US Policy Changes Vol.96 (Economy)


‘I’m going to stay at it’ (w Video; 04/10/2018) | Joseph Lawler, Arthur C. Brooks @AEI
Under US housing policies, homeowners mostly win, while renters mostly lose (07/10/2018) | Jenny Schuetz @BrookingsInst
Housing in the US is too expensive, too cheap, and just right. It depends on where you live. (06/21/2018) | Cecile Murray and Jenny Schuetz @BrookingsInst


US Policy Changes Vol.95 (Foreign Policy Vol.12)


Russia


William Tobey, Senior Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the Harvard Kennedy School | Michigan’s Big Show


US Policy Changes Vol.94 (Foreign Policy Vol.11: NATO & G7 summit)

NATO


G7 Summit


US Policy Changes Vol.93 (Foreign Policy Vol.10)


Taking History as a Mirror (w PDF; June 2018) | Neil Thomas @BelferCenter


Trump’s focus on China trade: Right target, wrong approach (06/14/2018) | Ryan Hass @BelferCenter


Ukraine fears falling victim to Trump-Putin ‘grand bargain’ (11/11/2016) | Neil Buckley and Roman Olearchyk @FT


UK Vol.115 (England Vol.8 – East of England Vol.1)

England regions

East of England
EastOfEngland regionEastOfEngland
@BBCLookEast
LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN THE EAST OF ENGLAND (PDF; 01/04/2018) | UK Department of Defence
WHY UNIVERSITIES MATTER FOR THE EAST OF ENGLAND (PDF) | @UniversitiesUK
Commercialising Innovation: A Briefing Paper on historic trends and policy context (PDF) | @LGAcomms

Norfolk
EastOfEngland Norfolk


cf. @NorfolkCC
@norfolkchamber
Norfolk Economic Intelligence Report (PDF; 2016) | Norfolk County Council
Norfolk’s Story (PDF; October 2017) | Norfolk Insight (Norfolk County Council)
Norfolk | Encyclopaedia Britannica
North Norfolk District Council
North Norfolk centre for small and start-up businesses gets a step closer | @Nwes_Group
The Impact of Brexit on North Norfolk: A discussion note (PDF; March 2018) | Martyn Sloman
@cwa_college
South Norfolk business booming, says Experian research (19/03/2012) | David Keller @BBC
Norwich economic strategy 2013-18 (PDF) | Norwich City Council
@uniofeastanglia
Your Sustainable Community Strategy for South Norfolk: Important Issues – Local Action 2008-2018 (PDF) | South Norfolk Alliance
Tour Norfolk

Suffolk
EastOfEngland Suffolk


cf. @suffolkcc
@suffolkchamber
West Suffolk business fact pack (PDF) | @InvestinSuffolk
East Suffolk Economic Growth Plan, 2018-23 (PDF; Draft-v7; January 2018)
The East’s Institute of Technology (PDF)
@UniofSuffolk
@suffolknewcoll
@EastCoast_Coll
Ambitious bid to create Institute of Technology moves a step closer to success (20/06/2018) | @WestSuffolk
Colleges in Norfolk and Suffolk launch ‘collaborative’ group | Billy Camden @FEWeek


Wyoming Vol.2

Wyoming1Wyoming2Wyoming3


Idaho Vol.2

Idaho1
Idaho3
Maps Of Idaho visit idaho maps and images 600 X 531 pixels - Printable Map HD


Virginia Vol.4

Virginia1
Virginia2
Virginia3
The Commonwealth of Virginia
City of Virginia Beach
City of Norfolk
City of Chesapeake
City of Richmond
City of Newport News
City of Alexandria
City of Hampton


Virginia Vol.2


https://twitter.com/VSUTrojans/status/1006896826161729536


US Policy Changes Vol.92 (Quantitative Easing)

(The below excerpt is on our own.)

The Fed’s Yield-Curve-Control Policy (w PDF; 11/29/16) | Owen F. Humpage @ClevelandFed

…some may follow the example of Japan, which recently added a new long-term interest-rate target to its short-term target to give itself “yield-curve control.” …combining yield-curve control with quantitative easing when government borrowing needs are substantial can create constraints on monetary policy that are not easily removed.

… The Bank of Japan currently sets its short-term policy target—a rate paid on bank reserves—at –0.1 percent and now promises to cap its long-term target rate—that on 10-year government bonds—at approximately zero for the time being. …

The ultimate objective of recent quantitative easing programs in Japan, the United States, and elsewhere has been to lower long-term interest rates when policy rates are at their effective lower bound. …

… The Fed’s experience, however, suggests that combining yield-curve control with quantitative easing when government borrowing needs are substantial can create constraints on monetary policy that are not easily removed. Moreover, a central bank’s heavy involvement in a market can distort the behavior of private market participants to the detriment of market efficiency.

Wartime Yield-Curve Control
… The economy had been recovering from the 1937–38 recession, and by late 1941, output had caught up to where it likely would have been had the Great Depression never occurred. Likewise, the unemployment rate fell sharply in 1941, but some slack remained in the labor market at the start of 1942. …

… Gold had generally been flowing into the United States since Franklin D. Roosevelt devalued the dollar in 1934. …commercial banks held record levels of excess reserves in 1940, and the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) fretted that reserves “had risen beyond the System’s power to restrain an inflationary credit expansion should one develop” …

Figure 1.

In early 1942, … the Fed agreed to peg the Treasury-bill yield at 0.375 percent, to cap the critical long-term government bond yield at 2.5 percent… Setting interest rates in this manner, however, allowed the Treasury to expand bank reserves by issuing more securities than the public wished to hold when yields reached their caps, because the Fed then had to purchase them. …

…no one really knew if this yield-curve-control policy would work. Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, the only official with authority to announce the program to the public, never did so. He seemed to prefer a quantitative (excess-reserves) target. …

To tamp down measured inflation and inflation expectations, the Roosevelt Administration began introducing limited price controls as early as May 1940… The controls remained in place until November 1946…

… Excess reserves… continued to fall through mid-1944.

Under its yield-curve-control program, the Fed bought $20 billion worth of Treasury securities or approximately 10 percent of the debt that the Treasury issued between March 1942 and August 1945…

Figure 2.

The Accord
…bond holders would liquidate their government securities, forcing the Fed under its yield-curve-control policy to create reserves… By 1945, banks’ holdings of government securities equaled more than half of their total assets, and a substantial proportion of these matured beyond five years…

… The Treasury believed that it could not possibly finance its unprecedented levels of public debt at reasonable interest rates without the Fed’s continued participation in the government-securities market…

… In 1950, an inflation scare associated with the Korean War and growing congressional support for the Fed’s position led to a Treasury–Fed accord in March 1951, largely freeing monetary policy from its subordinate status vis-à-vis the Treasury’s debt-management operations…

Collateral Damage
… Moreover, the FOMC had directed its trading desk to maintain orderly conditions in government securities markets…

Federal Reserve Chairman William McChesney Martin… feared… by creating a “disconcerting degree of uncertainty” about when, how much, and where on the yield curve the Fed might intervene…

Martin believed that the Fed’s frequent interventions in the longer-term government securities market during and immediately after the war had robbed the market of its “depth, breadth, and resiliency,” … Martin wanted to confine open market operations to the short-end of the yield curve—preferably Treasury bills. …

… Many economists observed that the connection between changes in short-term rates and long-term rates—the link “bills preferable” relied on—was generally weak and often not dependable. They contended that open market operations in longer-term securities offered a viable mechanism for affecting the yield curve’s shape, which was as important as the level of interest rates. …

… Nevertheless, the Fed remained wary of the political consequences of appearing to interfere with the Treasury’s debt-financing operations and from 1954 through mid-1975 engaged in “even keel” operations. …

Passé?
… Yield-curve control gave the Treasury substantial influence over monetary policy and highlighted the major effect that monetary policies had on the cost of financing the government’s huge debts.

… The Bank of Japan has greatly expanded its portfolio of government bonds and has become a major factor in the government bond market, much like the Fed in 1945. …


New Hampshire Vol.2

NewHampshire1NewHampshire2


West Virginia Vol.2

WestVirginia1
WestVirginia2


US Policy Changes Vol.91 (North Korea Vol.8)


Arkansas Vol.2

Arkansas1
Arkansas2
@arkansasgov
@CityLittleRock
City of Fort Smith blog
City of Fayetteville GIS Interactive Maps
City of Springdale GIS & Interactive Mapping
@CityofJonesboro


US Policy Changes Vol.89 (North Korea Vol.7: US-North Korea summit meeting)


US Policy Changes Vol.88 (North Korea Vol.6: US-North Korea summit meeting)


US Policy Changes Vol.87 (North Korea Vol.5: US-North Korea summit meeting)


US Policy Changes Vol.86 (North Korea Vol.4: US-North Korea summit meeting)


Tennessee Vol.2

Tennessee1
Tennessee2


https://twitter.com/UTKnoxville/status/993943910232809474


Kentucky Vol.2

Kentucky1
Kentucky2 geo
Kentucky2'' regions


https://twitter.com/MinistryofHemp/status/916063952643039232


Wisconsin Vol.2

Wisconsin1
Wisconsin2


https://twitter.com/lourryinmyheart/status/755534062794649600


https://twitter.com/UWStevensPoint/status/993611485430669313


https://twitter.com/uw_superior/status/988843093993709568


https://twitter.com/UWM/status/999003223955566592


Rhode Island Vol.2

RhodeIsland1
RhodeIsland2


https://twitter.com/BrownUniversity/status/999251649607684096


Minnesota Vol.5


Minnesota Vol.2

Minnesota1
Minnesota2
Natural Resources | Minnesota State Government
Economic Sectors and Employment Patterns (PDF)
Minnesota economy | North Star Policy Institute
Economy | Minnesota Public Radio News (MPRnews)
OVERVIEW | MINNESOTA COMPASS
Public Policy and Minnesota’s Economy – A Historical View (PDF) | Russell W. Fridley
DID HIGHER TAXES CREATE THE MINNESOTA MIRACLE? (04/24/2014) | Naomi Lopez Bauman, Illinois Policy Institute
Minnesota | Forbes
THE ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF IMMIGRANTS IN MINNESOTA (PDF; September 2013) | Bruce P. Corrie & Sarah Radosevich
How Minnesota’s Economy Benefits from International Trade & Investment (PDF) | Business Roundtable
In Northern Minnesota, Two Economies Square Off: Mining vs Wilderness (10/12/2017) | REID FORGRAVE NYTimes
MINNESOTA FOREST INDUSTRIES
Tourism & Minnesota’s Economy (PDF) | Explore Minnesota
Minnesota Agriculture – THE FOUNDATION OF MINNESOTA’S ECONOMY 2007 (PDF)
Beef: Worth $5 billion to Minnesota’s economy – Most beef operations spend their money locally, too, providing investment in rural communities. (09/13/2017) | Paula Mohr
BIOPHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR IMPACT ON MINNESOTA’S ECONOMY (PDF)
MINNESOTA GOLF ECONOMY (PDF)
THE IMPACT OF MINNESOTA’S ARTISTS, CREATIVE WORKERS AND NONPROFIT ARTS AND CULTURE ORGANIZATIONS 2017
Who’s winning and losing in Minnesota’s 2016 economy? (12/03/2016) | DAVID MONTGOMERY and BRIAN EDWARDS, AP
How Central Minnesota’s Economy, Population has Boomed Over the Last Few Decades (02/08/2018) | Greta Kaul, Twin City Business
City of Minneapolis
City of St. Paul
Minnesota Chamber of Commerce news


https://twitter.com/xeni/status/792888873735057408


Switzerland Vol.3

Switzerland | OECD
Switzerland | The World Bank
Switzerland | The European Commission
2018 Index of Economic Freedom – Switzerland | The Heritage Foundation
Switzerland: Economy | global EDGE – Michigan State University
The Economic Performance of Swiss Regions – Indicators of Economic Performance, Composition of Cantonal Economies and Clusters of Traded Industries (PDF) | Philippe Gugler & Michael Keller Center for Competitiveness, University of Fribourg
Swiss economy to finally overcome weakness caused by sharp appreciation of Swiss franc – Year Ahead 2018 regional outlook: Switzerland (29/11/2017) | UBS
Switzerland – GDP and Economic Data | Global Finance
SWITZERLAND | EULER HERMES
Switzerland | Coface
Switzerland: the 2018 economic outlook (15/01/2018) | Roger Keller BNP PARIBAS
Switzerland Economy | ECONOMY WATCH
Best Countries For Business 2018 – Switzerland | Forbes
Switzerland – Detailed economic analysis, indicators and forecasts. | Moody’s Analytics, Inc.
Swiss National Bank
Free trade agreement Switzerland/EU and EFTA agreements (PDF)
Invest in Switzerland – Key Industries | Switzerland Global Enterprise
The Productivity Deficit of the Knowledge-Intensive Business Service Industries in Switzerland (PDF; 2015) | Boris Kaiser & Michael Siegenthaler – Study on behalf of the State Secretariat for Economic Affairs SECO
Greater Zurich Area
Switzerland | The Local
Switzerland | BBC
Switzerland | Guardian
Switzerland | The Telegraph
Switzerland | The New York Times
Switzerland | CNBC
Switzerland | CNN Money
Swiss Bankers Association
Switzerland (PDF) | Financial Secrecy Index
Switzerland | US News
Switzerland | EIU
Switzerland | The Economist
Switzerland | Credit Suisse
Switzerland | UN Global Compact
Switzerland – Human Development Indicators | UNDP
The CPT and Switzerland | Council of Europe
Switzerland | IAEA PRIS
Switzerland | National Geographic
Economy | Switzerland Tourism
Switzerland Innovation
Transforming the Swiss economy – The impact of automation on employment and industries | Deloitte
Switzerland | ARAB NEWS
Switzerland | Trading Economics
Is Switzerland the Perfect Economy? (07/31/2015) | Lina Kherchi The market Mogul
What makes Switzerland so competitive? (03/09/2014) | Thierry Geiger WEF
A Note on Switzerland’s Economy – Did the Swiss economy really stagnate in the 1990’s, and is Switzerland really all that rich ? (PDF) | Jean-Christian Lambelet and Alexander Mihailov Crea Institute, Lausanne University
Switzerland: Economy Overview (02/02/2010) | Ina Dimireva EUbusiness
Switzerland | European Social Survey
Switzerland’s Economic Dependence during World War II | HISTORY OF SWITZERLAND
Commanding Heights : Switzerland Overview | PBS
Global Innovation Index 2017: Switzerland, Sweden, Netherlands, USA, UK Top Annual Ranking (06/15/2017) | WIPO


Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.44


https://twitter.com/EU_Commission/status/961141486250164224


Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.43


https://twitter.com/eyeonthearctic/status/961585405807210498


https://twitter.com/ValaAfshar/status/955801924867108865


Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.42


https://twitter.com/tradegovuk/status/969169828442525696


Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.41


Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.40


https://twitter.com/The_GA/status/956911551801421824


https://twitter.com/merrionstreet/status/964507886083768320