisingly, then, the energy industry is more than a source of power. Directly and indirectly providing good jobs for more than 900,000 Canadians, and accounting for almost one third of our merchandise exports, it’s also a significant source of opportunity and prosperity.

But even those who don’t make a living in the energy industry benefit in real, substantial ways from its success. It contributes billions of dollars every year that governments spend on the programs and services that Canadians depend upon.
~ A re-elected Conservative Government will continue to support this crucial industry, and the many Canadians who depend on it for their livelihoods. This means not interfering in the independent project review process, and making final decisions on individual projects based on the science and recommendations of expert bodies.

Canada is home to vast reserves of natural gas, a resource that holds immense potential for jobs and growth for generations to come if it can be exported to meet the ever-growing demands of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The most efficient way to do this is to transport it in liquefied form, which means establishing facilities to process our natural gas for shipping.
~ A re-elected Conservative Government will follow through with its plan to support the creation of a Liquefied Natural Gas industry, helping investors meet their start-up costs by offering an accelerated Capital Cost Allowance on machinery and equipment used in processing facilities.

Our Government has a strong record of co-funding investments in pre-commercial clean technology projects to help bring them to market. These investments are good for the environment and good for our economy.
~ A re-elected Conservative Government will continue to support Sustainable Development Technology Canada’s work to finance the development and demonstration of new, clean technologies that create efficiencies for businesses and contribute to sustainable economic development.

Building economic infrastructure p.50-52
The founders of Confederation bound our country together with a great railway because they knew a country of this size could not function without significant investments in infrastructure. It’s no different today. From highways, airports and harbours to subways, bridges and community facilities, infrastructure projects create good jobs for tens of thousands of Canadians, drive our economy, improve our quality of life, and connect us to each other.

More than 95 percent of Canada’s core public infrastructure is owned by provinces, territories, and municipalities but, since 2006, our Conservative Government has made a historic commitment to supporting public infrastructure across the country. We promised in 2006 “a better approach to fixing Canada’s infrastructure deficit,” and we’ve delivered.
Federal support for infrastructure has increased dramatically under our Government. Annual federal funding has increased from $571 million a decade ago to over $5 billion this year. And we have launched the largest, longest-running infrastructure program in Canadian history.

Altogether, our investments in infrastructure for the years 2013-2023 will total almost $85 billion. This level of investment is without precedent, and we’ve accomplished it while bringing the budget back into balance and lowering taxes.
Infrastructure is also key to trade, and Canadian products need modern infrastructure to travel efficiently to their final destinations at home and abroad. Our Government has made historic investments in improving our trade-oriented infrastructure such as ports, harbours, and rail.
Improvements include major projects at Port Metro Vancouver, the Port of Quebec, the Port of Montreal, the Saint John Harbour Bridge, and the new Gordie Howe International Bridge between Windsor and Detroit.

A re-elected Conservative Government will continue to support important economic investments such as these across the country.
~ We’ll launch the Quebec Maritime Prosperity Initiative to fund maritime and port infrastructure – including improvements to facilities for cruise ships and tall ships, such as the Quai Alexandra terminal in Montreal, the Ross Gaudreault terminal in Quebec City, and the restoration of Champlain – Foulon sector promenade.
~ We’ll fund key Asia-Pacific Gateway projects in Western Canada to strengthen our transport system and help Canadian businesses, including our farmers, get their products to market.
~ And we’ll support major public transit projects – such as Smart Track in the Greater Toronto Area, Light Rail Transit in Surrey and Ottawa, and Calgary’s Green Line – to fight gridlock, reduce travel times for commuters and businesses, and support new economic development.

Governing is about making choices. We have chosen to keep taxes low, balance the books, and invest in infrastructure because we know that these things are good for our economy and good for Canadians.
~ A re-elected Conservative government will continue to invest in core public infrastructure, to keep our economy moving forward, and to make life easier and better for Canadians.

High-speed internet access is not just a quality-of-life issue – it’s critical infrastructure that contributes to business investment, job creation, and, ultimately, economic development in rural and remote parts of our country.
Our Conservative Government has put significant effort and investments into extending high-speed broadband access to all Canadians. Our goal is to ensure that 98 percent of Canadian households have high-speed internet service by 2017, and we’re on track to meet this target.
~ A re-elected Conservative Government will build on our record of expanding rural internet access by funding high-capacity backbone – such as fibre optic cable networks or satellite – in hundreds of communities across the country, allowing people and businesses in northern and rural communities to access the internet at speeds currently enjoyed by Canadians in larger urban centres.

Supporting Northern economic development

OUR CONSERVATIVE PLAN FOR HARD-WORKING
FAMILIES AND SENIORS
The family home
Saving for a child’s education
Saving for a secure retirement
Tax relief for single and widowed seniors
Help for Canadians with disabilities
Supporting every family
Protecting consumers

OUR CONSERVATIVE PLAN FOR A MORE SECURE CANADA
Combating jihadi terrorism
The fight against ISIS
Protecting persecuted minorities around the world
Cyber security
Supporting Ukraine
Supporting Canada’s military
Strengthening our military assets and institutions
Northern sovereignty

OUR CONSERVATIVE PLAN FOR SAFE STREETS
National Anti-Drug Strategy
Targeting criminal gangs
Protecting seniors from fraud
Life Means Life and other justice priorities
Protecting Canadians and supporting victims

OUR CONSERVATIVE PLAN FOR STRONG COMMUNITIES
New Building Canada Plan
Standing up for Canada’s veterans
Voluntarism and civil society
Commemorating Canadian heritage and culture
Promoting arts and culture and sport
Supporting Canada’s universal, publicly-funded health care system
Finding a cure for cancer
Protecting Canada’s West Coast
Conservation and rural economic development
Preserving our natural heritage
Tackling climate change
Supporting economic and social development for Aboriginal Canadians
Strengthening Canadian citizenship
Protecting Canada’s democracy
Costing our plan p.156-159

cf. CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA POLICY DECLARATION (pdf) May 2016


Canada Vol.16 (Manifesto 2015 of New Democratic Party of Canada)

Here is NDP’s manifesto in October 2015. Excerpts are on our own.

Building the country of our dreams: Tom Mulcair’s plan to bring change to Ottawa (PDF)| @NDP_HQ
(@universitelaval)

p.iv-v: Kick-start the economy and build needed infrastructure, starting with:
~ Cutting taxes for Canada’s job creators by reducing the small business tax from 11 to 9%.
~ Supporting innovation and investment in companies creating jobs in Canada, with an early focus on the aerospace, automotive, forestry and mining sectors.
~ Creating jobs and building our economy with $1.5 billion per year in new infrastructure funding to municipalities to fix roads, bridges and water treatment systems.
~ Investing $1.3 billion per year in a national strategy to improve transit and reduce gridlock.
~ Boosting investment in tourism.
~ Supporting regional economic development.
~ Helping retrofit over 50,000 homes and apartment buildings.
~ Investing in flood mitigation and disaster preparedness.

p.21: Building Needed Infrastructure
After decades of Liberal and Conservative downloading and neglect, Canada needs a Prime Minister who understands the benefits of long-term and sustainable investment in our municipalities.
Stephen Harper’s lost decade has left communities with inadequate funding and complicated red tape that delays construction. The NDP’s plan will provide municipal partners with significant, stable, predictable federal funding to support their infrastructure and public transit needs over the next 20 years and close Canada’s infrastructure deficit.
Tom Mulcair knows that quality infrastructure supports businesses, improves productivity and keeps our cities moving, and that by boosting transit there will be thousands of fewer vehicles on the road.

The NDP’s long-term infrastructure plan will:
~ Invest in transit to reduce gridlock and give commuters the reliable options they need.
Our Better Transit Plan will reduce gridlock and commute times across Canada by investing in a 20 year plan to support municipal needs. Funding will reach $1.3 billion annually by the end of the NDP’s first mandate.
~ Increase direct transfers to municipalities to build and repair roads, bridges, water infrastructure and transit.
With an additional $1.5 billion annually by the end of the NDP’s first mandate, municipalities and communities will be able to make needed investments in their infrastructure priorities to keep our communities moving.
~ Invest in national infrastructure priorities to grow the economy.
Our plan will invest in strategic infrastructure priorities like northern roads, bridges and ports to build strong regional economies. We will improve rail safety and infrastructure, and keep the toll off the Champlain Bridge to help commuters while facilitating trade. The NDP will continue support for federal infrastructure commitments under the New Building Canada Fund. We will expand eligibility to ensure that important recreation, cultural, tourist and ferry infrastructure projects are supported.

The NDP will work with, not against, provinces, territories, Indigenous governments and municipalities to make smart investments while rigorously respecting their jurisdiction. Our plan will simplify application processes by removing mandatory P3 requirements in order to speed up construction and reduce federal interference in local priorities.
By year four, the NDP’s plan will create 54,000 construction, manufacturing and transit operations jobs across the country and add $4.5 billion to Canada’s GDP.
Unlike Justin Trudeau’s reckless promise of years of deficits and future cuts, the NDP’s commitment increases investment sustainably each year to grow the economy while balancing the budget.

p.22-23: Transitioning to a Cleaner Future, a Greener Economy
Canada can no longer afford to stand on the sidelines when it comes to tackling catastrophic climate change and transitioning to a cleaner, greener economy.
After almost a decade of Conservative government, Canada’s international reputation has suffered as a result of the failure to diversify Canada’s economy and to transition to clean energy and technologies.
The vast majority of Canadians have clearly called for the federal government to take a leading role in the fight against climate change and in transitioning Canada to a cleaner economy, but Stephen Harper has refused.
The NDP understands that developing Canada’s clean energy sector will stimulate the economy, create jobs and reduce greenhouse gases.

In addition to the NDP’s Better Transit Plan and investing in local infrastructure such as community energy systems, the NDP will make strategic investments totaling $1.5 billion over four years to tackle climate change and adapt our communities, including:
~ Improving energy security, affordability and reducing pollution by investing $100 million in renewable energy development in northern and remote communities.
~ Supporting local sustainable development leaders by investing $150 million in our communities through the Green Municipal Fund.
~ Providing support for improved passenger rail infrastructure and restoring funds cut from regional rail services across Canada.
~ Reducing water pollution by investing $200 million in wastewater infrastructure in small communities.
~ Preventing damage from natural disasters by investing $400 million in flood mitigation measures and seismic upgrades for schools.
The NDP will also strengthen disaster relief financial assistance arrangements with provinces, and invest $9 million annually to develop emergency plans and provide equipment and training for first responders.
~ Making the federal government a leader in electric transportation and energy efficiency.
The NDP will create federal targets for the electrification of federal fleets and strengthen Canada’s green procurement policy to reduce long-term fuel and maintenance costs, including the installation of 150 electric vehicle charging stations on federal properties across Canada.

In addition, recognizing the leadership taken by provinces and efforts already underway, the NDP will work with provinces, territories, municipalities and Indigenous governments to:
~ Introduce Green Bonds so that Canadians can invest in a cleaner economy.
Green Bonds will provide low-risk financing of up to $4.5 billion for clean energy development, climate resilient infrastructure, commercial and industrial energy retrofits, and other sustainable development projects. Green Bonds will be independently invested and managed, while providing Canadians with a government-backed, reasonable rate of return.

Tom Mulcair knows that the right choice – the only responsible choice – is for Canada to commit to an approach based on sustainable development.
Not only is it the right thing to do, but it will also help ensure our long-term prosperity as a nation in a competitive global economy.
We must start working with the world and stop working against the planet.

p.49-50: Undoing Stephen Harper’s Environmental Damage
Under Stephen Harper, Canada’s climate record has lacked leadership and been criticized by the United Nations for falling behind many other countries.
For decades, Conservatives and Liberals have promised and failed to reduce Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions and even joined together to defeat Jack Layton’s Climate Change Accountability Act.
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and making polluters pay for the pollution they produce are part of the NDP’s plan to grow the economy while protecting the environment.
NDP climate change initiatives will be undertaken in collaboration with provinces, territories, municipalities and Indigenous governments. Federal carbon pricing revenues will be returned to the provinces so that they can be reinvested in greenhouse gas reduction efforts.

The NDP will:
~ Work with provinces and territories to develop a pan-Canadian cap-and-trade system that sets concrete emissions limits for Canada’s major polluters.
The NDP initiative will recognize efforts already underway in provinces like British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario and Quebec, and will allow jurisdictions to opt out if their own carbon pricing plans meet or exceed federal standards.
~ Reintroduce Jack Layton’s Climate Change Accountability Act to make certain that Canada meets its long-term target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Tom Mulcair’s record as Quebec’s Environment Minister means Canadians and the international community will be able to count on Canada’s NDP government to make polluters pay and do our part on climate change.

The NDP will also protect our natural environment for future generations and reverse Stephen Harper’s damaging changes to environmental protection laws by:
~ Affirming government’s strong role in environmental protection and assessment.
~ Ensuring and supporting public participation in decision-making.
~ Incorporating consideration of cumulative effects, regional assessments and greenhouse gas impacts for all major projects.

p.51: Parks and Water
We will protect our natural environment for future generations and reverse Stephen Harper’s damaging changes to environmental protection laws. The NDP will:
~ Move quickly to complete all proposed national parks and national wildlife areas, starting with Qausuittuq (NU). Others we will move on are Thaidene Nene (NWT), Mealy Mountains National Park Reserve (NL) and Edéhzhíe National Wildlife Area (NWT), and expanding the Rouge National Urban Park (ON).
~ Recommit Parks Canada to prioritizing their legal obligation to maintain or restore ecological integrity as the first priority for park management.
~ Update Parks Canada’s national park system plan to focus on expanding parks where needed to protect their ecological integrity, creating new parks to improve representation of natural regions, and improving ecological connectivity between national parks and other protected areas.
~ Review Environment Canada’s protected areas system, and develop a clear vision and plan for protecting more nationally significant wildlife habitat.
~ Review and update the National Conservation Plan to articulate a clear path towards achieving our Aichi 2020 targets, working with the provinces and territories, Indigenous communities and other stakeholders.

As a country, we need to do more to protect and preserve our oceans. The NDP will meet Canada’s 2020 target of 10% of our oceans protected. Canada has only protected 1.1% so far. We will set a 2017 target to formally dedicate those under existing consideration.
Formally protect the following areas under consideration:
~ Quebec: Îles-de-la-Madeleine, St. Lawrence Estuary, American Bank of the Gaspé Peninsula
~ Nova Scotia: St. Ann’s Bank
~ New Brunswick: Shediac Valley
~ British Columbia: Race Rocks, Hecate Strait/Queen Charlotte Sound Glass Sponge Reefs, Scott Islands Marine National Wildlife Area, Southern Strait of Georgia National Marine Conservation Area
~ Newfoundland and Labrador: Laurentian Channel
~ Northwest Territories: Anguniaqvia Niqiqyuam (Darnley Bay)
~ Nunavut: Tallurutiup Tariunga (Lancaster Sound) National Marine Conservation Area

p.59- : Fiscal Appendix: A Balanced Plan for Investment and Growth

cf Policy Book (PDF)


Canada Vol.15 (Manifesto 2015 of Green Party of Canada)

Here is Canada’s Green Party’s manifesto in October 2015. Excerpts are on our own.

VISION GREEN 2015 (PDF) | @CanadianGreens

p.9-10: The Green Economy
… A smart economy is one that is resilient. A smart economy is diversified, less vulnerable to global shifts. A smart economy enriches localized value chains, producing more goods and employing more Canadians. According to numerous studies, notably Michael E. Porter’s work at Harvard Business School, the more ambitious environmental standards and regulations are adopted, the more competitive and productive is your economy. …
… Unfortunately, employed Canadians are also among the most overworked citizens in the industrialized world. A report from the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA) states that the richest 10% of Canadians are the only ones not working longer hours. The report concludes that, despite being better educated and working harder, Canadian families are now “running faster just to stay put and the bottom half is actually falling behind.” …

p.13: 1.3 Reporting the well-being of the nation more accurately
By some accounts, the Canadian economy is performing quite well. But national prosperity is more than just the exchange of dollars. The gross domestic product (GDP) – our national bottom line – is a measure of money changing hands without regard to whether we are reducing social inequalities, advancing sustainability, or safeguarding our natural capital of primary resources such as wild fish populations, natural forests, and fertile soils. Oil spills and clean-up costs actually increase local GDP, as Kinder-Morgan’s submission to the National Energy Board boasted in an ill-conceived appeal to silver linings in the event of disaster. Most economists agree that GDP is a poor measure of economic well-being or quality of life, yet our government continues to use it as the basis for its most important taxation and policy decisions.
The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) is a new and innovative accounting method that embraces a more systematic and comprehensive definition of well-being. Literacy, health and fitness, housework, family time, public infrastructure, cultural institutions, community volunteerism, water and air quality, forests, farmland, wetlands, and employment are all measured by the GPI. Other countries, led by France following a ground-breaking study by Nobel award winners in economics Joseph Stiglitz and Amartya Sen, are working to broaden measurements of prosperity beyond the GDP. Canada needs to catch up.

p.15: 1.4 Fair taxes – fiscal reform
… However, the evidence is now in. Corporations have not used the extra cash to create jobs. They have not re-invested it in the Canadian economy. In the words of Mark Carney, former Governor of the Bank of Canada, the money that would have gone to pay for critical infrastructure, veterans’ benefits, and environmental research is “dead money.” It has not created jobs. It is sloshing around in the bank accounts of Canada’s biggest corporations. It is an astonishing $629 billion – 35% of Canada’s GDP. …

p.23-25: 1.12 Railways – re-establishing the national dream
Canada’s national rail systems are in decline. We are the only country in the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with no national transportation strategy. While Europeans have highly efficient inter-modal connectivity, with high speed rail linking downtown cores to airports, with bicycle lanes allowing people to move around cities safely, efficiently and pollution-free, with streetcars in the downtowns and even rural areas serviced by bus and rail, Canadian communities are increasingly stranded. Except for Vancouver, which has a downtown to airport rapid transit line built for the 2010 Olympics, and Toronto with a system currently under construction, nothing links our downtowns to airports other than a stretch of gridlocked traffic. Even along the Windsor-Quebec corridor, passenger rail is increasingly infrequent and outmoded. In much of Canada, rail routes that once moved thousands of people are abandoned. Edmonton to Calgary, Saskatoon to Regina, Halifax to Sydney have all been axed, despite their profitability. Even the tracks for freight between Truro and Cape Breton are being abandoned, and with them any hope of re-establishing passenger rail service.
Sir John A. Macdonald understood that to be a nation, to have a sense of shared identity and common purpose, Canada needed effective east-west links in communications, in energy delivery, and in transportation.
To renew this ‘national dream’ today requires a complete overhaul of our rail system for both passenger and freight. It will mean wherever possible shifting cargo containers off highways and onto freight trains, driving the development of freight distribution nodes (off-loading containers onto local trucks) along new ‘green corridors’. It will require a comprehensive plan for Alberta’s bitumen to increasingly process it in Alberta and stop over-burdening our rail system with rail cars loaded with bitumen for export.
The rail system changes will, over time, move to separate lines for passenger trains, particularly in well populated corridors. At the moment, freight owns the tracks and controls the traffic signals.
Passengers are at the mercy of freight. New high-speed commuter trains will almost halve the travel time between Toronto and Ottawa and Toronto and Montreal to about two and a half hours. With downtown-to-downtown service, the train will be faster than the plane, when security and other airport delays are factored in. Reducing air travel will reduce greenhouse gases and remove the needto expand airports or build new ones, including the Pickering airport near Toronto. Better rail service will take cars off the roads between major cities, reducing air pollution, congestion, and loss of life in traffic accidents. An improved rail system will make Canada more economically competitive and provide thousands of new jobs.

Green Party MPs will re-establish Canada’s National Dream and:
• Re-invest in our national rail systems, building more train cars in Canada, increasing train speeds and phasing in high speed rail where feasible, and creating green transportation and energy infrastructure corridors in key regions;
• Give VIA Rail a statute-based mandate, modeled on the U.S.-laws that govern Amtrak;
• Improve rail infrastructure and intermodal connections, increasing joint federal-municipal light rail investments, as well as improving VIA Rail service nationwide;
• Work with railway companies to improve rail infrastructure and to restore VIA rail service to all major regional cities;
• Create a national clean freight initiative, using both regulation and financial incentives to improve fleet efficiency and safety;
• Bring forward regulations for Positive Train Control systems for passenger and freight, ensuring safer transport;
• Support the trucking industry, reducing pollution through add-on generators to avoid the need to idle to maintain air conditioning and refrigeration, while ensuring the right fit of trucking in a more efficient, rail-based intermodal system.

p.25: 1.13 Green urban transportation
Urban sprawl means commuters crawl. More roads don’t solve the problem; they make it worse. Gridlock means more air pollution and more GHG emissions. A transition to efficient light rail transit and coordinated buses will take cars off our roads, breaking the cycle of an increasing number of cars on increasingly-crowded roads to make our cities more livable.
We must build our way out of the problem of clogged roads and smog-choked cities, not by building more roads and bridges and more distant suburbs, but by building ‘smart growth’ infrastructure. Excellent public transit and efficient housing in high-density nodes along existing transit corridors will make cities more livable and people-friendly. The federal government must take the lead in funding the ‘greening’ of Canada’s cities. (see Section 1.14  Infrastructure and Communities for more on federal-municipal relations.)

Green Party MPs will:
• Increase federal funding for pedestrian, cycle, and car-sharing infrastructure in towns and cities;
• Increase existing funding to stimulate a massive re-investment in public transportation infrastructure in all Canadian towns and cities to make it convenient, safe, comfortable, and affordable; …

p.26-27: 1.14 Infrastructure and communities
At Confederation, Canada was a predominantly rural country where fewer than one in ten people lived in cities. Our constitution set up a taxation system that greatly favoured the federal and provincial governments over municipal governments. The municipal order of government is not even mentioned in our Constitution, yet today eight in ten Canadians live in urban areas. …
Urban Canadians need their garbage collected, good transit services, safe roads, and dependable water supplies. They also want new investment in green urban infrastructure including recycling, mass transit, energy efficiency upgrades to buildings, water conservation, and community amenities like parks, sports fields, and arts, culture and community centres. Underlying this is an urgent need to replace aging sewer systems, roadways, and water pipes.
All of these are municipal responsibilities, but Canadian municipalities simply don’t have enough money to do it all. According to the Federation of Canadian Municipalities, 50% of Canadian tax revenue is spent on federal programs, 42% goes to the provinces and only 8% goes to municipal governments. Canada’s biggest fiscal imbalance is the imbalance between municipal governments and everyone else.
As Jane Jacobs pointed out in Dark Age Ahead, taxes are collected disproportionately at the wrong level. Most Canadians’ experience their government at the level where it collects their recycling, runs their buses, and provides their water. …
Green Party MPs will:
• Increase the Gas Tax Transfer to municipalities to five cents/litre to be used in funding the above sustainable transportation initiatives such as public transit, cycling and pedestrian infrastructure, and rural roads;
• Recognize that access to high-speed internet connections is now a critical aspect of infrastructure and work to expand access to address the ‘digital divide’;
• Make employer-provided transit passes tax-free by exempting them from taxable benefit status, thereby encouraging workers and businesses to use public transport, and make employee parking a taxable benefit;
• Change tax policy to create a new pool of long-term municipal infrastructure funding by allowing municipalities to issue new Municipal Registered Retirement Savings Plans Bonds which can be held in RRSPs and self-directed RRSPs;
• Fund ‘Green Cities’ initiatives, ensuring (through contractual agreements) that the funding is not used in ways that encourage urban sprawl, but instead to reduce sprawl and GHG emissions, conserve electricity and water, increase densification, expand convenient, safe, reliable and affordable public transit, and build cycling and walking paths.

p.30-32: 1.15 Agriculture and food
… Green Party MPs will develop a National Agricultural and Food Policy which will:
• Improve food safety and boosts nutritional health by:
o Amending the Canadian Food Inspection Agency mandate to remove any obligation to promote Canadian agri-business, ensuring the focus is on food safety and food safety only, with enhanced resources for inspection and monitoring;
o Eliminating conflict of interest by removing food and agri-business representatives from federal food policy advisory bodies;
o Acting to label sodium, sugar, and trans fats on food products;
o Regulating the amount of trans fats in our food supply;
o Removing tax deductibility from junk food advertising aimed at children;
o Placing a manufacturer’s levy on sugary drinks, earmarking the revenue to fund healthy living initiatives;
o Ensuring the quality and wholesomeness of food by strengthening the monitoring of pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, growth hormones, non-therapeutic antibiotics, and insecticides in food production, processing and storage, with the goal of an orderly reduction in detectable residues of these substances until they reach undetectable limits;
o Establishing federally funded, community-guided school lunch programs across Canada to ensure that our children have daily access to healthy local food and can learn about sustainable food production and healthy eating;
o Strengthening Plant Protection and Health of Animals Programs with measures to ensure the integrity of farm food products;
o Improving and strengthening the Canadian Organic Standard;
o Providing transitional assistance for those switching to certified organic farming practices;
o Ensuring that no animal by-products are used in ruminant animal feed;
o Strengthening testing for BSE by implementing 100% testing (testing of every slaughtered animal) as soon as the process of detecting BSE in blood samples is perfected.
(Note: please refer to Health promotion in section 4.7 for greater detail on health promotion aspects of some measures listed here.)

• Provide food security by:
o Moving towards regional food self-sufficiency across Canada, as we begin the shift to organic agriculture as the dominant model of production;
o Supporting the ‘200 kilometre diet’ and locally grown food through expansion of farmers’ markets and local culinary tourism activities;
o Promoting rooftop gardens, cultivation of green urban space for agriculture, food production in cities and suburbs, and community gardens;
o Protecting the right of farmers to save their own seed;
o Promoting heritage seed banks and seed exchange programs.

• Reduce corporate control of the food supply by:
o Reforming agriculture regulations to challenge corporate concentration;
o Ensuring that farm support payments are farm-based (not production-based) to encourage more farms and more farmers;
o Encouraging organic farming methods to improve farm profitability and sustainability.

• Support local food markets by:
o Enabling local areas without industrial-scale agriculture to develop area-specific food safety regulations meeting national standards without placing undue financial burdens on local farmers and food processors;
o Assisting in re-establishing the architecture of local food production in canneries, slaughterhouses, and other value-added food processing;
o Encouraging and supporting the consumption of locally-grown food by promoting adequate shelf space in grocery chains for products from local farms and local food processors.

• Improve agricultural research by:
o Ensuring that new plant cultivars and animal breeds remain in the public domain;
o Shifting government-supported research away from biotechnology and energy-intensive farming and towards organic food production;
o Increasing publicly-funded research into organic farming techniques;
o Establishing new policies for private research efforts to ensure that they are in the best interests of family farmers and consumers;
o Preventing the patenting of life forms;
o Ensuring that developers of genetically engineered crops are liable for any damage those crops cause.

• Ensure fair trade by:
o Prioritizing fair trade in agricultural exports and imports;
o Ensuring that supply management systems provide stable domestic markets, provide viable farm income and permit unregulated production by smaller and family farms that sell to local market;
o Reviewing the impacts of abolishing the Canadian Wheat Board and considering re-establishing it to ensure the fair trading of high quality Canadian grains;
o Eliminating the dumping of food into the economies of developing countries.

• Stop the loss of agricultural land to development by:
o Calling for negotiated agreements with the provinces to secure the preservation of the prime agricultural land in Canada;
o Reinstating the Canada Land Inventory program with adequate funding to update and keep current a comprehensive record of land capability and land use as a vital ongoing aid to local planning;
o Providing sufficient fiscal incentives to other levels of government, including municipalities, to preserve farmlands under their jurisdictions.

• Support environmental stewardship by:
o Protecting and improving the quality of water in our streams, lakes, and aquifers;
o Restoring the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Board and its conservation measures;
o Working with provinces to ensure that all livestock waste is recycled safely and contamination by agricultural run-off is avoided;
o Introducing cost-shared programs to help farmers protect wildlife habitat areas and marginal lands, maintain water quality in streams, lakes and aquifers, and retain and improve soil quality;
o Creating a national Environmental Farm Plan Program to provide new funding sources for implementation at the farm level.

• Assist farmers in climate change adaptation by:
o Encouraging farming methods that increase carbon sequestration and decrease water requirements;
o Establishing GHG emission targets for all components of the agri-food system, and collaborating with industry to meet targets;
o Restructuring Canada’s Business Risk Management Programs to help farmers cope with climate risk, especially in disaster assistance. …

p.35-36: 1.17 Fisheries
… Green Party MPs will work to:
• Sign and ratify the global treaty to ban bottom-trawling;
• Repeal changes to the federal Fisheries Act found in spring 2012’s omnibus budget bill C-38.

• Strengthen the Fisheries Act to:
1. Require evaluation of threats to fish stocks and include provisions to protect fish stocks and the marine environment;
2. Make protection of critical stocks and habitat mandatory;
3. Require that the management and conservation of wild fisheries take precedence over aquaculture, wherever there are conflicts;
4. Increase penalties for contravening the Fisheries Act;
5. Improve public participation in decision making, under the principles of the Oceans Act, in particular engaging coastal communities in local fisheries management.

• Restructure Fisheries and Oceans Canada into three separate branches: Management, Monitoring and Enforcement, and Research;
• Strengthen legislation that protects fish habitats and fish stocks from over-fishing and pollution;
• Implement measures to quickly phase out open-ocean net-cage fish farms and ensure that this aquaculture industry does not continue to harm wild fisheries;
• Give funding priority to small-scale projects to restore and enhance wild fish stocks, especially with Aboriginal peoples and traditional fishing communities using traditional technologies;
• Enforce sustainable harvesting technologies such as long lines, cod traps, or significantly modified mobile gear to reduce by-catch of untargeted and threatened species and monitor results to ensure the return of healthy stocks and stop the loss of biodiversity;
• Shift from interception fisheries management practices to selective terminal fisheries;
• Ban bottom-trawling in domestic waters and work internationally to institute a global ban;
• Appraise and support development of different kinds of fishing gear that make a profit, while minimizing by-catch and habitat impact;
• Support development of more sustainable ways of harvesting marine resources, including value-added processing, and developing environmentally-friendly biochemical and pharmaceutical products;
• Support Research and Development of ecotourism as a non-consumptive use of marine biodiversity;
• Provide funding and support to ecological research to discover what factors have enabled natural marine ecosystems to work so well in the past with the objective of restoring abundant stocks and rehabilitating degraded systems;
• Establish an Independent Review Commission made up of marine biologists, ecologists, and resource economists to investigate (with input from fishermen, fishing communities and indigenous peoples) the causes of the enormous decline in Canada’s fisheries resources, and recommend policies and programs to restore offshore and inshore fisheries;
• Repeal the Canada Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Act and the Canada Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Act and adjust regional agreements to give fisheries greater protection from petroleum exploration and development;
• Extend permanent bans on oil and gas exploration and development in ecologically-sensitive areas, particularly the coast of British Columbia and the Gulf of St. Lawrence;
• Encourage a greater role for fishermen and Aboriginal peoples in managing fisheries through co-management provisions in the Oceans Act;
• Ensure that lighthouses remain staffed to perform the essential safety and security work they perform;

• Work with provincial governments to eliminate aquaculture practices that damage the marine environment and threaten human health and seek:
1. A moratorium on new open-ocean net-pen salmon farms and a phase-out of existing farms within ten years;
2. In the meantime, the fallowing of sea pens during wild-hatch salmon runs. …

p.42-43: 1.20 Mining
… Green Party MPs will:
• Call for government action to require life-cycle product stewardship of metals to ensure that once mined they remain in economic service for generations;
• Actively encourage value-added upgrading and manufacturing, to create more jobs and other local economic benefits;
• Work with provinces and territories to ensure that First Nations, Metis and Inuit communities participate in a socially, environmentally and economically meaningful way in mineral development and mining in their traditional areas;
• Vigorously oppose the permitting of any new uranium mines and notify current uranium-permit holders of plans to phase out this industry in Canada, including exports;
• Prohibit the export of fissionable nuclear material;
• Develop plans to fast-track the end to asbestos mining in Canada and assist the Quebec government and industry in phasing out the chrysotile mining industry, providing transition support for affected workers, families and communities;
• Shift Canada’s position to support Prior Informed Consent rules under the Rotterdam Convention for asbestos;
• Push for full-cost accounting for mining and prospecting. Review the benefits of flow-through shares promoting prospecting and exploration in unlikely areas;
• Work with provinces, territories, and industry to ensure that all mining operations are insured for environmental liabilities, and have an adequate pre-funded plan for remediation, both for the short and long-term, when a mine closes, and ensure that waters are not contaminated during mining operations and after a mine closes; …

p.51-53: 2.1.3 Buildings
… Green Party MPs will:
• Develop a national energy retrofit standard designed for a post-carbon economy that will reduce energy use in existing buildings by an average of at least 80% below that of 2009 average structures;
• Develop timelines and targets for raising existing building stock to the new standard with the goal of retrofitting 100% of Canada’s buildings to a high level of energy efficiency by 2030;

• Promote the adoption of this high efficiency standard by:
1. Restore the EcoENERGY program and provide revolving federal loans for retrofits to homeowners, as well as create cooperative programs with other orders of government, aimed at retrofitting the majority of homes across Canada in the coming decade;
2. Dedicate $250 million/year for five years for a low-income retrofit grant program (propose 50% cost sharing with provinces aiming to retrofit 50,000 homes/year, assuming an average cost of $10,000/home);
3. Funding a nation-wide program to upgrade all low-income rental housing on a phased year-by-year basis to be completed by 2030, as Germany is doing;
4. Identifying the barriers to sustainable energy retrofits and eliminating them;
5. Providing refundable tax credits for all energy retrofit costs, based on before-and-after EnerGuide or infrared heat tests for residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional buildings;
6. Promoting tax-deductible Green Mortgages for homeowner energy retrofit costs;
7. Introducing a national program of energy retrofits to public sector buildings such as universities, schools, museums, and hospitals;
8. Establishing a 100% Accelerated Capital Cost Allowance for all businesses for energy retrofit costs;
9. Providing revolving federal loans for residential or business energy retrofits;
10.Instituting mandatory energy audits of buildings that become available for sale and requiring that the audit results be made available.

• Work with provinces and territories to develop and implement within two years, and update annually after that, a new national building code that:
1. Reduces overall energy demand to 15% of current conventional structures;
2. Minimizes the use of fossil fuel based heating and cooling systems;
3. Considers the embodied energy of construction materials;
4. Results in structures, where possible, that produce more energy than they consume;
5. Promotes structures that harvest, reuse, and purify their own water;
6. Is performance-based, opening the way to innovation and unlocking barriers to green design;
7. Require mandatory installation of solar hot water systems and pre-wiring for solar PV on all new buildings;
8. Provide grants of 50% of the cost of solar thermal roofs or walls including solar hot water, as in Sweden;
9. Promote Green Mortgage loans for the remainder of the cost. Establish free energy audits;
10. Provide GST credits for all materials used in buildings that are LEED® Silver or better.

p.54-55: 2.1.5 Renewable energy
… Green Party MPs will:
• Ensure Canada joins the International Renewable Energy Agency;
• Establish the design and management principles of a trans-Canada nationally integrated electrical power grid capable of efficiently transporting high electrical loads and accommodating many diverse sources of renewable electrical energy;
• Develop a transition plan that will transform the existing electrical distribution system into a high efficiency national grid;
• Work with Canada’s wind industry and the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CANWEA) to accelerate the rapid deployment of wind turbines to achieve 20% of Canada’s energy needs by 2025;
• Restore the Wind Power Production Incentive and incentives for projects with approved Advanced Renewable Tariffs that provide power purchase contracts for a diversity of small renewable energy projects;
• Provide a two cent/kWh subsidy for renewable energy produced in any province or territory adopting ART+ (Advanced Renewable Tariffs, net metering, peak power pricing, and plans for renewable grid extensions);
• Support local energy co-operatives forming in provinces or territories adopting ART+;
• Provide substantial Research and Development (R&D) funding for ocean energy technologies in provinces and territories adopting ART+;
• Provide substantial R&D funding for electricity storage technologies in provinces adopting ART+;
• Provide support for power grid extensions to bring wind and ocean power from remote areas in provinces and territories adopting ART+;
• Work with the solar industry to rapidly install 25 gigawatts (GW) of solar PV;
• Work with the solar industry to help them achieve their goal of installing over 5GWp by 2017;
• Work with renewable energy industries to introduce 12 GW MW of ocean energy and to set specific goals for production of biomass and micro hydro energy;
• Work with the geothermal energy industry and the oil industry (for their drilling expertise) in a well-funded R&D program to develop Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), drilling down to ten km to extract 25 GW of power;
• Develop co-generation and peak power production from methane obtained from the anaerobic digestion of organic waste;
• Develop peak power production from burning demonstrably sustainable agricultural and forest waste as necessary to meet peak power demands but within the constraints of maintaining soil nutrients.

p.57: 2.1.6 Transport
… Green Party MPs will:
• Work with the motor industry, provinces, territories, and other partners to develop a sustainable vehicles strategy, leading to an 85% reduction in emissions below today’s level by 2040;
• Adopt California standards requiring a 30% reduction in GHG emissions from new vehicles sold in Canada by 2020, 50% by 2025, and 90% by 2030. This will drive the manufacture of zero-emission vehicles and the infrastructure to support them. It will also create fuel efficiency standards in line with leading U.S. states for the 2011 model year;
• Kick-start a national fast-charging electric vehicle infrastructure by investing $12 million into travel corridor pilot projects around major urban centres;
• Provide tax incentives to electricity storage, to benefit renewable energy development in every province and territory and maximize the efficient use of existing infrastructure, specifically by amending Classes 43.1 and 43.2 of the Income Tax Act to specify that capital cost allowances apply to expenditures on tangible stand-alone electricity storage assets, regardless of the electricity source;
• Accelerate the market arrival of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and fully electric vehicles by signing the Plug-In Partners advanced purchasing agreement (creating a federal buying pool) with a commitment to buy large numbers of PHEVs for federal government use as soon as they are available. Carbon conditionality clauses in federal contracts will include a requirement for the purchase of plug-in vehicles as soon as they are more readily available;
• Work with all governments and businesses in Canada to join a Canadian green car buying pool and to join the Plug-In Partners buying pool;
• Offer scale-based rebates of up to $5,000 for the purchase of the most efficient vehicles, including electric vehicles, and scale-based fees on the purchase of inefficient vehicles;
• Require mandatory vehicle fuel efficiency labelling, adopting the European system;
• Allow tax write-off benefits only for energy efficient company cars;
• Provide incentives for Canadian manufacturers of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles;
• Establish a new authority to create a just transition fund for the automobile sector, funded by an additional fee on all sales of inefficient cars in Canada. …

p.61: 2.1.10 Fossil fuels
Green Party MPs will:
• Remove all subsidies and supports to the oil, coal, gas, and coalbed methane industries in Canada;
• Apply escalating Carbon Fee and Dividend to all CO2, methane, N2O, fugitive, and other GHG emissions;
• Apply a carbon fee to all producers of fossil fuels, redistributed as a dividend to every Canadian, as above;
• Work with provinces to ensure no new coal-fired electrical generation plants;
• Work with provinces to place a moratorium on horizontal fracking;
• Pass legislation to keep Canada’s west coast crude oil supertanker-free, ensuring both that a new West Coast oil bitumen-diluent port will not be built and that current bitumen-diluent tanker traffic in the Port of Vancouver be rapidly phased out;
• Work to establish a Federal Ministry of Energy Transition Plan to co-ordinate the transition from a fossil fuel based economy to one based on renewable energy;
• Work to establish a Strategic Petroleum and Natural Gas Reserve to address secure domestic petroleum supply in the event of shortages both short term and long-term, a Natural Gas Emergency Preparedness Plan that addresses potential natural gas supply shortages, and an Emergency Preparedness Plan to address other energy supply crises.

p.66-69: 3.2 Water protection and conservation
… We advocate a renewed federal government role in water management, focused on strong regulations and programs created in collaboration with provincial and municipal governments.
When it comes to our vision for freshwater, the Green message is clear: Keep it. Conserve it. Protect it.
• Keep it. Pressure is mounting to export freshwater south of the border, with trade agreements such as the North American Trade Agreement (NAFTA) leaving us susceptible to relinquishing control over our water. The Green Party supports current Federal Water Policy that emphatically opposes large-scale exports (bulk exports) of our freshwater.
• Conserve it. The federal government must work to ensure sustainable use of our water resources and at the same time maintain and improve access to safe water for all Canadians. This includes water metering and pricing that both reflect a fair value for water and foster efficient use, and regulations that protect and enhance water quality and ensure that Canada does not become a haven for water-wasting industrial technologies.
• Protect it. To protect and restore freshwater ecosystems and their ecological services (e.g. as habitats for fish and freshwater species, as domestic water supplies for energy-generation and recreation, as sources of water for irrigation and other economic uses) the federal government has to use its powers, including the Fisheries Act, and its role in inter-jurisdictional water sharing. This is especially important when considering the changes in quality and quantity of Canada’s freshwater that will occur due to climate change. The Great Lakes’ levels will fall, resulting in higher concentrations of toxic chemicals and other pollutants. B.C. rivers will become over-heated, preventing salmon spawning; and farmers will face increasing drought. The Athabasca River is already experiencing significant declines in flow and water quality due to climatic impacts and oil sands developments.
The federal government needs to ensure that watershed protection is the first priority of water protection and establish in-stream flow needs in every 1st and 2nd order stream in Canada. Ecological function of river basins must be protected through strict land use management in those river basins.

Green Party MPs will:
• Protect the fundamental right to clean freshwater for all Canadians today and in future generations by amending the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms to enshrine the right of future Canadians to an ecological heritage that includes breathable air and drinkable water;
• Establish a Canada Water Fund of $215 million per year for five years to focus on long-term watershed health, alleviating the problem of run-off of pollutants and nutrients, and to fund the continuation of the Great Lakes Water Quality Protocol;

• Push government to strategically implement the 1987 Federal Water Policy to meet the requirements of sustainable water management – equity, efficiency, and ecological integrity – by:
1. Passing federal legislation to prohibit bulk water exports, building on the current law banning exports from transboundary basins, and immediately remove water from the scope of the Canada-EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) currently being negotiated;
2. Take action to prevent radioactive waste shipments such as the highly radioactive worn out steam generators from nuclear reactors approved to be shipped out of the Owen Sound harbour, through the St. Lawrence Seaway and to Sweden;
3. Establishing regulations and product standards to promote water-efficient technologies in Canada;
4. Ensuring secure, safe water supplies for all citizens, with a focus on First Nations communities, through establishing regulations requiring protection of drinking water at its source, public inspection of domestic water supplies, and mandatory and regular drinking water testing;
5. Provide funding to municipalities through a new ‘Water and Waste Treatment Facilities Municipal Superfund’ (see Section 1.14 Infrastructure and Communities for more on federal-municipal relations) to enable replacement of chlorination systems with ozonation, ultraviolet sterilization, sand filtration, and other safe water purification systems;
6. Conduct an inventory of all polluted groundwater and water bodies. Develop and implement strategies for cleaning them;
7. Enhance the capacity of federal departments and agencies to protect and restore the health of aquatic ecosystems.

• Ensure that water is managed in a way that helps create healthy, sustainable communities and fosters sustainable livelihoods by demanding that government:
1. Replace federal guidelines for drinking water quality with binding national standards that secure clean drinking water and human health;
2. Make federal funding for urban water infrastructure contingent on water efficiency plans that include measurable and enforceable goals and objectives;
3. Provide adequate funding for local and regional flood protection and drought management planning;
4. Provide strategic climate change program funding for water conservation on the basis that water conservation results in energy savings and reduced GHG emissions;
5. Revive the InfraGuide program providing internships in leading-edge municipal infrastructure projects;
6. Shift subsidies and funding away from dams and diversions (including feasibility studies) toward comprehensive ‘ground to the glass’ drinking water protection strategies, especially source water protection, watershed restoration, and community-based water conservation and efficiency planning and programs;
7. Review federal agricultural subsidies and develop transitional strategies to shift production away from water-intensive crops toward less water-intensive local sustainable agriculture.

• Address inter-provincial/territorial and international water-related concerns by demanding that government:
1. Restore ecosystem health to Canada’s coastline and inland watersheds by funding improvements to municipal wastewater treatment systems, with particular emphasis on ensuring shoreline communities and industries stop dumping untreated waste into rivers, lakes, and oceans;
2. Ensure that binding water-sharing agreements among provincial, territorial and federal governments are created within the Mackenzie Basin (within one year). The agreements must reflect contemporary scientific knowledge and principles of social equity, efficiency and ecological integrity. Elements to include:
a. Capping withdrawals from the Athabasca River based on assessment of instream flow needs;
b. Ensuring oil sands developers deal responsibly with polluted waters in oil sands tailings storage ponds (the largest man-made structures on Earth);
c. Placing a moratorium on further oil sands development (i.e. increases in annual production).
3. Review the Prairie Provinces Water Board Master Agreement on Apportionment to ensure it is consistent with contemporary scientific knowledge and principles of social equity, efficiency, and ecological integrity;
4. Address invasive species in the Great Lakes by developing stringent, science-based protocols for ballast water flushing prior to entering the St. Lawrence waterway, and funding for monitoring and enforcement of these protocols;
5. Strengthen the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement to ensure it deals with emerging issues such as endocrine disrupters and pharmaceuticals.

• Support international momentum for the human right to water by establishing a national legally binding human right to basic water requirements for all Canadians (both quality and quantity);
• Increase Canadian aid for access to basic water requirements and sanitation consistent with the Millennium Development Goals;

• Fulfill the need to increase science capacity related to water issues by demanding the government:
1. Enhance funding for data collection and integrated information systems on water use, availability and quality;
2. Link research spending in the natural and social sciences to water policy goals to ensure our higher education institutions create the knowledge base needed for 21st century water management (e.g. emerging issues such as endocrine disrupters, pharmaceuticals and toxics, instream flows and sustainable groundwater yield, climate change adaptation).

p.183: 6.13 Quebec’s place in Canada
… Green Party MPs will:
• Ensure Quebec’s unique place within Canada is recognized and affirmed in all agreements between various levels of government;
• Respect Quebec’s right to opt out of social programs and be fully compensated by the federal government if it provides a reasonably similar program;
• Promote a form of federal-provincial tax-shifting that would gradually reduce the fiscal imbalance;
• Support Quebec’s official representation at UNESCO and ensure that if Quebec and the federal representative do not agree upon a matter then Canada would abstain;
• Rebalance the funding formula to ensure fairness across regions and provinces;
• Recognize the legitimate right of the people of Quebec to freely and democratically determine its full and undiminished sovereignty through a clear majority vote in Quebec on a clear question in favour of secession, provided it is politically and legally recognized by the international community.


Canada Vol.14 (Manifesto 2015 of Liberal Party of Canada)

Here is Canada’s current ruling party’s manifesto in October 2015. Excerpts are on our own.

Real CHANGE: A NEW PLAN FOR A STRONG MIDDLE CLASS [PDF] | @liberal_party

Chapter 1.  Growth for the Middle Class
~ Economic security for the middle class
~ Investing to strengthen the middle class
p.12: PUBLIC TRANSIT
We will invest in public transit to shorten commute times, cut air pollution, strengthen our communities, and grow our economy.
Canadian cities have been growing at a rapid rate, but investment in public transit has not kept pace.
Stephen Harper’s failure to invest has led to worsening traffic congestion, making it harder for families to spend time together. This gridlock also costs our economy billions of dollars in lost productivity each year.
We will get our communities moving again, by giving our provinces, territories, and municipalities the long-term, predictable federal funding they need to make transit plans a reality.
Over the next decade, we will quadruple federal investment in public transit, investing almost $20 billion more in transit infrastructure.

In communities all across Canada, transit projects are ready to go.
In British Columbia’s Lower Mainland, for example, plans are in place to:
• increase SeaBus service to every ten minutes during morning and afternoon rushes;
• extend rapid transit service along Broadway, currently the busiest bus corridor in North America; and
• bring light rail transit to Surrey, one of the fastest growing parts of the region.
We will work with provinces and municipalities across the country to get projects like these done.

p.13-14: GREENER COMMUNITIES
We will invest in sustainable infrastructure that makes our communities safer and more resilient.
Responsible governments do not walk away from challenges, or pretend they do not exist. We will protect our communities from the challenges of climate change and grow our economy by making significant new investments in green infrastructure.
This includes investments in local water and wastewater facilities; clean energy; climate resilient infrastructure, including flood mitigation systems; and infrastructure to protect against changing weather.
We will boost investment in green infrastructure by nearly $6 billion over the next four years, and almost $20 billion over ten years.
When it comes to infrastructure that will help keep Canadians safe and better prepared for emergencies, local leaders know what needs to be done. What they need is a federal partner willing to invest to help build stronger, more resilient communities.
In St. John’s, this means upgrades to its wastewater plant.
In Trois-Rivières, this means improving the Maples and Cardinal-Roy reservoirs, and finding ways to mitigate the regular flooding of the Millette, Bettez, and Lacerte rivers.
In Calgary and Southern Alberta, this means investments in flood mitigation projects, to help protect local families and businesses.

p.16: AGRICULTURE
We will help Canada’s agriculture sector be more innovative, safer, and stronger.
Canada’s farmers and ranchers are the foundation of our food sector. The work that they do to feed Canada and the world is vital, but government support is needed to help them with challenges ranging from transportation to water management to research and food safety.
To attract investment and create good jobs in food processing, we will invest $160 million, over four years, in an Agri-Food Value Added Investment Fund. This will provide technical and marketing assistance to help food processors develop new
value-added products that reflect changing tastes and market opportunities.
To support innovation in the agricultural sector, we will invest an additional $100 million, over four years, in agricultural research. To better allocate research funding, we will establish a transparent process that involves food producers.
We will invest an additional $80 million, over four years, in the Canadian Food Inspection Agency for more food safety inspections of domestic and imported foods.
We will continue to defend Canadian interests during trade negotiations, including supply management.
We will also work with provinces, territories, and other willing partners, to better address water and soil conservation and development issues, including investments in appropriate infrastructure.

~ Help that works for modern Canadian families
p.21-22: CANADA’S NORTH
We will invest in Canada’s North, to help northern Canadians with the high cost of living, and help our northern economies grow.
Canada’s North is a vast and beautiful part of the world, home to a rich culture and tremendous economic potential. Because of its isolation, however, it is also a very expensive place to live.
The Northern Residents Deduction was designed to help mitigate these higher costs, and help attract workers to the North. Unfortunately, the deduction amount has not kept pace with inflation, making its help less valuable to those who need it.
To help northern residents with higher costs of living, and to help our northern economies grow, we will increase the residency component of the deduction by 33 percent to a maximum of $22 per day. We will also index this benefit so that it keeps pace with inflation.
To ensure that northern families have access to affordable, healthy food, we will increase investments in the Nutrition North program by $40 million, over four years. We will also work with northern and remote communities to ensure that the program is more transparent, effective, and accountable to northerners and other Canadians.
As part of new, ten-year investments in social infrastructure and green infrastructure, we will prioritize investment in affordable housing and climate change preparedness, both of which are important to the quality of life for northern Canadians.

For residents in Canada’s Northern Zone, our enhanced Northern Residents Deduction will provide a new annual maximum deduction of $8,000 per year, from the $6,022 currently available.
Those living in the Intermediate Zone will see their annual maximum deduction rise to $4,000 from $3,011 per year.
In total, this enhanced deduction represents a $50 million annual tax savings for Northern Canadians.

Chapter 2.  Fair and Open Government
~ Open and transparent government
~ Open and fair elections
~ Giving Canadians a voice in Ottawa
~ Better service for Canadians
~ Evidence-based policy

Chapter 3.  A Clean Environment and a Strong Economy
p.40-41: CLEAN JOBS
We will make it easier and more financially rewarding for Canadian businesses to invest in creating clean jobs.
Clean technology can deliver real benefits for our environment and our economy, including more good, middle class jobs.
We will invest $100 million more each year in clean technology producers, so that they can tackle Canada’s most pressing environmental challenges, and create more opportunities for Canadian workers.
We will deliver more support to emerging clean tech manufacturing companies, making it easier for them to conduct research and bring new products to market.
We will also invest $200 million more each year to support innovation and the use of clean technologies in our natural resource sectors, including the forestry, fisheries, mining, energy, and agricultural sectors.
To support both large- and community-scale renewable energy projects, the new Canada Infrastructure Bank will issue Green Bonds to fund projects like electric vehicle charging stations and networks, transmission lines for renewable energy, building retrofits, and clean power storage.
We will enhance existing tax measures to generate more clean technology investments, and work with the provinces and territories to make Canada the world’s most competitive tax jurisdiction for investments in the research, development, and manufacturing of clean technology.
We will deliver a better quality of life for all Canadians by working with the provinces to set stronger air quality standards, monitor emissions, and provide incentives for investments that lead to cleaner air and healthier communities.
As the country’s single largest employer, customer, and landlord, we will lead by example and increase government use of clean technologies. This will boost domestic demand for clean technology, support entrepreneurs, and fuel new jobs.
We will improve energy efficiency standards for consumer and commercial products, and use new financing instruments to encourage investments in energy-saving retrofits to Canada’s industrial, commercial, and residential buildings.
We will provide more support for our clean technology companies to successfully export their products by training trade officials and leading trade missions focused on clean technology. These companies will also be provided with useful training, data, and technical assistance on export opportunities in a more coordinated way.
We will look for ways for government to be an “early adopter” of emerging green technologies, and will support clean transportation by adding electric vehicle charging stations at federal parking lots, and rapidly expanding the federal fleet of electric vehicles.
To foster the creativity that leads to cutting-edge research, we will establish Canada Research Chairs in sustainable technology.
We will also work closely with the provinces and territories to develop a Canadian Energy Strategy to protect Canada’s energy security; encourage energy conservation; and bring cleaner, renewable energy onto the electricity grid.

p.43-44: WATER
We will protect our freshwater and oceans.
Canada is uniquely blessed with an abundance of freshwater, and marine and coastal areas that are not only ecologically diverse, but also economically significant: our ocean-based industries contribute nearly $40 billion each year to the Canadian economy.
To protect these valuable natural resources, we will deliver more robust and credible environmental assessments for all projects that could impact our freshwater and oceans.

Freshwater
We will treat our freshwater as a precious resource that deserves protection and careful stewardship. We will work with other orders of government to protect Canada’s freshwater using education, geo-mapping, watershed protection, and investments in the best wastewater treatment technologies.
To protect our freshwater ecosystems, we will renew our commitment to protect the Great Lakes, the St. Lawrence River Basin, and the Lake Winnipeg Basin. We will also act on the recommendations of the Cohen Commission on restoring sockeye salmon stocks in the Fraser River.
To aid in making the best possible decisions, we will restore $1.5 million in annual federal funding for freshwater research – a program that was cut by the Conservatives – and make new investments in Canada’s world-leading IISD Experimental Lakes Area.

Oceans
Stephen Harper’s failure to meet our international commitments to protect marine and coastal areas puts these areas and our international reputation at risk.
We will make up for Conservative inaction and increase the amount of Canada’s marine and coastal areas that are protected – to five percent by 2017, and ten percent by 2020.
To help achieve this, we will invest $8 million per year in community consultation and science.

Chapter 4.  A Strong Canada
~ A renewed relationship with Indigenous Peoples
~ The future we owe our veterans
~ Keeping Canadians safe
~ Investing in our cultural and creative industries
~ Supporting strong communities

Chapter 5.  Security and Opportunity
~ Opening the door to prosperity
~ A more compassionate Canada

~ Expanding exports and opportunities for Canadians
p.66-67: THE UNITED STATES AND MEXICO
We will renew and repair our relationships with our North American partners.
For the past decade, Stephen Harper has led a government that is increasingly partisan, suspicious, and hostile when dealing with our closest neighbours: the United States and Mexico. We will end this antagonism and work with our partners to advance our shared interests.
As a first step, we will immediately lift the Mexican visa requirement that unfairly restricts travel to Canada, and commit to rescheduling and hosting a new trilateral leaders’ summit with the United States and Mexico.
We will work with the United States and Mexico to develop a continent-wide clean energy and environment agreement.
Because Canada relies on international trade to create jobs and grow our economy, we will work to reduce the barriers that limit trade. With a re-focused Building Canada Fund, we will promote a steadier flow of goods and business travellers by modernizing border infrastructure and streamlining cargo inspections.
To underscore the importance of the United States to Canada, we will also create a Cabinet committee to oversee and manage our relationship.

~ Renewing Canada’s place in the world and strengthening our security

Chapter 6.  Fiscal Plan and Costing
p.74-75: OUR FISCAL APPROARCH
… In 2019/20, we will:
• Reduce the federal debt-to-GDP ratio to 27 percent
• Balance the budget …

p.76-77: PLANNING FRAMEWORK
With the Liberal plan, the federal government will have a modest short-term deficit of less than $10 billion in each of the next two fiscal years – less than half the average Harper deficit of over $20 billion per year. After the next two fiscal years, the deficit will decline and our investment plan will return Canada to a balanced budget in 2019/20. Combining fiscal prudence with investments in economic growth, we will end the Harper legacy of chronic deficits and reduce Canada’s federal debt-to-GDP ratio each year.
The Conservatives and the NDP have based their planning framework on assumptions from the April 2015 budget, before it was understood that Canada was in a recession. Our plan is transparent and honest about the weakened fiscal position that the federal government is facing.
Our plan includes measures that, according to Department of Finance multiplier projections, will have positive impacts on economic growth, particularly infrastructure investment and measures for lower-income Canadians.
This new economic growth would in turn improve the fiscal position of the federal government. With our plan’s level of investment, this would translate into additional billions per year for the fiscal bottom line. While these improvements to the bottom line would be material, consistent with Department of Finance practices, we have not included them in our planning framework.


Canada Vol.13 (Nova Scotia Vol.2 – economy)