Germany Vol.6 (Grand Coalition 2018 #GroKo, et al.)

Germany: Merkel’s next cabinet shows youth trend (11/03/2018) | @dwnews
Chancellor: Angela Merkel (CDU)
Chief of Staff at the Chancellery: Helge Braun (CDU)
Minister of the Interior, Heimat and Construction: Horst Seehofer (CSU)
The fight for the Foreign Ministry: Heiko Maas (SPD)
Finance Minister: Olaf Scholz (SPD)
Minister of Defense: Ursula von der Leyen (CDU)
Economic and Energy Affairs Minister: Peter Altmaier (CDU)
Minister of Justice and Consumer Protection: Katarina Barley (SPD)
Minister of Labor and Social Affairs: Hubertus Heil (SPD)
Minister for the Environment: Svenja Schulze (SPD)
Minister for Health: Jens Spahn (CDU)
Minister of Education and Research: Anja Karliczek (CDU)
Minister for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth: Franziska Giffey (SPD-Mayor Berlin-Neukolln)
Minister of Economic Cooperation and Development: Gerd Muller (CSU)
Minister of Transport and Digital Infrastructure: Andreas Scheuer (CSU)
Minister for Food and Agriculture: Julia Klockner (CDU)
@cducsubt @CDU @CSU
German Elections: Mapping Economic Policy Preferences (09/14/2017) | Caspar Kolster @gmfus
Germany: A New Government Is off to a Weak Start (03/14/2018) | @stratfor
Coalition watch – The making of a new German government (14/03/2018) | Soren Amelang, Kerstine Appunn, Sven Egenter, Benjamin Wehrmann, Julian Wettengel CLEW
Angela Merkel sworn in for fourth term as German Chancellor (03/14/2018) | Judith Vonberg @CNN
Angela Merkel re-elected as German chancellor to fourth term after five months of political deadlock (14/03/2018) | @tomemburyd @independent
The SPD just won the Frankfurt mayoralty in a landslide. So why are Germany’s cities going red? (03/15/2018) | Stephen Jorgenson-Murray @CityMetric
Merkel secures fourth term in power after SPD backs coalition deal (04/03/2018) | Philip Oltermann @guardian
The last thing Germany – and Europe – needs is a grand coalition (23/02/2018) | Timothy Garton Ash @guardian
German coalition talks to continue on Monday and focus on health and labor (02/04/2018) | Michelle Martin & Andreas Rinke @reuters

Germany Vol.5 (Economy, et al.)

Germany’s Economy: Successes and Challenges (11/28/2017) | Kimberly Amadeo @thebalance
The Economic Miracle and Beyond
Germany: The Party System from 1963 to 2000 | Kimberly A. Allan
Focus Germany @DeutscheBank #dbresearch
How the German elections may affect Brexit | @leopoldtraugott @OpenEurope
German elections: Merkel looking for a (new) deputy (08/29/2017) | Daniel van Schoot and Stefan Koopman
Deutsche Bundesbank
Deutsche Bank
Commerzbank A.G.
KfW Group
DZ Bank Group
UniCredit Bank AG (HypoVereinsbank)
Landesbank Baden-Wurttemberg
Bayerische Landesbank
Norddeutsche Landesbank Girozentrale
Germany | @TheEconomist
Articles on German politics | @ConversationUS

UK Vol.113 (Post-EUref #Brexit Vol.37)

UK Vol.112 (Post-EUref #Brexit Vol.36)

UK Vol.111 (Post-EUref #Brexit Vol.35)

UK Vol.110 (Post-EUref #Brexit Vol.34)

UK Vol.109 (Post-EUref #Brexit Vol.33)

US Policy Changes Vol.82 (Asia)

Great stuff!

Can China Back Down? Crisis De-escalation in the Shadow of Popular Opposition (w PDF; Winter 2017/18) | Kai Quek, Alastair Iain Johnston @BelferCenter
The autocrat’s Achilles’ heel (02/05/2018) | Alina Polyakova and Torrey Taussig
One Kim to rule them all (02/18/2018) | Nicholas Eberstadt @AEI
THE EDUCATION OF KIM JONG-UN (February 2018) | JUNG H. PAK @BrookingsInst
US Approach to Russia in New Nuclear Posture Review Risks Boosting Chances of Conflict (02/02/2018) | Jon Wolfsthal @russia_matters

Ex-CIA analysts explain why a bloody nose policy on North Korea would backfire (02/12/2018) | Jung H. Pak, Sue Mi Terry, and Bruce Klingner @BrookingsInst

US Policy Changes Vol.81 (Economy, Monetary policy, Budget, Trade, Urban-Rural, et al.)

Great stuff!

A Fed duet: Janet Yellen in conversation with Ben Bernanke (Video; 02/27/2018) | @BrookingsInst
Credit, financial conditions, and monetary policy transmission (w PDF; 11/30/2017) | David Aikman, Andreas Lehnert, Nellie Liang, and Michele Modugno @BrookingsInst
What do stock market fluctuations mean for the economy? (02/23/2018) | Gary Burtless @BrookingsInst
The Hutchins Center Explains: Federal budget basics (05/23/2017) | Anna Malinovskaya and Louise Sheiner

Here come the big government Republicans! (02/15/2018) | James Pethokoukis @AEI
Trump’s formula for growing the U.S. economy: What will work and what won’t (02/16/2018) | Martin Neil Baily @BrookingsInst
Summers and Former Diplomats Critique Trump’s Trade Policies (01/31/2018) | ALEXANDRA A. CHAIDEZ @thecrimson
The Heightened Risks of a US Downturn (01/26/2018) | Martin Feldstein @ProSyn @BelferCenter
Metro Monitor 2018 (w PDFs; February 2018) | Chad Shearer, Isha Shah, Alec Friedhoff, and Alan Berube @BrookingsInst
Which metros are achieving true economic success? (02/26/2018) | Alan Berube @BrookingsInst
City and metropolitan income inequality data reveal ups and downs through 2016 (w Excel; 02/05/2018) | Alan Berube @BrookingsInst
Five maps show progress made, but mostly lost, on middle-class incomes in America (w Excel; 10/12/2017) | Alan Berube @BrookingsInst
Does TV bear some responsibility for hard feelings between urban America and small town America? (02/12/2018) | Jenny Schuetz @BrookingInst
Big moves to drive innovation and growth are alive… in Canada! (02/22/2018) | Mark Muro and Joseph Parilla @BrookingsInst
Employer-sponsored health insurance: Love the plan you’re with? (02/16/2018) | Thomas P. Miller @AEI
Selfishness Is Killing Liberalism: The path to its revival lies in self-sacrifice, and in placing collective interests ahead of the narrowly personal. (02/19/2018) | JAMES TRAUB @TheAtlantic

Indiana Vol.6

Iowa Vol.3

Iowa Vol.2

City of Des Moines
City of Cedar Rapids
City of Davenport
Sioux City
Iowa Chamber of Commerce Executives news
Iowa Chamber Alliance Policy Issues

US Policy Changes Vol.77 (Asia, et al.)

Great stuff!

The general public thinks the average company makes a 36% profit margin, which is about 5X too high, Part II (01/15/2018) | Mark J. Perry @AEI

Part I (04/02/2015)

Is another debt crisis on the way? (12/18/2017) | Kemal Dervi? @BrookingsInst

Realism and North Korea (07/02/2017) | James Winnefeld and Michael Morell @thecipherbrief

Avoiding nuclear conflict on the Korean peninsula (Podcast; 01/17/2018) | Ryan Hass, Bruce Jones, Jung H. Pak, and Adrianna Pita @BrookingsInst

Beyond maximum pressure: A pathway to North Korean denuclearization (w PDF; December 2017) | Jung H. Pak and Ryan Hass @BrookingsInst

Understanding the North Korea Threat (12/06/2017) | Joseph S. Nye @BelferCenter

North Korea’s Biological Weapons Program: The Known and Unknown (October 2017) | Elizabeth Philipp, Hyun-Kyung Kim, Hattie Chung @BelferCenter

Approaching the North Korea challenge realistically (w PDF; 08/14/2017) | Robert Einhorn @BrookingsInst

Why deterring and containing North Korea is our least bad option (08/08/2017) | Jeffrey A. Bader @BrookingsInst

The Korean nuclear issue: Past, present, and future: A Chinese perspective (04/30/2017) | Fu Ying @BrookingsInst

Can Chinese banks identify North Korean sanctions evaders? (04/10/2017) | Aaron Arnold @BulletinAtomic

What Can Vietnam Learn From China’s Economic Retaliation Against South Korea?: China’s punishment for THAAD could preview what Vietnam can expect if South China Sea tensions rise too high. (03/29/2017) | Viet Phuong Nguyen @Diplomat_APAC

Freedom of Navigation in the South China Sea: A Practical Guide (June 2017) | Eleanor Freund / Andrew Facini @BelferCenter

Was pre-Trump U.S. policy towards China based on “false” premises?: China in Trump’s National Security Strategy (12/22/2017) | Jeffrey A. Bader and Ryan Hass @BrookingsInst

Is Chinese Nationalism Rising? Evidence from Beijing (w PDF; Winter 2016/17) | Alastair Iain Johnston @Journal_IS

Balancing China: How to Check Chinese Military Expansion in East Asia (w PDF; November 2017) | Michael Beckley @BelferCenter

China, America and the Thucydides Trap: An interview with Graham Allison (23/08/2017) | Sam Roggeveen @LowyInstitute

The troubling U.S.-China face-off (June 2017) | Harvard Gazette

Avoiding war: Containment, competition, and cooperation in U.S.-China relations (w PDF; 11/21/2017) | David Dollar, Ryan Hass, Robert Kagan, Kenneth G. Lieberthal, Cheng Li, Mira Rapp-Hooper, Jonathan Stromseth, Bruce Jones, and Tarun Chhabra

How China Cheats (11/02/2017) | Derek Scissors @NRO

Trump’s War – More Risk Than Reward for US Military Involvement in Afghanistan (w Video; 08/22/2017) | Rolf Mowatt-Larssen @JustSecurity

The outlines of Trump’s Asia strategy: The President’s Asian trip sketched out a smart approach to containing North Korea, competing with China, and rebuilding trust with allies. Now comes the time to fill in the blanks. (11/17/2017) | Dan Blumenthal @AEI

The new geopolitics of trade in Asia (11/15/2017) | Mireya Solis @BrookingsInst

Russia, China and the Uncertain Future of the Collective West: Q&A with Kevin Rudd (03/29/2017) | @russia_matters

After the INF Treaty: An Objective Look at US and Russian Compliance, Plus a New Arms Control Regime (12/07/2017) | Kevin Ryan @russia_matters

Putin’s disinformation war on the West (Podcast; 12/15/2017) | Alina Polyakova and Fred Dews @BrookingsInst

Dreaming Spies: The Inside Story of the KGB at Oxford (12/01/2017) | Calder Walton @prospect_uk

Russia’s Lasting Influence in Central Asia (11/19/2017) | Morena Skalamera @Survival

TPPs for success: Here is how India can use this gamechanger agreement (07/17/2017) | Harsha Vardhana Singh @BrookingsInst

Tokyo and Washington Have Another Nuclear Problem: There’s a plutonium arms race brewing in East Asia that could see China, Japan, and South Korea with the capability to make tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. (08/17/2017) | HENRY SOKOLSKI, WILLIAM TOBEY @ForeignPolicy

Some reflections on Japanese monetary policy (05/23/2017) | Ben S. Bernanke @BrookingsInst

‘There were just so many things that I was curious about’ (05/09/2017) | Harvard Gazette

US Policy Changes Vol.76 (Trade, Energy, National Security, Financial Regulation, Tax, Values, et al.)

Great stuff!

Export Monitor 2017 (w PDFs; 08/18/2017) | Joseph Parilla and Nick Marchio @BrookingsInst

When renegotiating NAFTA, Trump should re-evaluate his premises on international trade (08/17/2017) | Dany Bahar @BrookingsInst

NAFTA renegotiation: Separating fact from fiction (08/17/2017) | Amanda Waldron @BrookingsInst

American Energy Policy (w PDF; April 2017) | Daniel Poneman @BelferCenter

Is the United States the new Saudi Arabia? (01/26/2018) | Samantha Gross @BrookingsInst

Learning from Katrina to care for Hurricane Harvey’s youngest victims (09/06/2017) | Jon Valant @BrookingsInst

Trump’s border wall is standard practice in other parts of the world (01/23/2018) | Michael Rubin @BrookingsInst

Hitting the wall: On immigration, campaign promises clash with policy realities (w PDF; 06/22/2017) | John Hudak, Elaine Kamarck, and Christine Stenglein @BrookingsInst

Strengthening and streamlining bank capital regulation (w PDFs; 09/07/2017) | Robin Greenwood, Samuel G. Hanson, Jeremy C. Stein, and Adi Sunderam @BrookingsInst

What Treasury’s financial regulation report gets right and where it goes too far (06/13/2017) | Nellie Liang @BrookingsInst

Hoarding the American Dream (Podcast & Transcript; 06/16/2017) | Richard V. Reeves, Bill Finan, and Fred Dews @BrookingsInst

Professionalism in politics: The paradox of populism (Podcast & Transcript; 06/28/2017) | Jonathan Rauch, Benjamin Wittes, and Adrianna Pita @BrookingsInst

Winners and losers in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (Podcast; 12/22/2017) | Fred Dews and Adam Looney @BrookingsInst

Next Task for GOP: Spend Less and Help the Poor – Republicans did well to cut corporate taxes, not so well at expanding opportunity. (12/19/2017) | Michael R. Strain @bpolitics

Who would pay for the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act? (w PDF; 12/08/2017) | William G. Gale, Surachai Khitatrakun, and Aaron Krupkin @BrookingsInst

Senate tax bill: Lower rates for corporations? Check. Broadening the tax base? Not so much. (12/05/2017) | Adam Looney and Hilary Gelfond @BrookingsInst

Relax, the housing market will be fine after tax reform (11/09/2017) | Alex Brill @AEI

Is the rent “too damn high”? Or are incomes too low? (12/19/2017) | Jenny Schuetz @BrookingsInst

Where the robots are (08/14/2017) | Mark Muro @BrookingsInst

Signs of digital distress: Mapping broadband availability and subscription in American neighborhoods (09/12/2017) | Adie Tomer, Elizabeth Kneebone, and Ranjitha Shivaram @BrookingsInst

Segregation and changing populations shape Rust Belt’s politics (09/14/2017) | John C. Austin @BrookingsInst

Census shows nonmetropolitan America is whiter, getting older, and losing population: Will it retain political clout? (06/27/2017) | William H. Frey @BrookingsInst

A primer on gerrymandering and political polarization (07/06/2017) | Fred Dews @BrookingsInst

The geography of desperation in America (07/24/2017) | Carol Graham, Sergio Pinto, and John Juneau II @BrookingsInst

Will the release of the JFK assassination records put to rest one of the most widely believed conspiracy theories? (w Video; 10/27/2017) | Karlyn Bowman @AEI

The Rudeness of King Donald (12/04/2017) | Niall Ferguson @BostonGlobe

Michigan Vol.3

State of Michigan Departments
City of Detroit Departments and Agencies
City of Grand Rapids Departments
City of Warren
City of Sterling Heights Economic Development – Business Resources
City of Ann Arbor Departments

Michigan Vol.2

Texas Vol.4

Iran Nuclear Agreement Vol.3

Ernest J. Moniz Addresses Global Nuclear Risks (Speech; 01/11/2018)
Information Note on EU sanctions to be lifted under the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) (PDF; 23/01/2016)
Annex II: Sanctions-related commitments | @StateDept

Iran: One year since sanctions relief (17/01/2017) | Henry Smith @Control_Risks
Iran: Flexibility in contract negotiations to arise out of uneven enforcement of local content regulations (10/05/2017) | Henry Smith @Control_Risks

Iran Nuclear Agreement Vol.2

Why the Iran protests matter (Voice; 01/02/2018) | Suzanne Maloney @BrookingsFP
Iran nuclear deal: Key details (13/10/2017) | @BBC
Iran Nuclear Agreement (PDF; 09/15/2017) | Kenneth Katzman & Paul K. Kerr @CRS4Congress
Full text of the Iran nuclear deal (14/07/2015) | @washingtonpost
Iran’s Nuclear Ambitions and Political Theory (06/03/2012) | Allison Kushner @FPA_ORG
Saving the Iran Nuclear Deal, Despite Trump’s Decertification (13/10/2017) | @CrisisGroup
The Real Promise of the US-Iran Agreement – Yes, it will prevent Iran from developing nukes. But it could also transform the Middle East, bringing  order and peace to a region falling into chaos. (07/16/2015) | @thenation
Proxy War Over Iran Nuclear Deal Divides U.S., Europe at UN (10/12/2017) | Kambiz Foroohar @bpolitics
The Iran Nuclear Deal – A Simple Guide (03/31/2015) | @nytimes
Trade – Iran | @EU_Commission

Iran Nuclear Agreement Vol.1

Utah Vol.3

Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.34 (U.S. maps)

Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.33 (U.S. maps)

Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.31

Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.29

@wsi_usa’s RTs.

Spain Vol.4 (Catalunya Vol.4)

US Policy Changes Vol.74 (National Security Strategy)

The below excerpt of National Security Strategy of the United States of America DECEMBER 2017 (PDF) is on our own.

The American people elected me to make America great again. …
During my first year in office, you have witnessed my America First foreign policy in action. …
The United States faces an extraordinarily dangerous world, filled with a wide range of threats that have intensified in recent years. …
We are rallying the world against the rogue regime in North Korea and confronting the danger posed by the dictatorship in Iran, which those determined to pursue a flawed nuclear deal had neglected. …
At home, we have restored confidence in America’s purpose. …
The whole world is lifted by America’s renewal and the reemergence of American leadership. …

… Putting America first is the duty of our government and the foundation for U.S. leadership in the world.
A strong America is in the vital interests of not only the American people, but also those around the world who want to partner with the United States in pursuit of shared interests, values, and aspirations.
… Liberty and independence have given us the flourishing society Americans enjoy today-a vibrant and confident Nation, welcoming of disagreement and differences, but united by the bonds of history, culture, beliefs, and principles that define who we are.
… American political, business, and military leaders worked together with their counterparts in Europe and Asia to shape the post-war order through the United Nations, the Marshall Plan, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and other institutions designed to advance our shared interests of security, freedom, and peace. …
A Competitive World
… China and Russia challenge American power, influence, and interests, attempting to erode American security and prosperity. …
…jihadist terrorists such as ISIS and al-Qa’ida continue to spread a barbaric ideology that calls for the violent destruction of governments and innocents they consider to be apostates. …
… North Korea-a country that starves its own people-has spent hundreds of millions of dollars on nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons that could threaten our homeland. …
An America First National Security Strategy
First, our fundamental responsibility is to protect the American people, the homeland, and the American way of life.
Second, we will promote American prosperity. …
Third, we will preserve peace through strength by rebuilding our military so that it remains preeminent, deters our adversaries, and if necessary, is able to fight and win. …
Fourth, we will advance American influence because a world that supports American interests and reflects our values makes America more secure and prosperous. …

… North Korea seeks the capability to kill millions of Americans with nuclear weapons. … Non-state actors undermine social order through drug and human trafficking networks…
Secure U.S. Borders and Territory
Defend Against Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)
…deploying a layered missile defense system focused on North Korea and Iran to defend… Enhanced missile defense is not intended to undermine strategic stability or disrupt longstanding strategic relationships with Russia or China. …
Combat Biothreats and Pandemics
Strengthen Border Control and Immigration Policy
Pursue Threats to Their Source
Defeat Jihadist Terrorists
Dismantle Transnational Criminal Organizations
Keep America Safe in the Cyber Era
…assess risk across six key areas: national security, energy and power, banking and finance, health and safety, communications, and transportation. …
Promote American Resilience

… Working with our allies and partners, the United States led the creation of a group of financial institutions and other economic forums that established equitable rules and built instruments to stabilize the international economy and remove the points of friction that had contributed to two world wars. …
… Experience shows that these countries distorted and undermined key economic institutions without undertaking significant reform of their economies or politics. They espouse free trade rhetoric and exploit its benefits, but only adhere selectively to the rules and agreements. …
Rejuvenate the Domestic Economy
… Departments and agencies will eliminate unnecessary regulations that stifle growth, drive up costs for American businesses, impede research and development, discourage hiring, and incentivize domestic businesses to move overseas. …
… Federal, state, and local governments will work together with private industry to improve our airports, seaports and waterways, roads and railways, transit systems, and telecommunications. …
Promote Free, Fair, and Reciprocal Economic Relationships
…will pursue bilateral trade and investment agreements with countries that commit to fair and reciprocal trade and will modernize existing agreements to ensure they are consistent with those principles. …
Lead in Research, Technology, Invention, and Innovation
… The Department of Defense and other agencies will establish strategic partnerships with U.S. companies to help align private sector R&D resources to priority national security applications. …
Promote and Protect the U.S. National Security Innovation Base
…will reduce the illicit appropriation of U.S. public and private sector technology and technical knowledge by hostile foreign competitors. …
…will review visa procedures to reduce economic theft by non-traditional intelligence collectors. …
Embrace Energy Dominance
…will streamline the Federal regulatory approval processes for energy infrastructure, from pipeline and export terminals to container shipments and gathering lines, while also ensuring responsible environmental stewardship.

… Three main sets of challengers-the revisionist powers of China and Russia, the rogue states of Iran and North Korea, and transnational threat organizations, particularly jihadist terrorist groups-are actively competing against the United States and our allies and partners. …
… China and Russia want to shape a world antithetical to U.S. values and interests. China seeks to displace the United States in the Indo-Pacific region, expand the reaches of its state-driven economic model, and reorder the region in its favor. Russia seeks to restore its great power status and establish spheres of influence near its borders. The intentions of both nations are not necessarily fixed. …
For decades, U.S. policy was rooted in the belief that support for China’s rise and for its integration into the post-war international order would liberalize China. Contrary to our hopes, China expanded its power at the expense of the sovereignty of others. China gathers and exploits data on an unrivaled scale and spreads features of its authoritarian system, including corruption and the use of surveillance. It is building the most capable and well-funded military in the world, after our own. Its nuclear arsenal is growing and diversifying. Part of China’s military modernization and economic expansion is due to its access to the U.S. innovation economy, including America’s world-class universities.
Russia aims to weaken U.S. influence in the world and divide us from our allies and partners. …
Renew America’s Competitive Advantages
Renew Capabilities
Defense Industrial Base
…will work with industry partners to strengthen U.S. competitiveness in key technologies and manufacturing capabilities. …
Nuclear Forces
… America’s newly re-established National Space Council, chaired by the Vice President, will review America’s long-range space goals and develop a strategy that integrates all space sectors to support innovation and American leadership in space.
… To prevent the theft of sensitive and proprietary information and maintain supply chain integrity, the United States must increase our understanding of the economic policy priorities of our adversaries and improve our ability to detect and defeat their attempts to commit economic espionage. …
Diplomacy and Statecraft
Competitive Diplomacy
… Diplomacy is indispensable to identify and implement solutions to conflicts in unstable regions of the world short of military involvement. It helps to galvanize allies for action and marshal the collective resources of like-minded nations and organizations to address shared problems. Authoritarian states are eager to replace the United States where the United States withdraws our diplomats and closes our outposts. …
… Diplomats must identify opportunities for commerce and cooperation, and facilitate the cultural, educational, and people-to-people exchanges that create the networks of current and future political, civil society, and educational leaders who will extend a free and prosperous world.
Tools of Economic Diplomacy
… Economic tools?including sanctions, anti-money-laundering and anti-corruption measures, and enforcement actions?can be important parts of broader strategies to deter, coerce, and constrain adversaries. …
Information Statecraft
… China, for example, combines data and the use of AI to rate the loyal of its citizens to the state and uses these ratings to determine jobs and more. Jihadist…
Russia uses information operations as part of its offensive cyber efforts to influence public opinion across the globe. …
… Local voices are most compelling and effective in ideological competitions. We must amplify credible voices and partner with them to advance alternatives to violent and hateful messages. …

… During the Cold War, a totalitarian threat from the Soviet Union motivated the free world to create coalitions in defense of liberty. Today’s challenges to free societies are just as serious, but more diverse. …
… The United States offers partnership to those who share our aspirations for freedom and prosperity. We lead by example. “The world has its eye upon America,” Alexander Hamilton once observed. “The noble struggle we have made in the cause of liberty, has occasioned a kind of revolution in human sentiment. …
Encourage Aspiring Partners
… China and Russia target their investments in the developing world to expand influence and gain competitive advantages against the United States. China is investing billions of dollars in infrastructure across the globe. Russia, too, projects its influence economically, through the control of key energy and other infrastructure throughout parts of Europe and Central Asia. …
… The United States will promote a development model that partners with countries that want progress, consistent with their culture, based on free market principles, fair and reciprocal trade, private sector activity, and rule of law. The United States will shift away from a reliance on assistance based on grants to approaches that attract private capital and catalyze private sector activity. …
Achieve Better Outcomes in Multilateral Forums
… Authoritarian actors have long recognized the power of multilateral bodies and have used them to advance their interests and limit the freedom of their own citizens. If the United States cedes leadership of these bodies to adversaries, opportunities to shape developments that are positive for the United States will be lost. All institutions are not equal, however. …
… The United Nations can help contribute to solving many of the complex problems in the world, but it must be reformed and recommit to its founding principles. We will require accountability and emphasize shared responsibility among members. If the United States is asked to provide a disproportionate level of support for an institution, we will expect a commensurate degree of influence over the direction and efforts of that institution. …
…  The United States will promote the free flow of data and protect its interests through active engagement in key organizations, such as the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), the Internet Governance Forum (IGF), the UN, and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
Champion American Values
… America’s core principles, enshrined in the Declaration of Independence, are secured by the Bill of Rights, which proclaims our respect for fundamental individual liberties beginning with the freedoms of religion, speech, the press, and assembly. Liberty, free enterprise, equal justice under the law, and the dignity of every human life are central to who we are as a people. …
… We support, with our words and actions, those who live under oppressive regimes and who seek freedom, individual dignity, and the rule of law. We are under no obligation to offer the benefits of our free and prosperous community to repressive regimes and human rights abusers. We may use diplomacy, sanctions, and other tools to isolate states and leaders who threaten our interests and whose actions run contrary to our values. …

… Although the United States seeks to continue to cooperate with China… Its efforts to build and militarize outposts in the South China Sea endanger the free flow of trade, threaten the sovereignty of other nations, and undermine regional stability. China has mounted a rapid military modernization campaign designed to limit U.S. access to the region…
… Our alliance and friendship with South Korea, forged by the trials of history, is stronger than ever. We welcome and support the strong leadership role of our critical ally, Japan. Australia has fought alongside us in every significant conflict since World War I… New Zealand is a key U.S. partner contributing to peace and security across the region. We welcome India’s emergence as a leading global power and stronger strategic and defense partner. We will seek to increase quadrilateral cooperation with Japan, Australia, and India.
In Southeast Asia, the Philippines and Thailand remain important allies and markets for Americans. Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore are growing security and economic partners of the United States. …
… We will work with allies and partners to achieve complete, verifiable, and irreversible denuclearization on the Korean Peninsula and preserve the non-proliferation regime in Northeast Asia.
…we will cooperate on missile defense with Japan and South Korea to move toward an area defense capability. We remain ready to respond with overwhelming force to North Korean aggression and will improve options to compel denuclearization of the peninsula. We will improve law enforcement, defense, and intelligence cooperation with Southeast Asian partners to address the growing terrorist threat. We will maintain our strong ties with Taiwan in accordance with our “One China” policy…
… Russia is using subversive measures to weaken the credibility of America’s commitment to Europe, undermine transatlantic unity, and weaken European institutions and governments. With its invasions of Georgia and Ukraine…
China is gaining a strategic foothold in Europe by expanding its unfair trade practices and investing in key industries, sensitive technologies, and infrastructure. Europe also faces immediate threats from violent Islamist extremists. Attacks by ISIS and other jihadist…
… We will encourage European foreign direct investment in the United States to create jobs. We will work with our allies and partners to diversify European energy sources to ensure the energy security of European countries. We will work with our partners to contest China’s unfair trade and economic practices and restrict its acquisition of sensitive technologies.
… We expect our European allies to increase defense spending to 2 percent of gross domestic product by 2024, with 20 percent of this spending devoted to increasing military capabilities. …
Middle East
… For generations the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians has been understood as the prime irritant preventing peace and prosperity in the region. Today, the threats from jihadist terrorist organizations and the threat from Iran are creating the realization that Israel is not the cause of the region’s problems. States have increasingly found common interests with Israel in confronting common threats. …
… We remain committed to helping our partners achieve a stable and prosperous region, including through a strong and integrated Gulf Cooperation Council. We will strengthen our long-term strategic partnership with Iraq as an independent state. We will seek a settlement to the Syrian civil war that sets the conditions for refugees to return home and rebuild their lives in safety. … We remain committed to helping facilitate a comprehensive peace agreement that is acceptable to both Israelis and Palestinians. …
South and Central Asia
… We will help South Asian nations maintain their sovereign as China increases its influence in the region. …
Western Hemisphere
Stable, friendly, and prosperous states in the Western Hemisphere enhance our security and benefit our economy. Democratic states connected by shared values and economic interests will reduce the violence, drug trafficking, and illegal immigration that threaten our common security…
… Transnational criminal organizations—including gangs and cartels—perpetuate violence and corruption, and threaten the stability of Central American states including Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador. In Venezuela and Cuba, governments cling to anachronistic leftist authoritarian models that continue to fail their people. Competitors have found operating space in the hemisphere.
China seeks to pull the region into its orbit through state-led investments and loans. Russia continues its failed politics of the Cold War by bolstering its radical Cuban allies as Cuba continues to repress its citizens. Both China and Russia support the dictatorship in Venezuela and are seeking to expand military linkages and arms sales across the region. …
… China is expanding its economic and military presence in Africa, growing from a small investor in the continent two decades ago into Africa’s largest trading partner today. Some Chinese practices undermine Africa’s long-term development by corrupting elites, dominating extractive industries, and locking countries into unsustainable and opaque debts and commitments. …
… We will offer American goods and services, both because it is profitable for us and because it serves as an alternative to China’s often extractive economic footprint on the continent. …

… It is realist because it acknowledges the central role of power in international politics, affirms that sovereign states are the best hope for a peaceful world, and clearly defines our national interests. It is principled because it is grounded in the knowledge that advancing American principles spreads peace and prosperity around the globe. We are guided by our values and disciplined by our interests. …

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