Germany Vol.6 (Grand Coalition 2018 #GroKo, et al.)

Germany: Merkel’s next cabinet shows youth trend (11/03/2018) | @dwnews
Chancellor: Angela Merkel (CDU)
Chief of Staff at the Chancellery: Helge Braun (CDU)
Minister of the Interior, Heimat and Construction: Horst Seehofer (CSU)
The fight for the Foreign Ministry: Heiko Maas (SPD)
Finance Minister: Olaf Scholz (SPD)
Minister of Defense: Ursula von der Leyen (CDU)
Economic and Energy Affairs Minister: Peter Altmaier (CDU)
Minister of Justice and Consumer Protection: Katarina Barley (SPD)
Minister of Labor and Social Affairs: Hubertus Heil (SPD)
Minister for the Environment: Svenja Schulze (SPD)
Minister for Health: Jens Spahn (CDU)
Minister of Education and Research: Anja Karliczek (CDU)
Minister for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth: Franziska Giffey (SPD-Mayor Berlin-Neukolln)
Minister of Economic Cooperation and Development: Gerd Muller (CSU)
Minister of Transport and Digital Infrastructure: Andreas Scheuer (CSU)
Minister for Food and Agriculture: Julia Klockner (CDU)
@cducsubt @CDU @CSU
German Elections: Mapping Economic Policy Preferences (09/14/2017) | Caspar Kolster @gmfus
Germany: A New Government Is off to a Weak Start (03/14/2018) | @stratfor
Coalition watch – The making of a new German government (14/03/2018) | Soren Amelang, Kerstine Appunn, Sven Egenter, Benjamin Wehrmann, Julian Wettengel CLEW
Angela Merkel sworn in for fourth term as German Chancellor (03/14/2018) | Judith Vonberg @CNN
Angela Merkel re-elected as German chancellor to fourth term after five months of political deadlock (14/03/2018) | @tomemburyd @independent
The SPD just won the Frankfurt mayoralty in a landslide. So why are Germany’s cities going red? (03/15/2018) | Stephen Jorgenson-Murray @CityMetric
Merkel secures fourth term in power after SPD backs coalition deal (04/03/2018) | Philip Oltermann @guardian
The last thing Germany – and Europe – needs is a grand coalition (23/02/2018) | Timothy Garton Ash @guardian
German coalition talks to continue on Monday and focus on health and labor (02/04/2018) | Michelle Martin & Andreas Rinke @reuters

Austria Vol.2 (Legislative Election & Coalition 2017)

Factbox: Key figures in Austria’s new coalition government (16/12/2017) | @reuters
Coalition @TheLocalAustria
Austria holds watershed election marked by migrant crisis (15/10/2017) | @BBC
Republic of Austria (UN, World Bank)
Capital: Vienna
Population: 8.7 million
Area: 83,871 sq km (32,383 sq miles)
Major language: German
Major religion: Christianity
Life expectancy: 80 years (men), 84 years (women)
Currency: euro
Austrian far-right joins coalition led by PM Sebastian Kurz (16/12/2017) | @BBC
Sebastian Kurz gets approval for coalition with Austrian far right: Freedom Party returns to power after 12 years. (12/16/2017) | NICHOLAS VINOCUR @POLITICOEurope
New coalition government shifts Austria to the right: Anti-immigration Freedom Party will take control of much of country’s security apparatus (12/16/2017) | @reuters @CBC
Austria’s new coalition government rules out EU referendum (12/16/2017) | @AFP @DailySabah
Austrian populist coalition deal a warning sign for other EU states (12/17/2017) | Derek Scally @IrishTimes
Austria’s new coalition gets started (PDF; 12/18/2017) | @ING_news
Why Austria’s Anti-Immigrant Experiment Is Worth Watching: The new ruling coalition has set out draconian immigration controls that every populist party dreams of implementing. (12/18/2017) | Leonid Bershidsky @bpolitics
Austria’s Coalition Government Includes Party Linked To Ex-Nazis (12/18/2017) | SORAYA SARHADDI NELSON @NPR
Austrian far-right party strikes coalition deal, enters government (12/18/2017) | SHADIA NASRALLA & FRANCOIS MURPHY @globeandmail
Theresa May congratulates new Austria leader amid huge protest over coalition (12/18/2017) | @AOLNews
Austrian Coalition Puts Europe’s Human Rights Values to the Test: Coalition Has Worrying Policies on Immigration, Asylum, and ‘Political Islam’ (12/20/2017) | Kartik Raj @hrw
The Far Right Is Now in Power in Austria: The new governing coalition includes the Freedom Party, which has deep roots in the country’s Nazi past. (12/29/2017) | Jordan Stancil @thenation
The Austrian Anti-Social Coalition (12/31/2017) | Joachim Becker @LeftEast1
A Populist Victory in Austria: The Freedom Party Enters Government (12/28?2017) | Reinhard Heinisch @ForeignAffairs

@pollofpolls_EU for Austria
How to watch the Austrian election like a pro: @POLITICO’s guide to keeping on top of all the Austrian action as the far-right FPO looks set to enter government. (10/14/2017) | EMMA ANDERSON & JUDITH MISCHKE
Austria’s Snap Election and the End of the Grand Coalition (10/14/2017) | Lindsay Mackenzie @QuilletteM
Results of Austrian Parliamentary Election 2017 (10/15/2017) | @AUSTRIANUSA
Austria election results: Far-right set to enter government as conservatives top poll: Austria seems to have elected its youngest ever head of government (15/10/2017) | Jon Stone, Samuel Osborne @Independent
Austrian election results: Conservative Sebastian Kurz on course to become Europe’s youngest leader (10/15/2017) | Justin Huggler & Balazs Cseko @Telegraph
AS IT HAPPENED: ‘Whizz-kid’ Kurz’s OVP clearly wins Austrian election, as voters turn right (15/10/2017) | @thelocalaustria
Austria moves to right as anti-immigration star seals election win: Kurz claims credit for closing Balkan migrant trail in 2016 that saw hundreds of thousands of migrants trek into Western Europe (15/10/2017) | @MiddleEastEye
Austria Election: Center-Right Party Head Likely Next Prime Minister (10/15/2017) | SORAYA SARHADDI NELSON @NPR
Young party leader declares victory in Austria election, meaning a turn to the right (10/15/2017) | Maximilian Mayerhofer & Aamer Madhani @USAToday
Austrian Vote Paves Way for Nationalist Party to Enter Government (10/15/2017) | Boris Groendahl & Jonathan Tirone @bpolitics
Austria election: Europe reacts to Sebastian Kurz victory – German Chancellor Angela Merkel said she was hoping for close cooperation in Europe with Sebastian Kurz, who led his conservative party to election victory in Austria. DW has reaction from Berlin and beyond. (16/10/2017) | @dwnews
Meet the 31-year-old conservative poised to become Austria’s new chancellor: Sebastian Kurz reshaped a traditional political party to drive the Austrian elections. (10/16/2017) | Sarah Wildman @vox
Austria election RESULTS: Eurosceptic Sebastian Kurz declares VICTORY in nightmare for EU (16/10/2017) | REBECCA PERRING & ALIX CULBERTSON @Daily_Express
Austria’s election: Four things to know about the result (16/10/2017) | Manes Weisskircher & Matthew E. Bergman @LSEEUROPP
The Guardian view on the Austrian elections: an old threat in a new guise (16/10/2017) | @guardian
Why Austria’s Election Should Worry Liberals (10/16/2017) | Jonah Shepp @nymag
EU holds breath after Austrian vote (10/16/2017) | Georgi Gotev @euractiv
World’s youngest leader: Sebastian Kurz, 31, declares victory in Austria election (16/10/2017) | Shadia Nasralla & Kirsti Knolle @smh
Orban, Szijjarto applaud right-wing victory in Austrian parliamentary election (10/16/2017) | Justin Spike @BudapestBeacon
The Austrian elections should terrify Europeans (10/17/2017) | Paul Hockenos @CNN
Austria’s march to the right got a boost from fake Facebook content (10/17/2017) | Hanna Kozlowska @qz
How the Result of the Austrian Election Will Affect My Life as a Refugee: The Freedom Party’s motto is “Austrians deserve fairness,” but its notion of fairness doesn’t extend to people like me. (10/19/2017) | Zakarya Ibrahem @vicenews
Austrian election proves right-wing populism is new normal in Europe (10/22/2017) | ANNA GRZYMALA BUSSE @TheHill
Austria and Czech elections will change Visegrad dynamics (24/10/2017) | WOJCIECH PRZYBYLSKI @euobs
The Austrian election showed populists yet another path to power (25/10/2017) | MARTIN EIERMANN @NewStatesman
The Battle for Austria’s Right Is a Harbinger for the Rest of Europe: In Vienna, the center-right and populist right are vying for power. All of Europe is watching. (11/01/2017) | PETER ROUGH @ForeignPolicy
Austria’s Prospective Ruling Parties Agree on Budget Discipline, Cutbacks for Migrants (11/03/2017) | @reuters @VOANews
The Meteoric Rise of Sebastian Kurz: Austrian Foreign Minister Sebastian Kurz could become his country’s next chancellor on Sunday. The politician is conservative and vain, but also adroit. What would the 31-year-old’s election mean for the country? (13/10/2017) | Walter Mayr @Spiegel
Now it’s Austria’s Turn (11/10/2017) | FABIO WOLKENSTEIN @myfairobserver
A few thoughts on the Austrian election: Why the rightwing Freedom party is so successfull and what the likely outcome will mean for Austria and Europe. (10/13/2017) | Felix Simon @medium
Austria’s snap election: Everything you need to know: With a young front runner and an anti-immigration party gaining traction, the election could send shockwaves through Europe. (15/10/2017) | Ceren Senkul @SkyNews
ElectionGuide – Republic of Austria | IFES
Elections in Austria | @OSCE
Austrian parliamentary election (10/15/2017) | @reuters
Austrian president to insist on pro-EU government after election (09/12/2017) | @reuters @businessinsider
How the Populist Right Is Redrawing the Map of Europe (12/11/2017) | Andre Tartar @bpolitics

Austria Vol.1 (Miscellaneous incl Presidential Election 2016)

Austrian Presidential Election Map 2016

The Borsen-Kurier of Vienna about Free Territory and Free Port of Trieste | @TriesteLibera

Italy (General Election 2018)

Italian elections 2018 – full results: Italy yesterday went to the polls to choose over 900 members of its two houses of parliament. Former prime minsters Silvio Berlusconi and Matteo Renzi were the big losers as voters opted for anti-establishment parties (05/03/2018) | @guardian
Italy election: Populist Five Star and League vie for power (05/03/2018) | @BBC
How to watch the Italian election like a pro (03/05/2018) | EMMA ANDERSON & JACOPO BARIGAZZI @POLITICOEurope
The incredibly complex Italian election is today ? here’s a simplified version of what you need to know (03/04/2018) | Will Martin @businessinsider
The Impossibility of Italian Politics (03/07/2018) | JOHN LLOYD @aminterest
Italy election to result in hung parliament: Former PM Matteo Renzi will reportedly resign as head of the ruling center-left Democratic Party after a crushing election defeat. Silvio Berlusconi’s right-wing coalition took the lead but may face a hung parliament. (05/03/2018) | @dw_politics
Italy headed for hung parliament as anti-establishment 5-Star Movement projected top vote-getter: According to early projections, none of Italy’s 3 main blocs or groups can govern alone (03/04/2018) | @reuters @CBC
Italy election: what we know so far about who could form a government (03/06/2018) | Daniele Albertazzi @ConversationUK
Let the Populists Try to Govern Italy: An anti-establishment government would finally put the League and the Five Star Movement to the test. (03/09/2018) | Ferdinando Giugliano @bpolitics
After Italy’s Election, 2 Rival Populist Parties Claim Right To Lead Next Government (03/05/2018) | Sylvia Poggioli @nprpolitics
Victory for Eurosceptic, populist parties shocks the establishment in Italy election (03/05/2018) | Nick Squires & Peter Foster @Telegraph
Italy elections deliver stalemate, Silvio Berlusconi and maverick Five Star advance (03/05/2018) | @reuters @ABCnews
Italian general election ? when are the results out? (03/04/2018) | Sara Sjolin @MarketWatch
Italy’s Election Is A Blow To European Unity And A Boost For The Far Right: Anti-establishment and anti-immigrant parties made serious gains, throwing the country into political uncertainty. (03/05/2018) | Nick Robins-Early @HuffPostPol
Italy election: Populist parties claim right to govern after poll stalemate – A right-wing coalition is set to win the most votes overall, with the populist 5-Star Movement the biggest single party. (03/05/2018) | @SkyNews
Italy election: Italy goes to the polls: ITALIAN voters have delivered a hung parliament, meaning none of the country’s three main blocs or groups can rule alone, after a topless protester left Silvio Berlusconi with a clear message. (03/05/2018) | @AP @newscomauHQ
Riding wave of anger over jobs and immigration, Italian voters line up behind populist parties (03/05/2018) | Tom Kington @latimes
Italy election: Exit poll gives edge to center-right coalition (03/04/2018) | John Bacon @USATODAY
Italy’s election should be a wake up call for the EU: The EU can turn the victory of the populist Five Star Movement into an opportunity for dialogue and transformation. (03/08/2018) | Silvia Mazzini @AlJazeera
Italy election: What was the result and what is the Five Star Movement?: Nation faces political standstill after voters deliver hung parliament as support for anti-establishment party soars (06/03/2018) | Samuel Osborne @Independent
Election projections point to euroskeptic shift in Italy (03/04/2018) | FRANCES D’EMILIO & COLLEEN BARRY @AP @ABC
What the Italian election can tell us about the United States: Elections are the first step. What we care about is who is in and who is out of the government. (03/02/2018) | Hans Noel @vox
Italy heads to polls in election overshadowed by populism: Italians began voting on Sunday in one of the country’s most uncertain elections ever, with far-right and populist parties expected to make major gains and Silvio Berlusconi set to play a leading role. (03/04/2018) | @France24_en
Revolution at the polls: How Italy made Steve Bannon’s “ultimate dream” come true (03/06/2018) | Annalisa Merelli @qz
How Italy’s New Electoral System Works (03/02/2018) | Marco Bertacche @bpolitics
Italy election 2018: A simple guide to the vote (03/01/2018) | Holly Ellyatt @CNBC
Italy election 2018: Untried voting system could return victory for Berlusconi’s right-wing coalition: But pollsters admit anything could happen (09/02/2018) | Gavin Jones @Independent
How does Italy’s new electoral law actually work? (15/01/2018) | Catherine Edwards @TheLocalItaly

Italian election leaves science out in the cold: Researchers hold out little hope that the next government will improve their underfunded research system. (23/02/2018) | Alison Abbott @nature

UK Vol.113 (Post-EUref #Brexit Vol.37)

UK Vol.112 (Post-EUref #Brexit Vol.36)

UK Vol.111 (Post-EUref #Brexit Vol.35)

UK Vol.110 (Post-EUref #Brexit Vol.34)

UK Vol.109 (Post-EUref #Brexit Vol.33)

US Policy Changes Vol.82 (Asia)

Great stuff!

Can China Back Down? Crisis De-escalation in the Shadow of Popular Opposition (w PDF; Winter 2017/18) | Kai Quek, Alastair Iain Johnston @BelferCenter
The autocrat’s Achilles’ heel (02/05/2018) | Alina Polyakova and Torrey Taussig
One Kim to rule them all (02/18/2018) | Nicholas Eberstadt @AEI
THE EDUCATION OF KIM JONG-UN (February 2018) | JUNG H. PAK @BrookingsInst
US Approach to Russia in New Nuclear Posture Review Risks Boosting Chances of Conflict (02/02/2018) | Jon Wolfsthal @russia_matters

Ex-CIA analysts explain why a bloody nose policy on North Korea would backfire (02/12/2018) | Jung H. Pak, Sue Mi Terry, and Bruce Klingner @BrookingsInst

US Policy Changes Vol.78 (Global politics, Nuclear deterrence, Economic inequality, Mobility, et al.)

Great stuff!

An Outlook on Global Politics 2018 (w PDF; 01/23/2018) | Nicholas Burns @BelferCenter

Who’s Afraid of a Balance of Power? (12/08/2017) | Stephen M. Walt @ForeignPolicy

The European trust crisis and the rise of populism (w PDFs; 09/07/2017) | Yann Algan, Sergei Guriev, Elias Papaioannou, and Evgenia Passari @BrookingsInst

A post-American Europe and the future of U.S. strategy (w PDF; December 2017) | Thomas Wright @BrookingsInst

America is on the brink of a historic break with Europe, thanks to Trump (12/26/2016) | Nicholas Burns @USAToday

How to read the 2018 National Defense Strategy (01/21/2018) | Mara Karlin @BrookingsInst

Brookings experts on Trump’s National Security Strategy (12/21/2017) | @BrookingsInst

Crafting Trump’s first National Security Strategy: What it could be?and why it might not matter anyway (09/13/2017) | Tarun Chhabra @BrookingsInst

Former Commander: Here’s What Happens When the President Orders a Nuclear Strike (w Video; 08/11/2017) | James Winnefeld @Fortune

The New Era of Counterforce: Technological Change and the Future of Nuclear Deterrence (w PDF; Spring 2017) | Keir A. Lieber & Daryl Press @Journal_IS

Nuclear Deterrence in the Computer Age: The Erosion of Stalemate (w PDF; 05/16/2017) | Keir A. Lieber & Daryl Press @Journal_IS

The 1967 War (Podcast; 06/02/2017) | Khaled Elgindy, Shadi Hamid, Martin S. Indyk, Natan Sachs, Tamara Cofman Wittes, and Fred Dews @BrookingsInst

Twelve economic facts on energy and climate change: A joint report from The Hamilton Project and the Energy Policy Institute at the University of Chicago (w PDF; 03/27/2017)

A Time to Repair the Roof: A Speech by International Monetary Fund Managing Director Christine Lagarde (w Transcript & Video; 10/05/2017) | (Nicholas Burns, Lawrence Summers) @futurediplomacy

Charles Murray on Culture vs. Economics – From the book “This Way Up” | @AEI

Teaching about economic inequality is political, but not the way you think (12/06/2017) | Joel Westheimer and John Rogers @BrookingsInst

The Copenhagen City and Port Development Corporation: A model for regenerating cities (w PDF; 06/01/2017) | Bruce Katz and Luise Noring @BrookingsInst

The future of mobility: Why your new car is like an electronic typewriter (01/17/2018) | Wolfgang Fengler @BrookingsInst

Gauging investment in self-driving cars (w Excel; 10/16/2017) | Cameron F. Kerry and Jack Karsten

It’s Energy Week: Here are 10 lessons about buying or leasing an electric car (06/27/2017) | Timmons Roberts

Eleven facts about innovation and patents (w PDF; 12/13/2017) | Jay Shambaugh, Ryan Nunn, and Becca Portman @BrookingsInst

2017 Annual Report | @AEI

US Policy Changes Vol.76 (Trade, Energy, National Security, Financial Regulation, Tax, Values, et al.)

Great stuff!

Export Monitor 2017 (w PDFs; 08/18/2017) | Joseph Parilla and Nick Marchio @BrookingsInst

When renegotiating NAFTA, Trump should re-evaluate his premises on international trade (08/17/2017) | Dany Bahar @BrookingsInst

NAFTA renegotiation: Separating fact from fiction (08/17/2017) | Amanda Waldron @BrookingsInst

American Energy Policy (w PDF; April 2017) | Daniel Poneman @BelferCenter

Is the United States the new Saudi Arabia? (01/26/2018) | Samantha Gross @BrookingsInst

Learning from Katrina to care for Hurricane Harvey’s youngest victims (09/06/2017) | Jon Valant @BrookingsInst

Trump’s border wall is standard practice in other parts of the world (01/23/2018) | Michael Rubin @BrookingsInst

Hitting the wall: On immigration, campaign promises clash with policy realities (w PDF; 06/22/2017) | John Hudak, Elaine Kamarck, and Christine Stenglein @BrookingsInst

Strengthening and streamlining bank capital regulation (w PDFs; 09/07/2017) | Robin Greenwood, Samuel G. Hanson, Jeremy C. Stein, and Adi Sunderam @BrookingsInst

What Treasury’s financial regulation report gets right and where it goes too far (06/13/2017) | Nellie Liang @BrookingsInst

Hoarding the American Dream (Podcast & Transcript; 06/16/2017) | Richard V. Reeves, Bill Finan, and Fred Dews @BrookingsInst

Professionalism in politics: The paradox of populism (Podcast & Transcript; 06/28/2017) | Jonathan Rauch, Benjamin Wittes, and Adrianna Pita @BrookingsInst

Winners and losers in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (Podcast; 12/22/2017) | Fred Dews and Adam Looney @BrookingsInst

Next Task for GOP: Spend Less and Help the Poor – Republicans did well to cut corporate taxes, not so well at expanding opportunity. (12/19/2017) | Michael R. Strain @bpolitics

Who would pay for the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act? (w PDF; 12/08/2017) | William G. Gale, Surachai Khitatrakun, and Aaron Krupkin @BrookingsInst

Senate tax bill: Lower rates for corporations? Check. Broadening the tax base? Not so much. (12/05/2017) | Adam Looney and Hilary Gelfond @BrookingsInst

Relax, the housing market will be fine after tax reform (11/09/2017) | Alex Brill @AEI

Is the rent “too damn high”? Or are incomes too low? (12/19/2017) | Jenny Schuetz @BrookingsInst

Where the robots are (08/14/2017) | Mark Muro @BrookingsInst

Signs of digital distress: Mapping broadband availability and subscription in American neighborhoods (09/12/2017) | Adie Tomer, Elizabeth Kneebone, and Ranjitha Shivaram @BrookingsInst

Segregation and changing populations shape Rust Belt’s politics (09/14/2017) | John C. Austin @BrookingsInst

Census shows nonmetropolitan America is whiter, getting older, and losing population: Will it retain political clout? (06/27/2017) | William H. Frey @BrookingsInst

A primer on gerrymandering and political polarization (07/06/2017) | Fred Dews @BrookingsInst

The geography of desperation in America (07/24/2017) | Carol Graham, Sergio Pinto, and John Juneau II @BrookingsInst

Will the release of the JFK assassination records put to rest one of the most widely believed conspiracy theories? (w Video; 10/27/2017) | Karlyn Bowman @AEI

The Rudeness of King Donald (12/04/2017) | Niall Ferguson @BostonGlobe

Iran Nuclear Agreement Vol.4

What the Iran nuclear deal means for oil prices (07/15/2017) | @bradplumer @vox
Oil prices slide as Iran’s nuclear deal spells trouble for U.S. shale (07/14/2015) | Geoffrey Smith @fortune
How Would The Iran Nuclear Deal Impact Oil Prices? (06/29/2015) | @forbes
Iran-US Interim Agreement: Historic Breakthrough or Historic Sellout? (12/10/2013) | Dr James Petras @NewsBud_
Iran-US Regional Relations Subsequent to Nuclear Agreement (07/26/2015) | Masoud Rezaei @Iran_Review
World powers reach nuclear deal with Iran to freeze its nuclear program (11/24/2013) | Anne Gearan and Joby Warrick @washingtonpost
Why Europe Backs Obama on Iran (04/07/2015) | Carl Bildt @berggruenInst @HuffPost
Iran Nuclear Agreement | @plough_shares
Iran: Inside the Deal | @AJEnglish
Nuclear Iran | @cbsnews
Iran | @bilaterals_org

Iran Nuclear Agreement Vol.3

Ernest J. Moniz Addresses Global Nuclear Risks (Speech; 01/11/2018)
Information Note on EU sanctions to be lifted under the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) (PDF; 23/01/2016)
Annex II: Sanctions-related commitments | @StateDept

Iran: One year since sanctions relief (17/01/2017) | Henry Smith @Control_Risks
Iran: Flexibility in contract negotiations to arise out of uneven enforcement of local content regulations (10/05/2017) | Henry Smith @Control_Risks

Iran Nuclear Agreement Vol.2

Why the Iran protests matter (Voice; 01/02/2018) | Suzanne Maloney @BrookingsFP
Iran nuclear deal: Key details (13/10/2017) | @BBC
Iran Nuclear Agreement (PDF; 09/15/2017) | Kenneth Katzman & Paul K. Kerr @CRS4Congress
Full text of the Iran nuclear deal (14/07/2015) | @washingtonpost
Iran’s Nuclear Ambitions and Political Theory (06/03/2012) | Allison Kushner @FPA_ORG
Saving the Iran Nuclear Deal, Despite Trump’s Decertification (13/10/2017) | @CrisisGroup
The Real Promise of the US-Iran Agreement – Yes, it will prevent Iran from developing nukes. But it could also transform the Middle East, bringing  order and peace to a region falling into chaos. (07/16/2015) | @thenation
Proxy War Over Iran Nuclear Deal Divides U.S., Europe at UN (10/12/2017) | Kambiz Foroohar @bpolitics
The Iran Nuclear Deal – A Simple Guide (03/31/2015) | @nytimes
Trade – Iran | @EU_Commission

Iran Nuclear Agreement Vol.1

Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.36

Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.31

UK Vol.108 (Post-EUref #Brexit Vol.32)

[SoundCloud] Rightsup #Rightnow The View Beyond Brexit: Equality Rights in Northern Ireland After Divorce | Oxford Human Rights Hub

Spain Vol.4 (Catalunya Vol.4)

US Policy Changes Vol.74 (National Security Strategy)

The below excerpt of National Security Strategy of the United States of America DECEMBER 2017 (PDF) is on our own.

The American people elected me to make America great again. …
During my first year in office, you have witnessed my America First foreign policy in action. …
The United States faces an extraordinarily dangerous world, filled with a wide range of threats that have intensified in recent years. …
We are rallying the world against the rogue regime in North Korea and confronting the danger posed by the dictatorship in Iran, which those determined to pursue a flawed nuclear deal had neglected. …
At home, we have restored confidence in America’s purpose. …
The whole world is lifted by America’s renewal and the reemergence of American leadership. …

… Putting America first is the duty of our government and the foundation for U.S. leadership in the world.
A strong America is in the vital interests of not only the American people, but also those around the world who want to partner with the United States in pursuit of shared interests, values, and aspirations.
… Liberty and independence have given us the flourishing society Americans enjoy today-a vibrant and confident Nation, welcoming of disagreement and differences, but united by the bonds of history, culture, beliefs, and principles that define who we are.
… American political, business, and military leaders worked together with their counterparts in Europe and Asia to shape the post-war order through the United Nations, the Marshall Plan, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and other institutions designed to advance our shared interests of security, freedom, and peace. …
A Competitive World
… China and Russia challenge American power, influence, and interests, attempting to erode American security and prosperity. …
…jihadist terrorists such as ISIS and al-Qa’ida continue to spread a barbaric ideology that calls for the violent destruction of governments and innocents they consider to be apostates. …
… North Korea-a country that starves its own people-has spent hundreds of millions of dollars on nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons that could threaten our homeland. …
An America First National Security Strategy
First, our fundamental responsibility is to protect the American people, the homeland, and the American way of life.
Second, we will promote American prosperity. …
Third, we will preserve peace through strength by rebuilding our military so that it remains preeminent, deters our adversaries, and if necessary, is able to fight and win. …
Fourth, we will advance American influence because a world that supports American interests and reflects our values makes America more secure and prosperous. …

… North Korea seeks the capability to kill millions of Americans with nuclear weapons. … Non-state actors undermine social order through drug and human trafficking networks…
Secure U.S. Borders and Territory
Defend Against Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)
…deploying a layered missile defense system focused on North Korea and Iran to defend… Enhanced missile defense is not intended to undermine strategic stability or disrupt longstanding strategic relationships with Russia or China. …
Combat Biothreats and Pandemics
Strengthen Border Control and Immigration Policy
Pursue Threats to Their Source
Defeat Jihadist Terrorists
Dismantle Transnational Criminal Organizations
Keep America Safe in the Cyber Era
…assess risk across six key areas: national security, energy and power, banking and finance, health and safety, communications, and transportation. …
Promote American Resilience

… Working with our allies and partners, the United States led the creation of a group of financial institutions and other economic forums that established equitable rules and built instruments to stabilize the international economy and remove the points of friction that had contributed to two world wars. …
… Experience shows that these countries distorted and undermined key economic institutions without undertaking significant reform of their economies or politics. They espouse free trade rhetoric and exploit its benefits, but only adhere selectively to the rules and agreements. …
Rejuvenate the Domestic Economy
… Departments and agencies will eliminate unnecessary regulations that stifle growth, drive up costs for American businesses, impede research and development, discourage hiring, and incentivize domestic businesses to move overseas. …
… Federal, state, and local governments will work together with private industry to improve our airports, seaports and waterways, roads and railways, transit systems, and telecommunications. …
Promote Free, Fair, and Reciprocal Economic Relationships
…will pursue bilateral trade and investment agreements with countries that commit to fair and reciprocal trade and will modernize existing agreements to ensure they are consistent with those principles. …
Lead in Research, Technology, Invention, and Innovation
… The Department of Defense and other agencies will establish strategic partnerships with U.S. companies to help align private sector R&D resources to priority national security applications. …
Promote and Protect the U.S. National Security Innovation Base
…will reduce the illicit appropriation of U.S. public and private sector technology and technical knowledge by hostile foreign competitors. …
…will review visa procedures to reduce economic theft by non-traditional intelligence collectors. …
Embrace Energy Dominance
…will streamline the Federal regulatory approval processes for energy infrastructure, from pipeline and export terminals to container shipments and gathering lines, while also ensuring responsible environmental stewardship.

… Three main sets of challengers-the revisionist powers of China and Russia, the rogue states of Iran and North Korea, and transnational threat organizations, particularly jihadist terrorist groups-are actively competing against the United States and our allies and partners. …
… China and Russia want to shape a world antithetical to U.S. values and interests. China seeks to displace the United States in the Indo-Pacific region, expand the reaches of its state-driven economic model, and reorder the region in its favor. Russia seeks to restore its great power status and establish spheres of influence near its borders. The intentions of both nations are not necessarily fixed. …
For decades, U.S. policy was rooted in the belief that support for China’s rise and for its integration into the post-war international order would liberalize China. Contrary to our hopes, China expanded its power at the expense of the sovereignty of others. China gathers and exploits data on an unrivaled scale and spreads features of its authoritarian system, including corruption and the use of surveillance. It is building the most capable and well-funded military in the world, after our own. Its nuclear arsenal is growing and diversifying. Part of China’s military modernization and economic expansion is due to its access to the U.S. innovation economy, including America’s world-class universities.
Russia aims to weaken U.S. influence in the world and divide us from our allies and partners. …
Renew America’s Competitive Advantages
Renew Capabilities
Defense Industrial Base
…will work with industry partners to strengthen U.S. competitiveness in key technologies and manufacturing capabilities. …
Nuclear Forces
… America’s newly re-established National Space Council, chaired by the Vice President, will review America’s long-range space goals and develop a strategy that integrates all space sectors to support innovation and American leadership in space.
… To prevent the theft of sensitive and proprietary information and maintain supply chain integrity, the United States must increase our understanding of the economic policy priorities of our adversaries and improve our ability to detect and defeat their attempts to commit economic espionage. …
Diplomacy and Statecraft
Competitive Diplomacy
… Diplomacy is indispensable to identify and implement solutions to conflicts in unstable regions of the world short of military involvement. It helps to galvanize allies for action and marshal the collective resources of like-minded nations and organizations to address shared problems. Authoritarian states are eager to replace the United States where the United States withdraws our diplomats and closes our outposts. …
… Diplomats must identify opportunities for commerce and cooperation, and facilitate the cultural, educational, and people-to-people exchanges that create the networks of current and future political, civil society, and educational leaders who will extend a free and prosperous world.
Tools of Economic Diplomacy
… Economic tools?including sanctions, anti-money-laundering and anti-corruption measures, and enforcement actions?can be important parts of broader strategies to deter, coerce, and constrain adversaries. …
Information Statecraft
… China, for example, combines data and the use of AI to rate the loyal of its citizens to the state and uses these ratings to determine jobs and more. Jihadist…
Russia uses information operations as part of its offensive cyber efforts to influence public opinion across the globe. …
… Local voices are most compelling and effective in ideological competitions. We must amplify credible voices and partner with them to advance alternatives to violent and hateful messages. …

… During the Cold War, a totalitarian threat from the Soviet Union motivated the free world to create coalitions in defense of liberty. Today’s challenges to free societies are just as serious, but more diverse. …
… The United States offers partnership to those who share our aspirations for freedom and prosperity. We lead by example. “The world has its eye upon America,” Alexander Hamilton once observed. “The noble struggle we have made in the cause of liberty, has occasioned a kind of revolution in human sentiment. …
Encourage Aspiring Partners
… China and Russia target their investments in the developing world to expand influence and gain competitive advantages against the United States. China is investing billions of dollars in infrastructure across the globe. Russia, too, projects its influence economically, through the control of key energy and other infrastructure throughout parts of Europe and Central Asia. …
… The United States will promote a development model that partners with countries that want progress, consistent with their culture, based on free market principles, fair and reciprocal trade, private sector activity, and rule of law. The United States will shift away from a reliance on assistance based on grants to approaches that attract private capital and catalyze private sector activity. …
Achieve Better Outcomes in Multilateral Forums
… Authoritarian actors have long recognized the power of multilateral bodies and have used them to advance their interests and limit the freedom of their own citizens. If the United States cedes leadership of these bodies to adversaries, opportunities to shape developments that are positive for the United States will be lost. All institutions are not equal, however. …
… The United Nations can help contribute to solving many of the complex problems in the world, but it must be reformed and recommit to its founding principles. We will require accountability and emphasize shared responsibility among members. If the United States is asked to provide a disproportionate level of support for an institution, we will expect a commensurate degree of influence over the direction and efforts of that institution. …
…  The United States will promote the free flow of data and protect its interests through active engagement in key organizations, such as the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), the Internet Governance Forum (IGF), the UN, and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
Champion American Values
… America’s core principles, enshrined in the Declaration of Independence, are secured by the Bill of Rights, which proclaims our respect for fundamental individual liberties beginning with the freedoms of religion, speech, the press, and assembly. Liberty, free enterprise, equal justice under the law, and the dignity of every human life are central to who we are as a people. …
… We support, with our words and actions, those who live under oppressive regimes and who seek freedom, individual dignity, and the rule of law. We are under no obligation to offer the benefits of our free and prosperous community to repressive regimes and human rights abusers. We may use diplomacy, sanctions, and other tools to isolate states and leaders who threaten our interests and whose actions run contrary to our values. …

… Although the United States seeks to continue to cooperate with China… Its efforts to build and militarize outposts in the South China Sea endanger the free flow of trade, threaten the sovereignty of other nations, and undermine regional stability. China has mounted a rapid military modernization campaign designed to limit U.S. access to the region…
… Our alliance and friendship with South Korea, forged by the trials of history, is stronger than ever. We welcome and support the strong leadership role of our critical ally, Japan. Australia has fought alongside us in every significant conflict since World War I… New Zealand is a key U.S. partner contributing to peace and security across the region. We welcome India’s emergence as a leading global power and stronger strategic and defense partner. We will seek to increase quadrilateral cooperation with Japan, Australia, and India.
In Southeast Asia, the Philippines and Thailand remain important allies and markets for Americans. Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore are growing security and economic partners of the United States. …
… We will work with allies and partners to achieve complete, verifiable, and irreversible denuclearization on the Korean Peninsula and preserve the non-proliferation regime in Northeast Asia.
…we will cooperate on missile defense with Japan and South Korea to move toward an area defense capability. We remain ready to respond with overwhelming force to North Korean aggression and will improve options to compel denuclearization of the peninsula. We will improve law enforcement, defense, and intelligence cooperation with Southeast Asian partners to address the growing terrorist threat. We will maintain our strong ties with Taiwan in accordance with our “One China” policy…
… Russia is using subversive measures to weaken the credibility of America’s commitment to Europe, undermine transatlantic unity, and weaken European institutions and governments. With its invasions of Georgia and Ukraine…
China is gaining a strategic foothold in Europe by expanding its unfair trade practices and investing in key industries, sensitive technologies, and infrastructure. Europe also faces immediate threats from violent Islamist extremists. Attacks by ISIS and other jihadist…
… We will encourage European foreign direct investment in the United States to create jobs. We will work with our allies and partners to diversify European energy sources to ensure the energy security of European countries. We will work with our partners to contest China’s unfair trade and economic practices and restrict its acquisition of sensitive technologies.
… We expect our European allies to increase defense spending to 2 percent of gross domestic product by 2024, with 20 percent of this spending devoted to increasing military capabilities. …
Middle East
… For generations the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians has been understood as the prime irritant preventing peace and prosperity in the region. Today, the threats from jihadist terrorist organizations and the threat from Iran are creating the realization that Israel is not the cause of the region’s problems. States have increasingly found common interests with Israel in confronting common threats. …
… We remain committed to helping our partners achieve a stable and prosperous region, including through a strong and integrated Gulf Cooperation Council. We will strengthen our long-term strategic partnership with Iraq as an independent state. We will seek a settlement to the Syrian civil war that sets the conditions for refugees to return home and rebuild their lives in safety. … We remain committed to helping facilitate a comprehensive peace agreement that is acceptable to both Israelis and Palestinians. …
South and Central Asia
… We will help South Asian nations maintain their sovereign as China increases its influence in the region. …
Western Hemisphere
Stable, friendly, and prosperous states in the Western Hemisphere enhance our security and benefit our economy. Democratic states connected by shared values and economic interests will reduce the violence, drug trafficking, and illegal immigration that threaten our common security…
… Transnational criminal organizations—including gangs and cartels—perpetuate violence and corruption, and threaten the stability of Central American states including Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador. In Venezuela and Cuba, governments cling to anachronistic leftist authoritarian models that continue to fail their people. Competitors have found operating space in the hemisphere.
China seeks to pull the region into its orbit through state-led investments and loans. Russia continues its failed politics of the Cold War by bolstering its radical Cuban allies as Cuba continues to repress its citizens. Both China and Russia support the dictatorship in Venezuela and are seeking to expand military linkages and arms sales across the region. …
… China is expanding its economic and military presence in Africa, growing from a small investor in the continent two decades ago into Africa’s largest trading partner today. Some Chinese practices undermine Africa’s long-term development by corrupting elites, dominating extractive industries, and locking countries into unsustainable and opaque debts and commitments. …
… We will offer American goods and services, both because it is profitable for us and because it serves as an alternative to China’s often extractive economic footprint on the continent. …

… It is realist because it acknowledges the central role of power in international politics, affirms that sovereign states are the best hope for a peaceful world, and clearly defines our national interests. It is principled because it is grounded in the knowledge that advancing American principles spreads peace and prosperity around the globe. We are guided by our values and disciplined by our interests. …

Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.28

Here are tweets of great stuff retweeted by @_WorldSolutions.

Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.26

Here are tweets of great stuff retweeted by @_WorldSolutions.

Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.24

Here are tweets of great stuff retweeted by @_WorldSolutions.

Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.23

Here are tweets of great stuff retweeted by @_WorldSolutions.

Germany Vol.4 (Coalition talks)

Spain Vol.3 (Catalunya Vol.3)

US Policy Changes Vol.67 (US law professors Vol.3)

Here is a part of U.S. law schools’ recent tweets on legal and political issues in which their professors are featured, quoted, et al. (mainly those in November 2017). Great stuff!
[We don’t have affiliations with these schools or professors.]

US Policy Changes Vol.66 (US law professors Vol.2)

Here is a part of U.S. law schools’ recent tweets on legal and political issues in which their professors are featured, quoted, et al. (mainly those in November 2017). Great stuff!
[We don’t have affiliations with these schools or professors.]

US Policy Changes Vol.65 (US law professors Vol.1)

Here is a part of U.S. law schools’ recent tweets on legal and political issues in which their professors are featured, quoted, et al. (mainly those in November 2017). Great stuff!
[We don’t have affiliations with these schools or professors.]