Germany Vol.6 (Grand Coalition 2018 #GroKo, et al.)

Germany: Merkel’s next cabinet shows youth trend (11/03/2018) | @dwnews
Chancellor: Angela Merkel (CDU)
Chief of Staff at the Chancellery: Helge Braun (CDU)
Minister of the Interior, Heimat and Construction: Horst Seehofer (CSU)
The fight for the Foreign Ministry: Heiko Maas (SPD)
Finance Minister: Olaf Scholz (SPD)
Minister of Defense: Ursula von der Leyen (CDU)
Economic and Energy Affairs Minister: Peter Altmaier (CDU)
Minister of Justice and Consumer Protection: Katarina Barley (SPD)
Minister of Labor and Social Affairs: Hubertus Heil (SPD)
Minister for the Environment: Svenja Schulze (SPD)
Minister for Health: Jens Spahn (CDU)
Minister of Education and Research: Anja Karliczek (CDU)
Minister for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth: Franziska Giffey (SPD-Mayor Berlin-Neukolln)
Minister of Economic Cooperation and Development: Gerd Muller (CSU)
Minister of Transport and Digital Infrastructure: Andreas Scheuer (CSU)
Minister for Food and Agriculture: Julia Klockner (CDU)
@cducsubt @CDU @CSU
German Elections: Mapping Economic Policy Preferences (09/14/2017) | Caspar Kolster @gmfus
Germany: A New Government Is off to a Weak Start (03/14/2018) | @stratfor
Coalition watch – The making of a new German government (14/03/2018) | Soren Amelang, Kerstine Appunn, Sven Egenter, Benjamin Wehrmann, Julian Wettengel CLEW
Angela Merkel sworn in for fourth term as German Chancellor (03/14/2018) | Judith Vonberg @CNN
Angela Merkel re-elected as German chancellor to fourth term after five months of political deadlock (14/03/2018) | @tomemburyd @independent
The SPD just won the Frankfurt mayoralty in a landslide. So why are Germany’s cities going red? (03/15/2018) | Stephen Jorgenson-Murray @CityMetric
Merkel secures fourth term in power after SPD backs coalition deal (04/03/2018) | Philip Oltermann @guardian
The last thing Germany – and Europe – needs is a grand coalition (23/02/2018) | Timothy Garton Ash @guardian
German coalition talks to continue on Monday and focus on health and labor (02/04/2018) | Michelle Martin & Andreas Rinke @reuters

UK Vol.112 (Post-EUref #Brexit Vol.36)

UK Vol.111 (Post-EUref #Brexit Vol.35)

US Policy Changes Vol.82 (Asia)

Great stuff!

Can China Back Down? Crisis De-escalation in the Shadow of Popular Opposition (w PDF; Winter 2017/18) | Kai Quek, Alastair Iain Johnston @BelferCenter
The autocrat’s Achilles’ heel (02/05/2018) | Alina Polyakova and Torrey Taussig
One Kim to rule them all (02/18/2018) | Nicholas Eberstadt @AEI
THE EDUCATION OF KIM JONG-UN (February 2018) | JUNG H. PAK @BrookingsInst
US Approach to Russia in New Nuclear Posture Review Risks Boosting Chances of Conflict (02/02/2018) | Jon Wolfsthal @russia_matters

Ex-CIA analysts explain why a bloody nose policy on North Korea would backfire (02/12/2018) | Jung H. Pak, Sue Mi Terry, and Bruce Klingner @BrookingsInst

US Policy Changes Vol.80 (Middle East)

Great stuff!

Are Oil Prices Heading for Another Spike? (01/31/2018) | Carmen Reinhart, Vincent Reinhart @ProSyn @BelferCenter
OPEC’s Misleading Narrative About World Oil Supply (w PDF; March 2017) | Leonardo Maugeri @BelferCenter
Inside the Middle East Q&A: Ali Ahmad on Nuclear Power and Energy in the Middle East (Podcast; 02/20/2018) | @BelferCenter
A Lasting Defeat: The Campaign to Destroy ISIS (October 2017) | Ash Carter @BelferCenter
The Syrian crisis: A reckoning and a road map (09/12/2017) | Itamar Rabinovich @BrookingsInst
Don’t underestimate Kurdistan’s resilience (09/22/2017) | Ranj Alaaldin @BrookingsInst
A political surge is what’s needed in Afghanistan (05/30/2017) | Douglas Lute @thehill
Is it time for India to play a role in Israeli-Palestinian peace? (02/22/2018) | Kadira Pethiyagoda @BrookingInst
Who is responsible for solving Gaza’s massive electricity crisis? (02/05/2018) | Diana B. Greenwald @washingtonpost
Iran and Israel face off in Syria, as if it wasn’t complicated enough (02/13/2018) | Dror Michman and Yael Mizrahi-Arnaud @Brookingsinst
A Poorly Negotiated Saudi Nuclear Deal Could Damage Future Regional Relationships (02/05/2018) | Henry Sokolski, William H. Tobey @TheNatlInterest
Saudi Reforms Get a Boost From Google (02/04/2018) | Karen Elliott House @WSJ
Trump, Jerusalem, and a dispensable Arab region (12/06/2017) | Rami G. Khouri @agenceglobal
Jerusalem: securing spaces in holy places (07/31/2017) | Beverley Milton-Edwards @BrookingsInst
Jerusalem: After 30 years of hope and failure, what’s next for Israel/Palestine? (12/13/2017) | Hady Amr @BrookingsInst
Has Israel Grown Too Dependent on the United States? (02/05/2018) | Chuck Freilich @mosaicmag
How much does BDS threaten Israel’s economy? (01/26/2018) | Dany Bahar and Natan Sachs @BrookingsInst
The two things that will determine Netanyahu’s fate (02/15/2018) | Natan Sachs @BrookingsInst
Trump Wants to Attack North Korea? He Should Learn from Israel First (02/01/2018) | David Ignatius @washingtonpost
Cooperation in the Libya WMD Disarmament Case (PDF) | William Tobey
Verifying the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons and Providing Assurance against Breakout (w PDF; February 2018) | John Carlson @BelferCenter
The World Doesn’t Need Any More Nuclear Strategies (02/06/2018) | Stephen M. Walt @ForeignPolicy

US Policy Changes Vol.79 (National Defense Strategy, National Security Strategy, Geopolitics, Transatlantic divide, et al.)

Great stuff!

Repair and Rebuild: Balancing New Military Spending for a Three-Theater Strategy | Mackenzie Eaglen @AEI
Questions about the Nuclear Posture Review (02/05/2018) | Steven Pifer @Belfercenter
Watch: Experts discuss an era of new geopolitics (w Video; 02/07/2018) | Ryan Hass, Bruce Jones, Robert Kagan, Suzanne Maloney, Jung H. Pak, Alina Polyakova, and Thomas Wright @BrookingsInst
Making Sense of the U.S. National Defense Strategy (02/05/2018) | Kevin Ryan @CarnegieRussia Moscow Center

Restoring equilibrium: U.S. policy options for countering and engaging Russia (w PDF: February 2018) | Sergey Aleksashenko, Pavel K. Baev, Michael E. O’Hanlon, Steven Pifer, Alina Polyakova, Angela Stent, Strobe Talbott, Thomas Wright, Torrey Taussig, and Bruce Jones @BrookingsInst
A Humpty Dumpty Europe, feat. Cathryn Cluver Ashbrook (Podcast; 02/01/2018) | @BelferCenter
Normal is over: Europeans hope that the Trump era is an anomaly. But the transatlantic divide has never been so stark (w PDF; February 2018) | Constanze Stelzenmuller @BrookingsInst
What did Trump say and not say about foreign policy in Tuesday’s speech? (w PDF; 01/31/2018) | @NewsHour
Trump, Nunes and the politicisation of intelligence (02/07/2018) | Calder Walton @prospect_uk

US Policy Changes Vol.78 (Global politics, Nuclear deterrence, Economic inequality, Mobility, et al.)

Great stuff!

An Outlook on Global Politics 2018 (w PDF; 01/23/2018) | Nicholas Burns @BelferCenter

Who’s Afraid of a Balance of Power? (12/08/2017) | Stephen M. Walt @ForeignPolicy

The European trust crisis and the rise of populism (w PDFs; 09/07/2017) | Yann Algan, Sergei Guriev, Elias Papaioannou, and Evgenia Passari @BrookingsInst

A post-American Europe and the future of U.S. strategy (w PDF; December 2017) | Thomas Wright @BrookingsInst

America is on the brink of a historic break with Europe, thanks to Trump (12/26/2016) | Nicholas Burns @USAToday

How to read the 2018 National Defense Strategy (01/21/2018) | Mara Karlin @BrookingsInst

Brookings experts on Trump’s National Security Strategy (12/21/2017) | @BrookingsInst

Crafting Trump’s first National Security Strategy: What it could be?and why it might not matter anyway (09/13/2017) | Tarun Chhabra @BrookingsInst

Former Commander: Here’s What Happens When the President Orders a Nuclear Strike (w Video; 08/11/2017) | James Winnefeld @Fortune

The New Era of Counterforce: Technological Change and the Future of Nuclear Deterrence (w PDF; Spring 2017) | Keir A. Lieber & Daryl Press @Journal_IS

Nuclear Deterrence in the Computer Age: The Erosion of Stalemate (w PDF; 05/16/2017) | Keir A. Lieber & Daryl Press @Journal_IS

The 1967 War (Podcast; 06/02/2017) | Khaled Elgindy, Shadi Hamid, Martin S. Indyk, Natan Sachs, Tamara Cofman Wittes, and Fred Dews @BrookingsInst

Twelve economic facts on energy and climate change: A joint report from The Hamilton Project and the Energy Policy Institute at the University of Chicago (w PDF; 03/27/2017)

A Time to Repair the Roof: A Speech by International Monetary Fund Managing Director Christine Lagarde (w Transcript & Video; 10/05/2017) | (Nicholas Burns, Lawrence Summers) @futurediplomacy

Charles Murray on Culture vs. Economics – From the book “This Way Up” | @AEI

Teaching about economic inequality is political, but not the way you think (12/06/2017) | Joel Westheimer and John Rogers @BrookingsInst

The Copenhagen City and Port Development Corporation: A model for regenerating cities (w PDF; 06/01/2017) | Bruce Katz and Luise Noring @BrookingsInst

The future of mobility: Why your new car is like an electronic typewriter (01/17/2018) | Wolfgang Fengler @BrookingsInst

Gauging investment in self-driving cars (w Excel; 10/16/2017) | Cameron F. Kerry and Jack Karsten

It’s Energy Week: Here are 10 lessons about buying or leasing an electric car (06/27/2017) | Timmons Roberts

Eleven facts about innovation and patents (w PDF; 12/13/2017) | Jay Shambaugh, Ryan Nunn, and Becca Portman @BrookingsInst

2017 Annual Report | @AEI

US Policy Changes Vol.77 (Asia, et al.)

Great stuff!

The general public thinks the average company makes a 36% profit margin, which is about 5X too high, Part II (01/15/2018) | Mark J. Perry @AEI

Part I (04/02/2015)

Is another debt crisis on the way? (12/18/2017) | Kemal Dervi? @BrookingsInst

Realism and North Korea (07/02/2017) | James Winnefeld and Michael Morell @thecipherbrief

Avoiding nuclear conflict on the Korean peninsula (Podcast; 01/17/2018) | Ryan Hass, Bruce Jones, Jung H. Pak, and Adrianna Pita @BrookingsInst

Beyond maximum pressure: A pathway to North Korean denuclearization (w PDF; December 2017) | Jung H. Pak and Ryan Hass @BrookingsInst

Understanding the North Korea Threat (12/06/2017) | Joseph S. Nye @BelferCenter

North Korea’s Biological Weapons Program: The Known and Unknown (October 2017) | Elizabeth Philipp, Hyun-Kyung Kim, Hattie Chung @BelferCenter

Approaching the North Korea challenge realistically (w PDF; 08/14/2017) | Robert Einhorn @BrookingsInst

Why deterring and containing North Korea is our least bad option (08/08/2017) | Jeffrey A. Bader @BrookingsInst

The Korean nuclear issue: Past, present, and future: A Chinese perspective (04/30/2017) | Fu Ying @BrookingsInst

Can Chinese banks identify North Korean sanctions evaders? (04/10/2017) | Aaron Arnold @BulletinAtomic

What Can Vietnam Learn From China’s Economic Retaliation Against South Korea?: China’s punishment for THAAD could preview what Vietnam can expect if South China Sea tensions rise too high. (03/29/2017) | Viet Phuong Nguyen @Diplomat_APAC

Freedom of Navigation in the South China Sea: A Practical Guide (June 2017) | Eleanor Freund / Andrew Facini @BelferCenter

Was pre-Trump U.S. policy towards China based on “false” premises?: China in Trump’s National Security Strategy (12/22/2017) | Jeffrey A. Bader and Ryan Hass @BrookingsInst

Is Chinese Nationalism Rising? Evidence from Beijing (w PDF; Winter 2016/17) | Alastair Iain Johnston @Journal_IS

Balancing China: How to Check Chinese Military Expansion in East Asia (w PDF; November 2017) | Michael Beckley @BelferCenter

China, America and the Thucydides Trap: An interview with Graham Allison (23/08/2017) | Sam Roggeveen @LowyInstitute

The troubling U.S.-China face-off (June 2017) | Harvard Gazette

Avoiding war: Containment, competition, and cooperation in U.S.-China relations (w PDF; 11/21/2017) | David Dollar, Ryan Hass, Robert Kagan, Kenneth G. Lieberthal, Cheng Li, Mira Rapp-Hooper, Jonathan Stromseth, Bruce Jones, and Tarun Chhabra

How China Cheats (11/02/2017) | Derek Scissors @NRO

Trump’s War – More Risk Than Reward for US Military Involvement in Afghanistan (w Video; 08/22/2017) | Rolf Mowatt-Larssen @JustSecurity

The outlines of Trump’s Asia strategy: The President’s Asian trip sketched out a smart approach to containing North Korea, competing with China, and rebuilding trust with allies. Now comes the time to fill in the blanks. (11/17/2017) | Dan Blumenthal @AEI

The new geopolitics of trade in Asia (11/15/2017) | Mireya Solis @BrookingsInst

Russia, China and the Uncertain Future of the Collective West: Q&A with Kevin Rudd (03/29/2017) | @russia_matters

After the INF Treaty: An Objective Look at US and Russian Compliance, Plus a New Arms Control Regime (12/07/2017) | Kevin Ryan @russia_matters

Putin’s disinformation war on the West (Podcast; 12/15/2017) | Alina Polyakova and Fred Dews @BrookingsInst

Dreaming Spies: The Inside Story of the KGB at Oxford (12/01/2017) | Calder Walton @prospect_uk

Russia’s Lasting Influence in Central Asia (11/19/2017) | Morena Skalamera @Survival

TPPs for success: Here is how India can use this gamechanger agreement (07/17/2017) | Harsha Vardhana Singh @BrookingsInst

Tokyo and Washington Have Another Nuclear Problem: There’s a plutonium arms race brewing in East Asia that could see China, Japan, and South Korea with the capability to make tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. (08/17/2017) | HENRY SOKOLSKI, WILLIAM TOBEY @ForeignPolicy

Some reflections on Japanese monetary policy (05/23/2017) | Ben S. Bernanke @BrookingsInst

‘There were just so many things that I was curious about’ (05/09/2017) | Harvard Gazette

US Policy Changes Vol.76 (Trade, Energy, National Security, Financial Regulation, Tax, Values, et al.)

Great stuff!

Export Monitor 2017 (w PDFs; 08/18/2017) | Joseph Parilla and Nick Marchio @BrookingsInst

When renegotiating NAFTA, Trump should re-evaluate his premises on international trade (08/17/2017) | Dany Bahar @BrookingsInst

NAFTA renegotiation: Separating fact from fiction (08/17/2017) | Amanda Waldron @BrookingsInst

American Energy Policy (w PDF; April 2017) | Daniel Poneman @BelferCenter

Is the United States the new Saudi Arabia? (01/26/2018) | Samantha Gross @BrookingsInst

Learning from Katrina to care for Hurricane Harvey’s youngest victims (09/06/2017) | Jon Valant @BrookingsInst

Trump’s border wall is standard practice in other parts of the world (01/23/2018) | Michael Rubin @BrookingsInst

Hitting the wall: On immigration, campaign promises clash with policy realities (w PDF; 06/22/2017) | John Hudak, Elaine Kamarck, and Christine Stenglein @BrookingsInst

Strengthening and streamlining bank capital regulation (w PDFs; 09/07/2017) | Robin Greenwood, Samuel G. Hanson, Jeremy C. Stein, and Adi Sunderam @BrookingsInst

What Treasury’s financial regulation report gets right and where it goes too far (06/13/2017) | Nellie Liang @BrookingsInst

Hoarding the American Dream (Podcast & Transcript; 06/16/2017) | Richard V. Reeves, Bill Finan, and Fred Dews @BrookingsInst

Professionalism in politics: The paradox of populism (Podcast & Transcript; 06/28/2017) | Jonathan Rauch, Benjamin Wittes, and Adrianna Pita @BrookingsInst

Winners and losers in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (Podcast; 12/22/2017) | Fred Dews and Adam Looney @BrookingsInst

Next Task for GOP: Spend Less and Help the Poor – Republicans did well to cut corporate taxes, not so well at expanding opportunity. (12/19/2017) | Michael R. Strain @bpolitics

Who would pay for the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act? (w PDF; 12/08/2017) | William G. Gale, Surachai Khitatrakun, and Aaron Krupkin @BrookingsInst

Senate tax bill: Lower rates for corporations? Check. Broadening the tax base? Not so much. (12/05/2017) | Adam Looney and Hilary Gelfond @BrookingsInst

Relax, the housing market will be fine after tax reform (11/09/2017) | Alex Brill @AEI

Is the rent “too damn high”? Or are incomes too low? (12/19/2017) | Jenny Schuetz @BrookingsInst

Where the robots are (08/14/2017) | Mark Muro @BrookingsInst

Signs of digital distress: Mapping broadband availability and subscription in American neighborhoods (09/12/2017) | Adie Tomer, Elizabeth Kneebone, and Ranjitha Shivaram @BrookingsInst

Segregation and changing populations shape Rust Belt’s politics (09/14/2017) | John C. Austin @BrookingsInst

Census shows nonmetropolitan America is whiter, getting older, and losing population: Will it retain political clout? (06/27/2017) | William H. Frey @BrookingsInst

A primer on gerrymandering and political polarization (07/06/2017) | Fred Dews @BrookingsInst

The geography of desperation in America (07/24/2017) | Carol Graham, Sergio Pinto, and John Juneau II @BrookingsInst

Will the release of the JFK assassination records put to rest one of the most widely believed conspiracy theories? (w Video; 10/27/2017) | Karlyn Bowman @AEI

The Rudeness of King Donald (12/04/2017) | Niall Ferguson @BostonGlobe

US Policy Changes Vol.75 (North Korea)

Great stuff: The Method in North Korea’s Madness: A monstrous regime’s rational statecraft (01/16/2018) | Nicholas Eberstadt @Commentary. Excerpt is on our own.

… A CIA study in the late 1970s, for example, concluded that South Korea did not catch up with North Korea until 1975. …
In 1984, Kim Il Sung made a fateful error: He leaned decisively toward Moscow, a tilt signaled by his unprecedented six-week state visit to the USSR and Eastern Europe that same year. The gamble paid off initially: Between 1985 and 1989, the Kremlin transferred around $7 billion to Pyongyang, twice as much as the amount transferred over the entire previous 25 years, much of it in military materiel. In 1988, North Korea relied on the Soviet bloc not only for almost all its net concessionary foreign-resources transfers, but also for roughly two-thirds of its international trade, most of it arranged on political, highly subsidized, terms.
Then the came the Soviet bloc’s collapse. By 1992 – the year after the collapse of the USSR – both trade and aid from the erstwhile Soviet bloc had plummeted by nearly 90 percent. North Korea’s worldwide overall supplies of merchandise from all foreign sources consequently plunged by more than half over those same years. …
… Rough estimates suggest that, by 1998, North Korea’s real per capita commercial merchandise exports were barely a third their level of just a decade earlier, while real per capita imports, including supplies indispensable to the performance of key sectors of the domestic economy, were down by about 75 percent. …
… Between 2002 and 2008, China’s annual net balance of shipments of goods to North Korea – its exports to Pyongyang minus corresponding imports – more than quintupled, rocketing upward from less than $300 million to more than $1.5 billion. …
…Kim Jong Il’s North Korea clawed its way back from famine to a low but acceptable new economic normal – all the while forswearing domestic economic reforms or genuinely commercial contacts with the outside world. North Korea did not completely avoid potentially fraught economic changes under Kim Jong Il, of course – that was beyond the powers even of the Dear Leader. Domestic cellphone use began during the Dear Leader’s reign… “transition without reform,” …
… Unlike the Great Leader, who had groomed his son to rule from an early age, Kim Jong Il himself put off the whole business of naming a successor for as long as he possibly could…
…the name of his signature policy: byungjin, or “simultaneous pursuit.” …
… Pyongyang does not “do” gratitude. … capricious cutbacks in free food from China in the year 1994 were the trigger for the Great North Korean Famine, which became impossible to conceal by 1995.
Today it is all but impossible to get by in North Korea on state-supplied provisions alone?and a wide array of goods and services, both foreign and domestic, are available for money in North Korean markets. Although formally prohibited, even real estate is for sale throughout the country, with a vibrant market for private flats in Pyongyang. And a wealthy marketeering caste has arisen: donju, or “money masters,”…
…Pyongyang has made unknown millions abroad from what we might call its own style of human trafficking: profiting off the tens of thousands of workers in labor gangs it has sent to China, Russia, the Middle East, and even parts of Europe. No less inventive has been Pyongyang’s apparent monetization of its growing capacity for cyberwarfare through international bank robbery. …
…Barely weeks after Tehran inked its September 2012 Scientific Cooperation Agreement with Pyongyang, the won suddenly ended its decade-long freefall and finally achieved exchange-rate stability. …
… China and Russia flagrantly and routinely violate the very sanctions their own Security Council representatives voted to impose. Most countries around the world still ignore them, too. In early 2017, the UN’s Panel of Experts on the sanctions reported that 116 of the UN’s 193 members had not yet bothered even to file implementation reports on the then-latest round (UNSC 2270, levied in response to Pyongyang’s fifth nuclear blast). The previous year, the Panel noted that 90 countries had never reported on any of the sanction resolutions against North Korea (eight at that time, the first of them ratified a decade before that report). …
As 2018 commences, three big changes …
… The Achilles’ heel of the North Korean economy – and thus, of Pyongyang’s nuclear and missile programs – is its existential dependence on foreign aid and outside money. …
Washington can also take the lead in lobbying governments to shut down the North Korean work crews operating within their own countries – these are too close to slave labor for comfort. This need not be quiet diplomacy. The complicit governments in question, including Beijing and Putin’s Kremlin, deserve to be called out publicly if they are intransigent. …
… America gets to decide who can, and who cannot, engage in the dollar-denominated financial transactions with the myriad of correspondent banks serving the globe, for which the Federal Reserve Bank is the clearing house. Existing legislation and executive orders already provide the U.S. government with a panoply of instruments for inflicting nuanced and escalating economic penalties and losses on…
…we should not lose sight of the money that North Korea receives through arrangements with other governments -including states in Africa and the Middle East that receive U.S. foreign aid. …
…some of the best work mapping out the connections between Chinese front companies and the North Korean military these days should apparently come from a small think tank, C4ADS, that relies entirely on open sources. …
…we can help shut down North Korea’s worldwide criminal enterprises, arrest their international accomplices, freeze and seize violators’ overseas assets (not just Kim Jong Un’s assets: think Iran, Syria, Hezbollah, and the rest), and levy potentially devastating fines against…
… North Korea will test the stomach and the will of the pressure alliance, threatening what sees as the campaign’s weakest and the most exposed elements and ranks. …
… There are good reasons to think North Korea would not resort to first use of nuclear weapons, most compelling among them, its own state-enshrined doctrine known as “Ten Principles for the Establishment of a Monolithic Ideology.” (The essence of this doctrine: The Hive must keep the Queen safe, and at all cost.) But there is no sugarcoating the terrible risks, including risks of miscalculation…

Texas Vol.4

Iran Nuclear Agreement Vol.5

Iran Nuclear Agreement Vol.4

What the Iran nuclear deal means for oil prices (07/15/2017) | @bradplumer @vox
Oil prices slide as Iran’s nuclear deal spells trouble for U.S. shale (07/14/2015) | Geoffrey Smith @fortune
How Would The Iran Nuclear Deal Impact Oil Prices? (06/29/2015) | @forbes
Iran-US Interim Agreement: Historic Breakthrough or Historic Sellout? (12/10/2013) | Dr James Petras @NewsBud_
Iran-US Regional Relations Subsequent to Nuclear Agreement (07/26/2015) | Masoud Rezaei @Iran_Review
World powers reach nuclear deal with Iran to freeze its nuclear program (11/24/2013) | Anne Gearan and Joby Warrick @washingtonpost
Why Europe Backs Obama on Iran (04/07/2015) | Carl Bildt @berggruenInst @HuffPost
Iran Nuclear Agreement | @plough_shares
Iran: Inside the Deal | @AJEnglish
Nuclear Iran | @cbsnews
Iran | @bilaterals_org

Iran Nuclear Agreement Vol.3

Ernest J. Moniz Addresses Global Nuclear Risks (Speech; 01/11/2018)
Information Note on EU sanctions to be lifted under the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) (PDF; 23/01/2016)
Annex II: Sanctions-related commitments | @StateDept

Iran: One year since sanctions relief (17/01/2017) | Henry Smith @Control_Risks
Iran: Flexibility in contract negotiations to arise out of uneven enforcement of local content regulations (10/05/2017) | Henry Smith @Control_Risks

Iran Nuclear Agreement Vol.2

Why the Iran protests matter (Voice; 01/02/2018) | Suzanne Maloney @BrookingsFP
Iran nuclear deal: Key details (13/10/2017) | @BBC
Iran Nuclear Agreement (PDF; 09/15/2017) | Kenneth Katzman & Paul K. Kerr @CRS4Congress
Full text of the Iran nuclear deal (14/07/2015) | @washingtonpost
Iran’s Nuclear Ambitions and Political Theory (06/03/2012) | Allison Kushner @FPA_ORG
Saving the Iran Nuclear Deal, Despite Trump’s Decertification (13/10/2017) | @CrisisGroup
The Real Promise of the US-Iran Agreement – Yes, it will prevent Iran from developing nukes. But it could also transform the Middle East, bringing  order and peace to a region falling into chaos. (07/16/2015) | @thenation
Proxy War Over Iran Nuclear Deal Divides U.S., Europe at UN (10/12/2017) | Kambiz Foroohar @bpolitics
The Iran Nuclear Deal – A Simple Guide (03/31/2015) | @nytimes
Trade – Iran | @EU_Commission

Iran Nuclear Agreement Vol.1

Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.33 (U.S. maps)

Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.31

Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.30

US Policy Changes Vol.74 (National Security Strategy)

The below excerpt of National Security Strategy of the United States of America DECEMBER 2017 (PDF) is on our own.

The American people elected me to make America great again. …
During my first year in office, you have witnessed my America First foreign policy in action. …
The United States faces an extraordinarily dangerous world, filled with a wide range of threats that have intensified in recent years. …
We are rallying the world against the rogue regime in North Korea and confronting the danger posed by the dictatorship in Iran, which those determined to pursue a flawed nuclear deal had neglected. …
At home, we have restored confidence in America’s purpose. …
The whole world is lifted by America’s renewal and the reemergence of American leadership. …

… Putting America first is the duty of our government and the foundation for U.S. leadership in the world.
A strong America is in the vital interests of not only the American people, but also those around the world who want to partner with the United States in pursuit of shared interests, values, and aspirations.
… Liberty and independence have given us the flourishing society Americans enjoy today-a vibrant and confident Nation, welcoming of disagreement and differences, but united by the bonds of history, culture, beliefs, and principles that define who we are.
… American political, business, and military leaders worked together with their counterparts in Europe and Asia to shape the post-war order through the United Nations, the Marshall Plan, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and other institutions designed to advance our shared interests of security, freedom, and peace. …
A Competitive World
… China and Russia challenge American power, influence, and interests, attempting to erode American security and prosperity. …
…jihadist terrorists such as ISIS and al-Qa’ida continue to spread a barbaric ideology that calls for the violent destruction of governments and innocents they consider to be apostates. …
… North Korea-a country that starves its own people-has spent hundreds of millions of dollars on nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons that could threaten our homeland. …
An America First National Security Strategy
First, our fundamental responsibility is to protect the American people, the homeland, and the American way of life.
Second, we will promote American prosperity. …
Third, we will preserve peace through strength by rebuilding our military so that it remains preeminent, deters our adversaries, and if necessary, is able to fight and win. …
Fourth, we will advance American influence because a world that supports American interests and reflects our values makes America more secure and prosperous. …

… North Korea seeks the capability to kill millions of Americans with nuclear weapons. … Non-state actors undermine social order through drug and human trafficking networks…
Secure U.S. Borders and Territory
Defend Against Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)
…deploying a layered missile defense system focused on North Korea and Iran to defend… Enhanced missile defense is not intended to undermine strategic stability or disrupt longstanding strategic relationships with Russia or China. …
Combat Biothreats and Pandemics
Strengthen Border Control and Immigration Policy
Pursue Threats to Their Source
Defeat Jihadist Terrorists
Dismantle Transnational Criminal Organizations
Keep America Safe in the Cyber Era
…assess risk across six key areas: national security, energy and power, banking and finance, health and safety, communications, and transportation. …
Promote American Resilience

… Working with our allies and partners, the United States led the creation of a group of financial institutions and other economic forums that established equitable rules and built instruments to stabilize the international economy and remove the points of friction that had contributed to two world wars. …
… Experience shows that these countries distorted and undermined key economic institutions without undertaking significant reform of their economies or politics. They espouse free trade rhetoric and exploit its benefits, but only adhere selectively to the rules and agreements. …
Rejuvenate the Domestic Economy
… Departments and agencies will eliminate unnecessary regulations that stifle growth, drive up costs for American businesses, impede research and development, discourage hiring, and incentivize domestic businesses to move overseas. …
… Federal, state, and local governments will work together with private industry to improve our airports, seaports and waterways, roads and railways, transit systems, and telecommunications. …
Promote Free, Fair, and Reciprocal Economic Relationships
…will pursue bilateral trade and investment agreements with countries that commit to fair and reciprocal trade and will modernize existing agreements to ensure they are consistent with those principles. …
Lead in Research, Technology, Invention, and Innovation
… The Department of Defense and other agencies will establish strategic partnerships with U.S. companies to help align private sector R&D resources to priority national security applications. …
Promote and Protect the U.S. National Security Innovation Base
…will reduce the illicit appropriation of U.S. public and private sector technology and technical knowledge by hostile foreign competitors. …
…will review visa procedures to reduce economic theft by non-traditional intelligence collectors. …
Embrace Energy Dominance
…will streamline the Federal regulatory approval processes for energy infrastructure, from pipeline and export terminals to container shipments and gathering lines, while also ensuring responsible environmental stewardship.

… Three main sets of challengers-the revisionist powers of China and Russia, the rogue states of Iran and North Korea, and transnational threat organizations, particularly jihadist terrorist groups-are actively competing against the United States and our allies and partners. …
… China and Russia want to shape a world antithetical to U.S. values and interests. China seeks to displace the United States in the Indo-Pacific region, expand the reaches of its state-driven economic model, and reorder the region in its favor. Russia seeks to restore its great power status and establish spheres of influence near its borders. The intentions of both nations are not necessarily fixed. …
For decades, U.S. policy was rooted in the belief that support for China’s rise and for its integration into the post-war international order would liberalize China. Contrary to our hopes, China expanded its power at the expense of the sovereignty of others. China gathers and exploits data on an unrivaled scale and spreads features of its authoritarian system, including corruption and the use of surveillance. It is building the most capable and well-funded military in the world, after our own. Its nuclear arsenal is growing and diversifying. Part of China’s military modernization and economic expansion is due to its access to the U.S. innovation economy, including America’s world-class universities.
Russia aims to weaken U.S. influence in the world and divide us from our allies and partners. …
Renew America’s Competitive Advantages
Renew Capabilities
Defense Industrial Base
…will work with industry partners to strengthen U.S. competitiveness in key technologies and manufacturing capabilities. …
Nuclear Forces
… America’s newly re-established National Space Council, chaired by the Vice President, will review America’s long-range space goals and develop a strategy that integrates all space sectors to support innovation and American leadership in space.
… To prevent the theft of sensitive and proprietary information and maintain supply chain integrity, the United States must increase our understanding of the economic policy priorities of our adversaries and improve our ability to detect and defeat their attempts to commit economic espionage. …
Diplomacy and Statecraft
Competitive Diplomacy
… Diplomacy is indispensable to identify and implement solutions to conflicts in unstable regions of the world short of military involvement. It helps to galvanize allies for action and marshal the collective resources of like-minded nations and organizations to address shared problems. Authoritarian states are eager to replace the United States where the United States withdraws our diplomats and closes our outposts. …
… Diplomats must identify opportunities for commerce and cooperation, and facilitate the cultural, educational, and people-to-people exchanges that create the networks of current and future political, civil society, and educational leaders who will extend a free and prosperous world.
Tools of Economic Diplomacy
… Economic tools?including sanctions, anti-money-laundering and anti-corruption measures, and enforcement actions?can be important parts of broader strategies to deter, coerce, and constrain adversaries. …
Information Statecraft
… China, for example, combines data and the use of AI to rate the loyal of its citizens to the state and uses these ratings to determine jobs and more. Jihadist…
Russia uses information operations as part of its offensive cyber efforts to influence public opinion across the globe. …
… Local voices are most compelling and effective in ideological competitions. We must amplify credible voices and partner with them to advance alternatives to violent and hateful messages. …

… During the Cold War, a totalitarian threat from the Soviet Union motivated the free world to create coalitions in defense of liberty. Today’s challenges to free societies are just as serious, but more diverse. …
… The United States offers partnership to those who share our aspirations for freedom and prosperity. We lead by example. “The world has its eye upon America,” Alexander Hamilton once observed. “The noble struggle we have made in the cause of liberty, has occasioned a kind of revolution in human sentiment. …
Encourage Aspiring Partners
… China and Russia target their investments in the developing world to expand influence and gain competitive advantages against the United States. China is investing billions of dollars in infrastructure across the globe. Russia, too, projects its influence economically, through the control of key energy and other infrastructure throughout parts of Europe and Central Asia. …
… The United States will promote a development model that partners with countries that want progress, consistent with their culture, based on free market principles, fair and reciprocal trade, private sector activity, and rule of law. The United States will shift away from a reliance on assistance based on grants to approaches that attract private capital and catalyze private sector activity. …
Achieve Better Outcomes in Multilateral Forums
… Authoritarian actors have long recognized the power of multilateral bodies and have used them to advance their interests and limit the freedom of their own citizens. If the United States cedes leadership of these bodies to adversaries, opportunities to shape developments that are positive for the United States will be lost. All institutions are not equal, however. …
… The United Nations can help contribute to solving many of the complex problems in the world, but it must be reformed and recommit to its founding principles. We will require accountability and emphasize shared responsibility among members. If the United States is asked to provide a disproportionate level of support for an institution, we will expect a commensurate degree of influence over the direction and efforts of that institution. …
…  The United States will promote the free flow of data and protect its interests through active engagement in key organizations, such as the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), the Internet Governance Forum (IGF), the UN, and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
Champion American Values
… America’s core principles, enshrined in the Declaration of Independence, are secured by the Bill of Rights, which proclaims our respect for fundamental individual liberties beginning with the freedoms of religion, speech, the press, and assembly. Liberty, free enterprise, equal justice under the law, and the dignity of every human life are central to who we are as a people. …
… We support, with our words and actions, those who live under oppressive regimes and who seek freedom, individual dignity, and the rule of law. We are under no obligation to offer the benefits of our free and prosperous community to repressive regimes and human rights abusers. We may use diplomacy, sanctions, and other tools to isolate states and leaders who threaten our interests and whose actions run contrary to our values. …

… Although the United States seeks to continue to cooperate with China… Its efforts to build and militarize outposts in the South China Sea endanger the free flow of trade, threaten the sovereignty of other nations, and undermine regional stability. China has mounted a rapid military modernization campaign designed to limit U.S. access to the region…
… Our alliance and friendship with South Korea, forged by the trials of history, is stronger than ever. We welcome and support the strong leadership role of our critical ally, Japan. Australia has fought alongside us in every significant conflict since World War I… New Zealand is a key U.S. partner contributing to peace and security across the region. We welcome India’s emergence as a leading global power and stronger strategic and defense partner. We will seek to increase quadrilateral cooperation with Japan, Australia, and India.
In Southeast Asia, the Philippines and Thailand remain important allies and markets for Americans. Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore are growing security and economic partners of the United States. …
… We will work with allies and partners to achieve complete, verifiable, and irreversible denuclearization on the Korean Peninsula and preserve the non-proliferation regime in Northeast Asia.
…we will cooperate on missile defense with Japan and South Korea to move toward an area defense capability. We remain ready to respond with overwhelming force to North Korean aggression and will improve options to compel denuclearization of the peninsula. We will improve law enforcement, defense, and intelligence cooperation with Southeast Asian partners to address the growing terrorist threat. We will maintain our strong ties with Taiwan in accordance with our “One China” policy…
… Russia is using subversive measures to weaken the credibility of America’s commitment to Europe, undermine transatlantic unity, and weaken European institutions and governments. With its invasions of Georgia and Ukraine…
China is gaining a strategic foothold in Europe by expanding its unfair trade practices and investing in key industries, sensitive technologies, and infrastructure. Europe also faces immediate threats from violent Islamist extremists. Attacks by ISIS and other jihadist…
… We will encourage European foreign direct investment in the United States to create jobs. We will work with our allies and partners to diversify European energy sources to ensure the energy security of European countries. We will work with our partners to contest China’s unfair trade and economic practices and restrict its acquisition of sensitive technologies.
… We expect our European allies to increase defense spending to 2 percent of gross domestic product by 2024, with 20 percent of this spending devoted to increasing military capabilities. …
Middle East
… For generations the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians has been understood as the prime irritant preventing peace and prosperity in the region. Today, the threats from jihadist terrorist organizations and the threat from Iran are creating the realization that Israel is not the cause of the region’s problems. States have increasingly found common interests with Israel in confronting common threats. …
… We remain committed to helping our partners achieve a stable and prosperous region, including through a strong and integrated Gulf Cooperation Council. We will strengthen our long-term strategic partnership with Iraq as an independent state. We will seek a settlement to the Syrian civil war that sets the conditions for refugees to return home and rebuild their lives in safety. … We remain committed to helping facilitate a comprehensive peace agreement that is acceptable to both Israelis and Palestinians. …
South and Central Asia
… We will help South Asian nations maintain their sovereign as China increases its influence in the region. …
Western Hemisphere
Stable, friendly, and prosperous states in the Western Hemisphere enhance our security and benefit our economy. Democratic states connected by shared values and economic interests will reduce the violence, drug trafficking, and illegal immigration that threaten our common security…
… Transnational criminal organizations—including gangs and cartels—perpetuate violence and corruption, and threaten the stability of Central American states including Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador. In Venezuela and Cuba, governments cling to anachronistic leftist authoritarian models that continue to fail their people. Competitors have found operating space in the hemisphere.
China seeks to pull the region into its orbit through state-led investments and loans. Russia continues its failed politics of the Cold War by bolstering its radical Cuban allies as Cuba continues to repress its citizens. Both China and Russia support the dictatorship in Venezuela and are seeking to expand military linkages and arms sales across the region. …
… China is expanding its economic and military presence in Africa, growing from a small investor in the continent two decades ago into Africa’s largest trading partner today. Some Chinese practices undermine Africa’s long-term development by corrupting elites, dominating extractive industries, and locking countries into unsustainable and opaque debts and commitments. …
… We will offer American goods and services, both because it is profitable for us and because it serves as an alternative to China’s often extractive economic footprint on the continent. …

… It is realist because it acknowledges the central role of power in international politics, affirms that sovereign states are the best hope for a peaceful world, and clearly defines our national interests. It is principled because it is grounded in the knowledge that advancing American principles spreads peace and prosperity around the globe. We are guided by our values and disciplined by our interests. …

Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.27

Here are tweets of great stuff retweeted by @_WorldSolutions.

Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.26

Here are tweets of great stuff retweeted by @_WorldSolutions.

Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.25

Here are tweets of great stuff retweeted by @_WorldSolutions.

US Policy Changes Vol.73 (US business school professors Vol.6)

Here is a part of U.S. business schools’ tweets on economic/social/technological issues in which their professors/alumni are featured, quoted, et al. (mainly those from September to November 2017). Great stuff!
[We don’t have affiliations with these schools or people.]

US Policy Changes Vol.67 (US law professors Vol.3)

Here is a part of U.S. law schools’ recent tweets on legal and political issues in which their professors are featured, quoted, et al. (mainly those in November 2017). Great stuff!
[We don’t have affiliations with these schools or professors.]

US Policy Changes Vol.66 (US law professors Vol.2)

Here is a part of U.S. law schools’ recent tweets on legal and political issues in which their professors are featured, quoted, et al. (mainly those in November 2017). Great stuff!
[We don’t have affiliations with these schools or professors.]

US Policy Changes Vol.65 (US law professors Vol.1)

Here is a part of U.S. law schools’ recent tweets on legal and political issues in which their professors are featured, quoted, et al. (mainly those in November 2017). Great stuff!
[We don’t have affiliations with these schools or professors.]

Balkan Vol.3 (Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia)

former Yugoslavia
Bosnia & Herzegovina




Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.20

Here are tweets which include free papers, reports/articles (citing others), et al.

Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.19

Here are tweets which include free papers, reports/articles (citing others), and videos.