West Virginia Vol.1

#OTD: June 20, 1863     Celebrating West Virginia Statehood, June 20, 1863 | @USNatArchives    West Virginia Admitted as the 35th State in the Union | @librarycongress    West Virginia Day in the United States | @timeanddate    West Virginia enters the Union | @HISTORY    Mountaineers Always Freemen | @librarycongress    Celebrate West Virginia Day on June 20 (06/13/2012) | @prweb    West Virginia emerges as separate state, June 20, 1863 (06/20/2016) | @andrewjglass @politico    West Virginia – #35, June 20, 1863 (09/06/2012) | Order from Chaos

Economy    REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES: West Virginia Economic Outlook (PDF; 12/03/2012) | @jpmorgan @Chase

Local    West Virginia Counties | @wvgov    Charleston, West Virginia | @charlestoncity    Welcome to Huntington, an exceptional city! | @huntingtoncity    Annual Paving Projects | @Morgantown_WV

Both in size and population similar to Latvia.


Wisconsin Vol.2 (economy, OTD, Memorial Day & …)

#MemorialDay  Memorial Day 2017   @SDaysOfficial     @DeptVetAffairs   The Surprising History of Memorial Day (5/27/2016) | @Dreamsofmymoms    10 historical facts about Memorial Day (5/22/2015) | @AllisonSylte @USATODAY   Memorial Day (5/24/2009) | @BitzOfFitz ‏@TIME   Memorial Day | @HISTORY    The Real History of Memorial Day | @HistoryNet    History of Memorial Day (5/24/2017) | @RedoubtN    The Story of Memorial Day | @WisHistory

Wisconsin

(broken links…)

cf. Wisconsin Vol.1     Here are the facts on Wisconsin’s economy (5/11/2015) | Marc V. Levine (@UWM) @journalsentinel    U.S. and Wisconsin Economic Outlook 2015 (PDF; 2/4/2015) | Richard Mattoon @ChicagoFed    Understanding the Wisconsin Economy | Noah Williams @UWMadison     CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURE TO THE WISCONSIN ECONOMY (PDF; 2014) | Steven Deller @UW_AAE    Energizing Wisconsin’s Economy (PDF; 2015) | @BioForward   The Impact of Construction on the Wisconsin Economy (PDF; 2011) | C3 Statistical Solutions Inc     THE WISCONSIN GOLF ECONOMY (PDF; 8/2010) | @TheNGCOA     The Economic Contribution of Hospitals to Wisconsin (PDF; 6/2011) | Steven C. Deller @UW_AAE     The Economic Impact of Tourism in Wisconsin (PDF; 4/2013) | @OxfordEconomics     Wisconsin Economic Scorecard (PDF; 5/2012) | Center for Urban Initiatives & Research @UWM     Wisconsin Players in Key Positions for 2017 (PDF; 1/2017) | @wisbank     How Wisconsin’s Economy Benefits from International Trade & Investment (PDF; 1/2015) | @BizRoundtable     WISCONSIN MANUFACTURING IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY: ITS PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE (PDF; 10/2000) | Donald A. Nichols @UWMadison

Wisconsin


Indiana Vol.1

cf. Indiana | @HISTORY   @IndianaHistory   Indiana economy | @City_data_com   Indiana Economic Outlook (PDF; 4/16/2015) | Tom Jackson, Principal Economist @IHS   Rural Indiana (PDF; 8/2014) | Rural-Urban Entrepreneurship Development Institute   STATS Indiana | @IUibrc


Colorado Vol.1

cf. Visit @Colorado – Cities & Towns   Food & Agriculture | @ColoradoEcoDevo   @COBankersAssn    @C4HCO   Visit Denver (YouTube) | @visitdenver   Be Boulder. – Research and Work | @CUBoulder


Montana Vol.2

cf. BeefToSchool


Easter 2017

Here are articles on Easter. Excerpts are on our own.

The Economics Of Easter (4/12/2017) | Rutger Bloemenkarr @The_MarketMogul   … According to @NRFnews’s annual Easter Spending Survey, which surveyed 7411 American customers about their Easter Sunday plans at the beginning of March, the total amount that is expected to be spent in the US is $18.4bn in 2017, which is approximately $152 dollar a person. This is considered to be the highest amount in 14 years, up by about 6% compared to 2016. …consumers are expected to spend $5.8bn on food, $3.3bn on clothes, $2.9bn on gifts, $2.6bn on candy, $1.2bn on flowers, $1.1bn on decorations, and $788mn on greeting cards. … The majority of Americans, about 58% to precise, visit discount stores to purchase their gift of preference, while the remainder visit department stores (46%), local stores (26%), or online stores (27%). … Almost two out of three Americans (61%) will visit their family and/or friends for Easter, 57% will cook a holiday-oriented meal, a majority visit church (52%), and a small portion go to a restaurant (17%). Additionally, more than one-third of the consumers surveyed (35%) are expected to have a so-called Easter egg hunt. Lastly, 16%…  According to @smallbiztrends…

Easter in Canada | @dgreetings   … – Eggs are forbidden during Lent but after fasting they are consumed mixed with maple syrup. Also special Easter passion plays and songs are performed at the major theatres and community halls of the major cities of Canada.    – A typical Canadian Easter is characterized by its mouthwatering and sumptuous recipes of ‘Maple Baked Beans’, ‘Potatoes Nicoise’, ‘Cape Breton Scones’ and apple tart. Thus, Easter in Canada is an event worth enjoying for its wide festive activities.

The Easter Egg Hunt, the Economy and the New Game (6/4/2015) | @LearntSchool @HuffPostUK   … @charliehoehn,@FreeRangeHumans,@ajjuliani …

Britain to benefit from 1.8 per cent boost to economy this Easter:  BRITAIN’S economy will grow by 1.8 per cent this year according to upgraded forecasts from the EY ITEM Club, thanks to a recovery in global trade. (9/4/2017) | Geoff Ho @Daily_Express    Easter: Quarter of UK Christians do not believe in the resurrection of Jesus Christ, survey reveals (11/4/2017)     Irish business owners urged to be vigilant this Easter (13/4/2017) | Robert McHugh @BusinessWorldIE

Canberra’s experts divided over economics of Easter holidays (10/4/2017) | @DavidTuckwell3 @The_RiotACT   … According to @CBRBusiness, the territory’s top business lobby, the effect can be negative as public holidays mean penalty rates, and penalty rates mean unemployment. “Generally speaking, penalty rates on public holidays make businesses think staying open on a public holiday is just not viable,”… “Some businesses – particularly small businesses – look at their cost of operation compared to potential income and think it’s not commercially viable to open.” … “The problem with this entire penalty rates debate is the ‘fallacy of composition’,” says @MattGrudnoff, an economist at @TheAusInstitute, a left-leaning think tank based in Civic. … According to Professor Phil Lewis, an economist at @UniCanberra, there are both moral and economic considerations to keep in mind. “If you have a public holiday, employers who pay the award will be obliged to pay $45 an hour for a person on the lowest wage. …some businesses will stay open, especially family-owned businesses, as family members won’t demand penalty rate…

Retailers baffled by Easter trading laws (11/4/2017) | Matthew Theunissen @nzherald   … A recent law change gave local councils the authority to permit Easter Sunday trading and 25 mostly smaller councils have so far taken up the option. … Five councils have continued with the the ban while all major centres are yet to reach decisions. Shops which open in the restricted areas risk a prosecution and $1000 fine. … There are exemptions to the Easter trading laws, and some of them are quite unusual. Dunedin’s Carnegie Centre has an exemption to sell arts, crafts, children’s toys and books on Easter Sunday. “Toys and books sold only while performances happening on the mezzanine floor,”… In Nelson, crafts can be sold “whenever Founders Park is open”. @nelsoncitynz has been approached for clarification on whether this means any shop can sell crafts while the park is open, or only shops within the park. A clearer definition of “crafts” was also sought from the council. … Other exemptions include dairies, service stations, takeaways, bars, restaurants and cafes, duty-free stores and shops providing services rather than selling goods, such as a hairdresser. … The industry had fought hard to get the exemption and Odering could not understand why it didn’t include Friday, too. … Since 1992, Odering said the his business had paid in excess of $20,000 in fines, Department of Labour Fees and court costs because they had refused to shut shop over Easter. @RetailNZ spokesman… @MBIEgovtnz data shows that prosecutions for shops illegally opening over Easter steadily declined from 63 in 2006, to 34 in 2008, 28 in 2010, 25 in 2012, 0 in 2014 and 3 in 2016. …

Easter to bring a million foreign tourists to Netherlands (4/13/2017) | Janene Pieters   About 950 thousand foreign tourists will spend Easter weekend in the Netherlands, according to calculations by @NBTC. “It is expected to be very busy”, a spokesperson said to @NOS. “In comparison with last year, we expect 100 thousand more tourists.” Most foreign visitors come from Germany, about 600 thousand. And over 200 thousand Belgians are expected to visit this weekend. …increasing since 2009… Last year 15.8 million foreigners visited our country. This can partly be attributed to the recovering economy in Europe and America. And due to the weak euro, it is relatively cheap for non-euro countries to visit the Netherlands on holiday. The threat of terrorist attacks in European cities such as Paris and Brussels also…

Norwegian Easter Traditions   … In old times, people would climb mountains on Easter Sunday morn to watch the sunrise as they thought the sun danced with joy for the resurrection of Christ.  It is suggested that this could have started the Norwegian habit of ‘going up the mounatins’ at Easter time.  This day was also a day to predict the weather for the Summer.  If it was a good day then the Summer would be good too.  If there was frost the night before the Sunday then the Summer would come late.  For some reason, the Bunad is not worn during Easter. Easter Sunday breakfast is a grand affair.  Anything and everything is put on the table, cured meats and especially eggs – boiled, scrambled, fried, (and even fish eggs!), you name it.  The boiled eggs are often dyed or painted before eating.  Traditionally the Winter stores are low from the long Winter, so there is not much cooking or baking, especially compared to Christmas time.  However, egg dishes are in abundance, especially when there has been a lot of egg decorating with lots of leftover whites and yolks.  Pancakes are also a popular treat at Easter. … The Easter egg hunt is a common tradition around the world and in Norway children look for a brightly decorated paper eggshell filled with small lollies.  The eggs used to be real chicken eggs…

Easter | @denmarkdotdk   …most Danes regard Easter as a holiday. A national survey in 2000 showed that 48% of the Danes attached particular importance to the family spending time together during Easter and 37% regarded it as a holiday; only 10% mentioned ‘attending Church’ and ‘the Christian message’ as the main feature of Easter. … Many homes and shops are decorated for Easter in green and yellow, especially with new-leaved branches and daffodils. The main symbol of Easter is still the egg. The eggs used for decoration may be ordinary hen’s eggs which have been blown out and coloured or they may be imitation eggs or various kinds of sugar and chocolate eggs. Other decorations include small artificial hens and chickens and gradually also the Easter hare, which formerly was almost exclusively common in the areas by the German border. There is a unique Danish Easter tradition, viz. the custom of sending teaser letters. In the weeks before Easter especially children cut out elaborate letters, on which they write a so-called teaser verse. The letter is anonymous, but signed with a number of dots corresponding to the number of letters in the sender’s name, so that the recipient has a chance of guessing who sent it. The pledge is a chocolate Easter egg redeemed at Easter. The letter is accompanied by a snowdrop, which is regarded as the first flower of the year. …

Easter in Sweden (4/12/2017) | @Sweden_Belgrade   …most people celebrate it at home with their families and relatives. … Nowadays, eggs are a favourite accompaniment to the dish of pickled herring that is the centrepiece of most Swedes’ Easter meals. And few associate the omnipresent birch twigs − nowadays decorated with brightly coloured feathers − with the suffering of Christ. Easter has its own rituals. Children dress up as Easter witches; clad in discarded clothes, gaily coloured headscarves and red-painted cheeks, they go from house to house in the neighbourhood and present the occupants with paintings and drawings in the hope of getting sweets in return. Having consumed all these sweets, they are then given Easter eggs filled with yet more. … A traditional Easter lunch is likely to consist of different varieties of pickled herring, cured salmon and Jansson’s Temptation (potato, onion and pickled anchovies baked in cream). … At dinner, people eat roast lamb with potato gratin and asparagus, or some other suitable side dish.


South Carolina Vol.2

cf. Adults in South Carolina – Religious composition of adults in South Carolina | @pewresearch    Breaking the Baha’i code: An in-depth report on South Carolina’s second most common religion (2/12/2016) | @MandyNoell @wmbfnews    The Easter Miracle at Temple Beth El in Camden, South Carolina (7/25/2016) | Bill Fitzpatrick @SavingPlaces         Boeing machinists in South Carolina reject unionization (2/16/2017) | @CBSNews,@AP    Charleston Harbor deepening project to expand industry’s window to world market (1/29/2017) | @David_Wren_ @postandcourier


South Dakota Vol.1

cf. Midwest manufacturers growing, led by South Dakota and Minnesota (4/3/2017) | @cathy_roberts @StarTribune   Applied Engineering Upgrades Yankton, South Dakota, Manufacturing Plant (3/16/2017) | @AreaDevelopment (@SDGOED @yankton_ecodev)


North Dakota Vol.1

TOP TEN APRIL FOOL’S DAY JOKES WE WERE GOING TO PLAY ON YOU… | @FARGO_MARATHON

cf.


Alabama Vol.1


North Carolina Vol.3


Mississippi Vol.1


US Policy Changes Vol.64 (Employment/Economy Vol.8 – Middle class, Income, Inequality…)

Here is an article on middle class, income, inequality, et al. Excerpt is on our own.

The Secret Shame of Middle-Class Americans: Nearly half of Americans would have trouble finding $400 to pay for an emergency. I’m one of them. (May 2016) | Neal Gabler @SUNY @TheAtlantic
…“monitor the financial and economic status of American consumers.”…49 percent of part-time workers would prefer to work more hours at their current wage; 29 percent of Americans expect to earn a higher income in the coming year; 43 percent of homeowners who have owned their home for at least a year believe its value has increased. … The Fed asked respondents how they would pay for a $400 emergency. The answer: 47 percent of respondents said that either they would cover the expense by borrowing or selling something, or they would not be able to come up with the $400 at all. …
…“financial impotence,”… “You are more likely to hear from your buddy that he is on Viagra than that he has credit-card problems,” says @DrBradKlontz @CreightonBiz… “Much more likely.” America is a country, as Donald Trump has reminded us, of winners and losers, alphas and weaklings. To struggle financially is a source of shame, a daily humiliation—even a form of social suicide. Silence is the only protection.
…economists… had unemployment statistics and income differentials and data on net worth, but none of these captured what was happening in households trying to make a go of it week to week, paycheck to paycheck, expense to expense. David Johnson @umisr, says, “People studied savings and debt. But this concept that people aren’t making ends meet or the idea that if there was a shock, they wouldn’t have the money to pay, that’s definitely a new area of research”—one that’s taken off since the Great Recession. …economists have long theorized that people smooth their consumption over their lifetime, offsetting bad years with good ones—borrowing in the bad, saving in the good. But recent research indicates that when people get some money — a bonus, a tax refund, a small inheritance — they are, in fact, more likely to spend it than to save it. … So if you really want to know why there is such deep economic discontent in America today, even when many indicators say the country is heading in the right direction, ask a member of that 47 percent.
…financial fragility, financial insecurity, financial distress… …the evidence strongly indicates that either a sizable minority or a slim majority of Americans are on thin ice financially. … A 2014 @Bankrate survey… only 38 percent of Americans would cover a $1,000 emergency-room visit or $500 car repair with money they’d saved. Two reports @pewtrusts… that 55 percent of households didn’t have enough liquid savings to replace a month’s worth of lost income, and that of the 56 percent of people who said they’d worried about their finances in the previous year, 71 percent were concerned about having enough money to cover everyday expenses. …@A_Lusardi @GWtweets, Peter Tufano @OxfordSBS, and Daniel Schneider @UCBerkeley asked individuals whether they could “come up with” $2,000 within 30 days for an unanticipated expense. …slightly more than one-quarter could not, and another 19 percent could do so only if they pawned possessions or took out payday loans. The conclusion: Nearly half of American adults are “financially fragile” and “living very close to the financial edge.” Yet another analysis…Jacob Hacker @Yale measured the number of households that had lost a quarter or more of their “available income” in a given year—income minus medical expenses and interest on debt—and found that in each year from 2001 to 2012, at least one in five had suffered such a loss and couldn’t compensate by digging into savings.
…Edward Wolff @NYUCAS…: There isn’t much net worth to draw on. Median net worth has declined steeply in the past generation—down 85.3 percent from 1983 to 2013 for the bottom income quintile, down 63.5 percent for the second-lowest quintile, and down 25.8 percent for the third, or middle, quintile. …@RussellSageFdn, the inflation-adjusted net worth of the typical household, one at the median point of wealth distribution, was $87,992 in 2003. By 2013, it had declined to $54,500, a 38 percent drop. And…the decline for the lower quintiles began long before the recession—as early as the mid-1980s…
…in 2013, prime-working-age families in the bottom two income quintiles had no net worth at all and thus nothing to spend. A family in the middle quintile, with an average income of roughly $50,000, could continue its spending for … six days. Even in the second-highest quintile, a family could maintain its normal consumption for only 5.3 months. Granted, those numbers do not include home equity. …“it’s much harder now to get a second mortgage or a home-equity loan or to refinance.” So remove that home equity, which in any case plummeted during the Great Recession…
…nearly one-quarter of households making $100,000 to $150,000 a year claim not to be able to raise $2,000 in a month. … According to an analysis of Federal Reserve and TransUnion data by the personal-finance site ValuePenguin, credit-card debt stood at about $5,700 per household in 2015. … About 38 percent of households carried some debt, according to the analysis, and among those, the average was more than $15,000. …
… William R. Emmons, an assistant vice president and economist for the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, traces the surge to a 1978 Supreme Court decision, Marquette National Bank of Minneapolis v. First of Omaha Service Corp. The Court ruled that state usury laws, which put limits on credit-card interest, did not apply to nationally chartered banks doing business in those states. That effectively let big national banks issue credit cards everywhere at whatever interest rates they wanted to charge, and it gave the banks a huge incentive to target vulnerable consumers just the way, Emmons believes, vulnerable homeowners were targeted by subprime-mortgage lenders years later. …
… As Bruce McClary, the vice president of communications for the National Foundation for Credit Counseling, says, “During the initial phase of the Great Recession, there was a spike in credit use because people were using credit in place of emergency savings. … The personal savings rate peaked at 13.3 percent in 1971 before falling to 2.6 percent in 2005. As of last year, the figure stood at 5.1 percent, and according to McClary, nearly 30 percent of American adults don’t save any of their income for retirement. …
… Annamaria Lusardi and her colleagues found that, in general, the more sophisticated a country’s credit and financial markets, the worse the problem of financial insecurity for its citizens. …as the financial world has grown more complex, our knowledge of finances has not kept pace. …65 percent of Americans ages 25 to 65 were financial illiterates.
… Though household incomes rose dramatically from 1967 to 2014 for the top quintile, and more dramatically still for the top 5 percent, incomes in the bottom three quintiles rose much more gradually: only 23.2 percent for the middle quintile, 13.1 percent for the second-lowest quintile, and 17.8 percent for the bottom quintile. … The peak years for income in the bottom three quintiles were 1999 and 2000; incomes have declined overall since then—down 6.9 percent for the middle quintile, 10.8 percent for the second-lowest quintile, and 17.1 percent for the lowest quintile. …
In a 2010 report titled “Middle Class in America,” the U.S. Commerce Department defined that class less by its position on the economic scale than by its aspirations: homeownership, a car for each adult, health security, a college education for each child, retirement security, and a family vacation each year. … A 2014 analysis by USA Today concluded that the American dream, defined by factors that generally corresponded to the Commerce Department’s middle-class benchmarks, would require an income of just more than $130,000 a year for an average family of four. Median family income in 2014 was roughly half that.
… In a survey of American finances published last year by Pew, 60 percent of respondents said they had suffered some sort of “economic shock” in the past 12 months—a drop in income, a hospital visit, the loss of a spouse, a major repair. More than half struggled to make ends meet after their most expensive economic emergency. Even 34 percent of the respondents who made more than $100,000 a year said they felt strain as a result of an economic shock. …
… The American Psychological Association… The 2014 survey—in which 54 percent of Americans said they had just enough or not enough money each month to meet their expenses—found money to be the country’s No. 1 stressor. Seventy-two percent of adults reported feeling stressed about money at least some of the time, and nearly a quarter rated their stress “extreme.” … Thirty-two percent of the survey respondents said they couldn’t afford to live a healthy lifestyle, and 21 percent said they were so financially strapped that they had forgone a doctor’s visit, or considered doing so…
… “Financial insecurity is associated with depression, anxiety, and a loss of personal control that leads to marital difficulties,” says Brad Klontz, the financial psychologist. …
… A 2014 New York Times poll found that only 64 percent of Americans said they believed in the American dream—the lowest figure in nearly two decades. … As the Harvard economist Benjamin M. Friedman wrote in his 2005 book, The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, “Merely being rich is no bar to a society’s retreat into rigidity and intolerance once enough of its citizens lose the sense that they are getting ahead.”
… In a 2014 Pew survey revealing that 55 percent of Americans spend as much as they make each month, or more, nearly the exact same percentage say they have favorable financial circumstances, which may just mean some of them are too frightened to admit they don’t. …
…A pre-recession survey by the Consumer Federation of America and the Financial Planning Association found that 21 percent of Americans felt the “most practical” way for them to get several hundred thousand dollars was to win the lottery…


Maine Vol.5

Today in History – March 15 : The Pine Tree State | @librarycongress    THIS DAY IN HISTORY : 1820 – Maine enters the Union | @HISTORY


Arkansas Vol.1


Utah Vol.2

cf. Utah Vol.1


New Hampshire Vol.1


Maryland Vol.1


Idaho Vol.2


Rhode Island Vol.2


Missouri Vol.2


Kentucky Vol.2

(The above pages of the Center for Business and Economic Research, the Gatton College of Business and Economics, cannot be found now.)


Wyoming Vol.1


Vermont Vol.2

On March 4, 1791, Vermont became the 14th state.


Iowa Vol.1


Nevada Vol.1


Ohio Vol.2


Nebraska Vol.2


Pennsylvania Vol.1


Louisiana Vol.2

cf. Low Energy Prices to sap Louisiana Economic Growth | Murphy Appraisal Services