California Vol.9 (overall, San Diego and Sacramento)


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California Vol.6


California Vol.5


California Vol.4


https://twitter.com/MillerTyrus/status/1033796422984855552


California Vol.3


Hawaii Vol.3


https://twitter.com/honolulumag/status/1029971031937744896


Hawaii Vol.2


https://twitter.com/uhmanoa/status/1031267561407750145


https://twitter.com/UHawaiiNews/status/1029833797745893376


US Policy Changes Vol.97 (Foreign Policy Vol.13)


Brittle Times for the Transatlantic Relationship (PDF; in large part in German) | Cathryn Cluver Ashbrook @ Atlantik-Brucke


Belfer Center Experts on U.S. Withdrawal from the Iran Nuclear Deal (05/08/2018) | Graham Allison, Nicholas Burns, Matthew Bunn, Chuck Freilich, Hassan Ahmadian, Martin B. Malin, Steven E. Miller, Payam Mohseni, Ernest J. Moniz, Sahar Nowrouzzadeh, Nawaf Obaid, Gary Samore, Elizabeth D. Sherwood-Randall, William H. Tobey @BelferCenter


A timeline of the Trump administration’s actions on Russia (07/26/2018) | @BrookingsInst


Kazakhstan Must Look Beyond the Belt and Road | Philippe Le Corre


Belfer Center Experts Offer Insight on U.S.-North Korea Summit


Missouri Vol.5

Missouri1-2001Missouri2Missouri3-riversMissouri4-river


https://twitter.com/downtownsgf/status/1027682348609941513


Missouri Vol.2


https://twitter.com/CSC1853/status/1016774214517485568


Colorado Vol.5

Colorado1Colorado2-communitiesColorado3-fishingColorado4-skiing


https://twitter.com/9NEWS/status/1023210238542053376


New York Vol.4

NewYork1NewYork2-countiesNewYork3-wineNewYork8-FingerLakesNewYork4-City1NewYork5-City2-ManhattanNewYork6-City3-StatenIslandNewYork7-LongIsland


https://twitter.com/Nasdaq/status/1022236299690827776
https://twitter.com/Columbia_Biz/status/1013118942217474050


https://twitter.com/WestPointBand/status/1019314888504684544


New York Vol.3


https://twitter.com/Cornell/status/1009784851921293312


https://twitter.com/CornellDyson/status/1020337640703516672


https://twitter.com/CornellEng/status/1020363206227787776
https://twitter.com/CornellEng/status/999794171497066497


https://twitter.com/binghamtonu/status/1019650714233180160


New York Vol.2


US Policy Changes Vol.96 (Economy)


https://twitter.com/HBAGK/status/1004062454748532736


‘I’m going to stay at it’ (w Video; 04/10/2018) | Joseph Lawler, Arthur C. Brooks @AEI
Under US housing policies, homeowners mostly win, while renters mostly lose (07/10/2018) | Jenny Schuetz @BrookingsInst
Housing in the US is too expensive, too cheap, and just right. It depends on where you live. (06/21/2018) | Cecile Murray and Jenny Schuetz @BrookingsInst


US Policy Changes Vol.95 (Foreign Policy Vol.12)


Russia


https://twitter.com/LauraWalkerKC/status/1011237912879517696


William Tobey, Senior Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the Harvard Kennedy School | Michigan’s Big Show


US Policy Changes Vol.94 (Foreign Policy Vol.11: NATO & G7 summit)

NATO


G7 Summit


https://twitter.com/dw_politics/status/1006171735367045122


US Policy Changes Vol.93 (Foreign Policy Vol.10)


Taking History as a Mirror (w PDF; June 2018) | Neil Thomas @BelferCenter


Trump’s focus on China trade: Right target, wrong approach (06/14/2018) | Ryan Hass @BelferCenter


Ukraine fears falling victim to Trump-Putin ‘grand bargain’ (11/11/2016) | Neil Buckley and Roman Olearchyk @FT


UK Vol.115 (England Vol.8 – East of England Vol.1)

England regions

East of England
EastOfEngland regionEastOfEngland
@BBCLookEast
LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN THE EAST OF ENGLAND (PDF; 01/04/2018) | UK Department of Defence
WHY UNIVERSITIES MATTER FOR THE EAST OF ENGLAND (PDF) | @UniversitiesUK
Commercialising Innovation: A Briefing Paper on historic trends and policy context (PDF) | @LGAcomms

Norfolk
EastOfEngland Norfolk


@NorfolkCC
@norfolkchamber
Norfolk Economic Intelligence Report (PDF; 2016) | Norfolk County Council
Norfolk’s Story (PDF; October 2017) | Norfolk Insight (Norfolk County Council)
Norfolk | Encyclopaedia Britannica
North Norfolk District Council
North Norfolk centre for small and start-up businesses gets a step closer | @Nwes_Group
The Impact of Brexit on North Norfolk: A discussion note (PDF; March 2018) | Martyn Sloman
@cwa_college
South Norfolk business booming, says Experian research (19/03/2012) | David Keller @BBC
Norwich economic strategy 2013-18 (PDF) | Norwich City Council
@uniofeastanglia
Your Sustainable Community Strategy for South Norfolk: Important Issues – Local Action 2008-2018 (PDF) | South Norfolk Alliance
Tour Norfolk
@prldesign

Suffolk
EastOfEngland Suffolk


@suffolkcc
@suffolkchamber
West Suffolk business fact pack (PDF) | @InvestinSuffolk
East Suffolk Economic Growth Plan, 2018-23 (PDF; Draft-v7; January 2018)
The East’s Institute of Technology (PDF)
@UniofSuffolk
@suffolknewcoll
@EastCoast_Coll
Ambitious bid to create Institute of Technology moves a step closer to success (20/06/2018) | @WestSuffolk
Colleges in Norfolk and Suffolk launch ‘collaborative’ group | Billy Camden @FEWeek
@camnano


Wyoming Vol.2

Wyoming1Wyoming2Wyoming3


https://twitter.com/USGSVolcanoes/status/1013784364063195142

https://twitter.com/WYPublicRadio/status/1012373045464494082


Idaho Vol.2

Idaho1
Idaho3
Maps Of Idaho visit idaho maps and images 600 X 531 pixels - Printable Map HD


Virginia Vol.4

Virginia1
Virginia2
Virginia3
The Commonwealth of Virginia
City of Virginia Beach
City of Norfolk
City of Chesapeake
City of Richmond
City of Newport News
City of Alexandria
City of Hampton


Virginia Vol.2


https://twitter.com/VSUTrojans/status/1006896826161729536


US Policy Changes Vol.92 (Quantitative Easing)

(The below excerpt is on our own.)

The Fed’s Yield-Curve-Control Policy (w PDF; 11/29/16) | Owen F. Humpage @ClevelandFed

…some may follow the example of Japan, which recently added a new long-term interest-rate target to its short-term target to give itself “yield-curve control.” …combining yield-curve control with quantitative easing when government borrowing needs are substantial can create constraints on monetary policy that are not easily removed.

… The Bank of Japan currently sets its short-term policy target—a rate paid on bank reserves—at –0.1 percent and now promises to cap its long-term target rate—that on 10-year government bonds—at approximately zero for the time being. …

The ultimate objective of recent quantitative easing programs in Japan, the United States, and elsewhere has been to lower long-term interest rates when policy rates are at their effective lower bound. …

… The Fed’s experience, however, suggests that combining yield-curve control with quantitative easing when government borrowing needs are substantial can create constraints on monetary policy that are not easily removed. Moreover, a central bank’s heavy involvement in a market can distort the behavior of private market participants to the detriment of market efficiency.

Wartime Yield-Curve Control
… The economy had been recovering from the 1937–38 recession, and by late 1941, output had caught up to where it likely would have been had the Great Depression never occurred. Likewise, the unemployment rate fell sharply in 1941, but some slack remained in the labor market at the start of 1942. …

… Gold had generally been flowing into the United States since Franklin D. Roosevelt devalued the dollar in 1934. …commercial banks held record levels of excess reserves in 1940, and the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) fretted that reserves “had risen beyond the System’s power to restrain an inflationary credit expansion should one develop” …

Figure 1.

In early 1942, … the Fed agreed to peg the Treasury-bill yield at 0.375 percent, to cap the critical long-term government bond yield at 2.5 percent… Setting interest rates in this manner, however, allowed the Treasury to expand bank reserves by issuing more securities than the public wished to hold when yields reached their caps, because the Fed then had to purchase them. …

…no one really knew if this yield-curve-control policy would work. Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, the only official with authority to announce the program to the public, never did so. He seemed to prefer a quantitative (excess-reserves) target. …

To tamp down measured inflation and inflation expectations, the Roosevelt Administration began introducing limited price controls as early as May 1940… The controls remained in place until November 1946…

… Excess reserves… continued to fall through mid-1944.

Under its yield-curve-control program, the Fed bought $20 billion worth of Treasury securities or approximately 10 percent of the debt that the Treasury issued between March 1942 and August 1945…

Figure 2.

The Accord
…bond holders would liquidate their government securities, forcing the Fed under its yield-curve-control policy to create reserves… By 1945, banks’ holdings of government securities equaled more than half of their total assets, and a substantial proportion of these matured beyond five years…

… The Treasury believed that it could not possibly finance its unprecedented levels of public debt at reasonable interest rates without the Fed’s continued participation in the government-securities market…

… In 1950, an inflation scare associated with the Korean War and growing congressional support for the Fed’s position led to a Treasury–Fed accord in March 1951, largely freeing monetary policy from its subordinate status vis-à-vis the Treasury’s debt-management operations…

Collateral Damage
… Moreover, the FOMC had directed its trading desk to maintain orderly conditions in government securities markets…

Federal Reserve Chairman William McChesney Martin… feared… by creating a “disconcerting degree of uncertainty” about when, how much, and where on the yield curve the Fed might intervene…

Martin believed that the Fed’s frequent interventions in the longer-term government securities market during and immediately after the war had robbed the market of its “depth, breadth, and resiliency,” … Martin wanted to confine open market operations to the short-end of the yield curve—preferably Treasury bills. …

… Many economists observed that the connection between changes in short-term rates and long-term rates—the link “bills preferable” relied on—was generally weak and often not dependable. They contended that open market operations in longer-term securities offered a viable mechanism for affecting the yield curve’s shape, which was as important as the level of interest rates. …

… Nevertheless, the Fed remained wary of the political consequences of appearing to interfere with the Treasury’s debt-financing operations and from 1954 through mid-1975 engaged in “even keel” operations. …

Passé?
… Yield-curve control gave the Treasury substantial influence over monetary policy and highlighted the major effect that monetary policies had on the cost of financing the government’s huge debts.

… The Bank of Japan has greatly expanded its portfolio of government bonds and has become a major factor in the government bond market, much like the Fed in 1945. …


New Hampshire Vol.2

NewHampshire1NewHampshire2


West Virginia Vol.2

WestVirginia1
WestVirginia2


US Policy Changes Vol.91 (North Korea Vol.8)