UK Vol.97 (Wales Vol.5 – Pembrokeshire, Carmarthenshire)

Pembrokeshire

cf. @Pembrokeshire   @RadioPembs   BBC – Pembrokeshire County Council   Pembrokeshire holidays | @guardian   Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, Wales | @NatGeo   Cleddau and Pembrokeshire Coastal Rivers Management Catchment Summary (PDF) | @NatResWales   @mh_port

Carmarthenshire

cf. @CarmsCouncil   Ammanford History   @Discovercarms   Welcome to Carmarthen in South Wales   River Tywi, West Wales | @inbritain

cf.   Cymru/Cymraeg


New Zealand Vol.11 (Hawke’s Bay, Gisborne, Bay of Plenty)

Hawke’s Bay


cf.
Hawke’s Bay TODAY | @nzherald
Heart of Hawke’s Bay – Hastings
Napier | @PureNewZealand


Gisborne


cf. Gisborne City


Bay of Plenty


cf.
Bay of Plenty Times | @nzherald
Bay of Plenty Tourism
Bay of Plenty Wine | @nzwine
Tauranga | @TgaCouncil
Rotorua | @rotoruaNZ
Whakatane | @Whakatastic


https://twitter.com/NZ_Avocado/status/864671037245370368


Canada Vol.37 (Northwest Territories #NWT)


Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.11

Here are @_WorldSolutions’ RTs which include free papers and reports (citing others).


Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.9

Here are @_WorldSolutions’ RTs which include free papers, reports (citing others), a podcast and an interview.


Canada Vol.33 (Québec Vol.2)

cf. Canada Vol.3 (Québec)     THE QUÉBEC ECONOMIC PLAN (PDF; 3/2017) | @FinancesQuebec       Too Much Tax Kills (9/26/2013) | Michel Kelly-Gagnon @ Montreal Economic Institute @HuffPostCanada      Quebec’s Economic Future: A Hard Road Ahead (9/6/2012) | @HodgsonGlen @confboardofcda      Quebec’s economy through the lens of GDP: Gains outweigh losses (PDF; 4-5/2015) | @DesjardinsGroup      When it comes to the economy, Quebec has earned top bragging rights in Canada (w Videos & Voice; 4/10/2017) | @ealini @globalnews        Lack of transfer plan could doom small Quebec business (3/15/2017) | @business @mtlgazette        A More Equitable Economy Exists Right Next Door – In Quebec, co-ops and non-profit businesses account for 8-10 percent of GDP (3/22/2017) | @JayWalljasper @AlterNet        Montreal flood-zone map for hard-hit Pierrefonds is decades out of date (5/12/2017) | @jbernstien & @robroc @CBC        @TourismQuebec        History of Quebec | ProvinceQuebec     Québec-France Agreement on the Mutual Recognition of professional Qualifications (3/17/2017) | @MRIF_Quebec

2017floodEasternCanada


Indiana Vol.1

cf. Indiana | @HISTORY   @IndianaHistory   Indiana economy | @City_data_com   Indiana Economic Outlook (PDF; 4/16/2015) | Tom Jackson, Principal Economist @IHS   Rural Indiana (PDF; 8/2014) | Rural-Urban Entrepreneurship Development Institute   STATS Indiana | @IUibrc


Central Asia Vol.3

Uzbekistan

cf. Uzbekistan country profile (12/14/2016) | @BBC   Uzbekistan: Economy | @ADB_HQ   Uzbekistan | @StateDept   Uzbekistan | Observatory of Economic Complexity @MIT   Trains in Uzbekistan    UZBEKISTAN AND KAZAKHSTAN: A TALE OF TWO TRANSITION PATHS? (PDF; 2004) | Asad Alam and Arup Banerji @WorldBank   Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan Deploy Troops In Dispute Over Border Mountain (3/23/2016) | @pragpete @RFERL   Public health risk assessment and interventions – Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan (PDF; June 2010) | @WHO   Uzbekistan & Kyrgyzstan map (PDF) | @FAO   Uzbekistan, Tajikistan Flights Loom, And Prices Soar (2/1/2017) | Kamila Ibragimova @EurasiaNet   Central Asia: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan | @WWF   Uzbekistan’s View of Security in Afghanistan After 2014 (PDF) | Matthew Stein @ Foreign Military Studies Office   Uzbek Railways awarded new Afghan operations and maintenance contract (3/22/2015) | @andrew_grantham   Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Iran Combined Tour 23 days | @NasrinInfo

(Excerpts are on our own.)

Brothers Again: Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan – Uzbek President Shavkat Mirziyoyev visited his Kazakh counterpart Nursultan Nazarbayev in Astana. (3/24/2017) | Catherine Putz @Diplomat_APAC   … Nazarbayev, a long-time proponent of regional integration initiatives, never quite found a receptive partner in Uzbekistan’s first president, Islam Karimov. … Nazarbayev said that the two leaders would sign 75 contracts worth nearly $1 billion at a Kazakh-Uzbek business forum on March 23. … Uzbekistan has the population advantage, with more than 30 million to Kazakhstan’s 17 million; but Kazakhstan has had the economic advantage with a GDP of $184.4 billion in 2015, to Uzbekistan’s $66.7 billion. …

Dammed or Damned: Tajikistan and Uzbekistan Wrestle Over Water-Energy Nexus (4/2/2013) | Shavkat Kasymov @WorldPolicy   … Tajikistan consumes an average of 39,000 barrels a day, mostly from Uzbekistan… A main point of contention is a controversial hydroelectric project, the Rogun Dam, in the works since the 1960s. The project has been advertised by Tajik leaders as a path to energy and economic independence, but Uzbeks claim it will stop their share of the flow of the Vakhsh River, a resource that is crucial to its cotton monocrop economy. … The bulk of it is consumed by the Tadaz aluminum plant, a major source of revenues for the state budget. …

Afghanistan, Uzbekistan Trade Relations Strengthened (1/3/2017) | @TOLOnews   … “When we import goods from Pakistan, it takes nineteen days, but when we import from Uzbekistan, it takes nine days,” said Rasa. …construction materials will be imported from Uzbekistan and that Uzbek companies will invest in road construction, bridges and railways in the country. …

Uzbekistan, key to Afghan war drawdown, to ban foreign military bases (8/30/2012) | Abdujalil Abdurasulov @csmonitor   … When Pakistan closed the main NATO supply route in November, the Northern Distribution Network (NDN), a route that relies on Uzbekistan, took up the slack – about 75 percent of all non-lethal cargo was shipped through the NDN supply route mostly via Uzbekistan. … Uzbekistan is trying to send a message to Russia and its neighbors that Tashkent is not going to make a U-turn and host US bases on its territory. … Tashkent-based political analyst Farkhod Tolipov says Uzbekistan’s ban is in an effort to prevent militarization in the region. “Any new base will only lead to a geopolitical competition.” …

Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan: Staying Away (PDF) | S. Frederick Starr @SilkRoadStudies   … Uzbekistan has the region’s largest military force and Turkmenistan one of the smallest. And Uzbekistan inherited from Soviet times the largest establishment of heavy industry, while Turkmenistan began with the smallest. … No sooner did the Uzbeks arrive in Central Asia in the thirteenth century than they began settling in the region’s ancient cities, with their capital at Bukhara. … In gestures directed against what they openly call Russian colonialism, both Latinized their alphabets (the only states in the region to do so) and have marginalized the Russian language. … With respect to Turkmenistan, it can push Iran to seize the initiative in supplying Pakistan and India with gas; create access problems at Turkmenistan’s expanded Black Sea port of Turkmenbashi… Russia can easily invent and apply other restrictions to prevent Uzbek goods such as fruits and vegetables from entering its market. Considering that Russian-Uzbek bilateral trade reached $7 billion in 2013… Russia has already begun to play the “water and electricity card” against both Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. …Kambarata hydropower plant and effectively controls the Toktogul reservoir and power plant, both in Kyrgyzstan. …democratization and human rights. … Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan are the main bellwethers for stability and instability in Central Asia as a whole. …they value their trade with Russia, which for each country is valued at approximately $7 billion per annum. …unclear whether Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, too, will be drawn into the Eurasian Economic Union, remain outliers constantly under pressure from Moscow, or become beacons of sovereignty, self-determination, coordination and cooperation in the region…


Free papers, reports, et al. Vol.3

Here are @_WorldSolutions’ RTs from late January 2017 to late December 2016 which include free papers, reports, podcast, et al.


South Dakota Vol.1

cf. Midwest manufacturers growing, led by South Dakota and Minnesota (4/3/2017) | @cathy_roberts @StarTribune   Applied Engineering Upgrades Yankton, South Dakota, Manufacturing Plant (3/16/2017) | @AreaDevelopment (@SDGOED @yankton_ecodev)


New Hampshire Vol.1


Iowa Vol.1


Ireland Vol.21 (Connacht Vol.1 – Leitrim, Sligo, Roscommon)

Leitrim

Sligo

Roscommon


New Zealand Vol.7 (Southland, Otago)

South Island

Southland

Otago


US Policy Changes Vol.60 (Infrastructure Vol.6 – Transportation)

Here are articles on transportation, et al. Excerpts are on our own.

Transportation and the Cost of Convenience (w Podcast; 1/12/2016) | @whartonknows
…Edward Humes…Door to Door: The Magnificent, Maddening, Mysterious World of Transportation…
Humes:… …every time traffic delays the average UPS route a minute, that minute costs the company $12.5 million. …
…the delivery companies around the world are lusting after drones, but not little ones — big ones, 747-sized drones. That’s where they see unmanned aircraft as the next disruption and provider of efficiency, lower costs — obviously, because they’re eliminating humans — and also more safety.
…$1.4 billion was spent to add a lane onto a 10-mile stretch… …just inviting more cars to come to the party. Adding capacity without changing the driving behavior, without providing some kind of incentive or disincentive to drive at peak times doesn’t work. …
… We lost about $160 billion to the economy in 2015 just from traffic delays and congestion and the wasted fuel they cause. … If even 10% of the commuting population in a large city defers their commute by half an hour, it could reduce congestion almost magically.
… You could replace the gasoline tax…with congestion pricing. …it eliminates that 50% of rush hour drivers who don’t really need to be there.
…the rise of the smartphone has also empowered ride-sharing, which is a huge disruptor. And when you combine that with the evolving technology of driverless vehicles, that’s a new paradigm for how we use and deploy cars — and whether or not we even want to own them in the future. We may just buy car time like…
…tunnels that are 100 years old. … There’s a $3.6 trillion backlog in repairs to our transportation infrastructure. …
…60,000 bridges… Every day that was closed, it cost the trucking and goods-moving industry $2.5 million. …
… We can’t forsake the people who are at the heart of our goods movement industry now whose jobs would be at risk from driverless technology. …
… Solve the inconvenience of getting to the train station. The driverless car comes and drops you off. …
… It’s not just big cities. … But yes, those are the places where traffic and a lot of the negative issues associated with it are most intense. …

How four macro forces will shape Elaine Chao’s tenure as Transportation Secretary (1/10/2016) | @AdieTomer @BrookingsMetro
… The next Secretary will have a chance to craft their own digital legacy, including revised street designs to accommodate autonomous and shared vehicles, standardize infrastructure sensor technologies, finalize drone regulations, and respond to products not even yet invented. …
… Infrastructure jobs are one of the few areas of the economy where workers can earn a living wage or more without advanced education. Yet some of those same jobs are among those most threatened by automation, including long-distance truck driving and many other positions involved in logistics and warehousing. The fact that many transportation workers are nearing retirement is simultaneously putting new demands on workforce training programs to prepare the next wave of vital infrastructure employees. …
… Emphasizing that electrified transportation is the industry’s future while downplaying the carbon reduction benefits.
…a 55,000-person agency with a $75 billion annual budget. …TIGER…

Why Better Urban Planning Won’t Reduce Traffic — but Taxes Will (w Video; 2/9/2016) | @whartonknows
… But new research co-authored by Wharton real estate professor Gilles Duranton finds that such policies may not have as great an effect as planners believe. In “Urban Form and Driving: Evidence from U.S. Cities,” Duranton and Brown University professor Matthew A. Turner find that increases in density cause only minimal decreases in aggregate driving, meaning it is unlikely to be a cost-effective policy for responding to traffic congestion or automobile-related pollution. …
Urban Form and Traffic
… One is greenhouse gas emissions — i.e., carbon that fosters climate change, global warming and all of that. And the second one is much more localized: small particulates, which could affect people’s health.
Key Takeaways
…if you bring up density by about 10%, it leads to reduction in traveling of about 1%.
Surprising Conclusions
…there’s one major characteristic of cities that matters: the density around you.
‘Everything Else Will Not Do Much’
… To go after local pollution, you need a tax for congestion — i.e., the concentration of traffic in some areas of a city — so you need to make drivers pay for that. And you need to tax carbon emissions. For instance, the province of British Columbia does this in Canada — it’s a resounding success. …
Global Problems, Global Solutions
…they require federal interventions. …
What Sets the Research Apart
…a big survey done by the Department of Transportation with nearly a million trips. …
What’s Next
…congestion…

How Federal Policy Is Paving the Way for Driverless Cars (w Podcast; 9/28/2016) | @whartonknows
A proactive regulatory regime and a cooperative approach from auto makers are the key backdrops of the U.S. government’s policy for automated vehicles Federal Automated Vehicles Policy – Message from Secretary of Transportation Anthony R. Foxx https://www.transportation.gov/AV… …automated vehicles, such as self-driving cars, could potentially save thousands of lives, especially when 94% of crashes on U.S. roadways are caused by human choice or error…
“Tradeoffs and design choices are being made,” says Wharton management professor John Paul MacDuffie, who is also director of Program on Vehicle and Mobility Innovation at the School’s @MackInstitute. Safety in self-driving vehicles hinges on two critical aspects – “good object recognition and good distance estimation,” he adds. “It may only be that when we have got camera, radar and Lidar (distance estimation using laser illumination) all operating that we may get the accuracy that we need.”
Technology Pulls Ahead: Ride-hailing services provider Uber is piloting driverless cars in Pittsburgh, Penn.; Tesla has launched new software for self-driving cars; and auto component suppliers are realigning themselves…
…breakups, such as that between Tesla and its supplier Mobileye… Mobileye has since teamed up with component supplier Delphi to develop fully autonomous driving technology.
Ahead of the Curve:… Federal policy could also be adopted as the regulatory template by various U.S. states…
Cooperative Stance from Automakers:…in the case of automated vehicles, it is “different and potentially more cooperative,” …auto companies and industry interest groups feel that this time “the government got it right in terms of guidelines…
Preparing for 2021:…the much-anticipated year when the auto industry expects to have a full fledged launch of self-driving vehicles…
…Level 3…the stage where the responsibility for driving is handed back and forth between the artificial intelligence software and the driver. Levels 1 and 2 deal with features like cruise control and alerts when cars stray off lanes. Level 4, where there will be no human intervention in driving at all is much further away…
Perfecting the Technology:…designed to learn from experience, so all the data from testing goes back to help identify different situations that come up… …when vehicles could communicate with each other, such as with transponders and some agreed-upon standards…
…a mix of human drivers and early adopters of automated vehicles… …Uber driverless taxis in Pittsburgh always have one or two Uber employees in them to collect data…

Railroads Present A Bipartisan Case For Regulatory Reform (1/21/2017) | Edward R. Hamberger (@AAR_FreightRail) @Forbes
… Too often, for instance, regulators propose new rules in response to news events without thoroughly examining their effectiveness or how they add to the cumulative burden of existing red tape. Regulators also seek to sidestep legal challenges to rules unsupported by data or evidence by issuing “guidance” which typically has the same effect as regulations. …
Meanwhile the Surface Transportation Board (STB), the economic regulator of the sector, is still mulling a mandate for railroads to use their private infrastructure and equipment for the benefit of competitors. …

Mercury, other toxins drained into Columbia-area creeks as sewage systems failed (11/16/2016) | @sfretwell83 @thestate


US Policy Changes Vol.50 (Infrastructure Vol.5 – Water)

Here are articles on water. Excerpts are on our own.

Investing in water: Comparing utility finances and economic concerns across U.S. cities (12/14/2016) | Joseph Kane @BrookingsMetro
cf. https://twitter.com/_WorldSolutions/status/820261737555324928
SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION
Understanding water investment challenges at the city level
Comparing water investment across different cities
– Only a handful of drinking water utilities in the largest cities nationally rank highly across six major categories of water finance and related economic indicators.
– More than three-quarters of large drinking water utilities are able to cover their operating expenses each year.
– Many large drinking water utilities carry high levels of long-term debt—up to 96 percent of the value of their current assets—making it difficult to accelerate new capital investments.
– On average, large drinking water utilities are charging higher rates to cover needed costs, although the specific rates can vary widely from city to city.
– Many cities with large drinking water utilities are experiencing gains in income and population, but they are still struggling to balance affordability concerns, particularly for lower-income households.
Exploring potential strategies and innovations
CONCLUSION

The aging water infrastructure: Out of sight, out of mind? (3/21/2016) | Patricia Buckley, Lester Gunnion, Will Sarni @DU_Press
… The number of water main breaks across the country, from Syracuse to Los Angeles, is staggering: 240,000 per year… The direct cost of these leaks is pegged at $2.6 billion per year. … The American Society of Civil Engineers estimates that, while the cumulative cost to households from degrading water/wastewater infrastructure will add up to $59 billion (in 2010 dollars) over the period between 2013 and 2020, the cost to business will be more than double that, at $147 billion.
EVOLUTION OF THE SYSTEM
SAFEGUARDING THE WATER SUPPLY
[The problem with lead]
THE ISSUES: AGING, FUNDING, PRICING
… The AWWA estimates that the cost of restoring underground pipes will total at least $1 trillion over the next 25 years, without including the cost of constructing new infrastructure or repairing treatment plants. Separately, the USEPA’s 2011 Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey and Assessment (DWINSA) estimated that the United States will require $384 billion in capital investment over the next 20 years to ensure that drinking water standards are in compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. … …the USEPA’s 2012 Clean Watersheds Needs Survey estimates that $271 billion in capital investment will be needed over the next 20 years to address water-related health problems and ensure that watersheds are compliant with the Clean Water Act.
… In 2012, most Americans paid less than $3.75 per 1,000 gallons of safe water. … …even though US water prices increased by 41 percent between 2010 and 2015,32 the average US household spent just $530 on water in 2014—only about 20 percent of the average amount spent on gasoline ($2,468).
… One of the most commonly proposed solutions for recovering costs is by shifting a greater degree of cost recovery to fixed fees from usage-based fees. …
… In December 2015, for instance, the US Congress passed a five-year, $305 billion transportation bill that, among other things, lifted a ban on the issuance of tax-exempt bonds with loans for projects under the Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA). …
[Water prices worldwide]
THE PATH FORWARD
… With regard to innovative funding, we have seen the emergence of green bonds, such as the 100-year bonds used by DC Water, and public-private partnerships, such as that in Bayonne, New Jersey. …

A Tale of Two Public-private Partnership Cities (6/10/2015) | @whartonknows
… The water came from reservoirs 50 miles northwest of the city, delivered through an outdated aqueduct in need of frequent repair that the city could ill afford. Like many other cities, Bayonne had deferred maintenance on its water systems. Its excessive debt burden led to a poor credit rating that made further borrowing more expensive. …
Bayonne’s sewer system, pumping an average of 8.3 million gallons of wastewater daily, had similar challenges, including outdated infrastructure…
… Only a few months after Sandy…a joint venture partnership for both water and wastewater operations with Kohlberg Kravis Roberts (KKR) funding 90% of the effort with United Water, a unit of French giant Suez Environnement S.A.
… In 2013, Moody’s Investor Service upgraded Bayonne’s bond rating from Baa1 with a negative outlook to Baa1 with a stable outlook, in particular citing the city’s recent progress in reducing its debt burden through the lease-sale of the MUA operations.
KKR and United Water further pledged to funnel another $157 million into the water systems over the 40-year length of the contract, with about $2.5 million a year earmarked for maintenance and upgrades. …
… “We receive $2.5 million per year, which is a nice chunk of money guaranteed. What the partnership does is remove the need for political will for the maintenance of the system. …
…@foodandwater…
…“Private Equity, Public Inequity,”…
…@NWFinancialGrp…
…the city could save almost $35 million over its 40-year contract, compared to operating the water utilities on its own. …
A Private Sector Lifeline for Rialto
… According to “Private Capital, Public Good,” a research paper from the Brookings Institution, Rialto’s “historically underfunded system also struggled to meet pension liabilities, which were starting to weigh on the utility’s ability to affordably raise capital in the tax-exempt market.” …
…state revolving loan funds and municipal bond financing often have not been sufficient to meet local needs. …
In 2013, Rialto entered into a 30-year, $300 million public-private partnership (P3) agreement with Veolia Environnement S.A.’s Veolia Water as the operator of the project. Ullico, a labor-owned insurance and investment company, was the lead finance partner, along with Table Rock Capital. …

The Path to Water Innovation (PDF; Oct 2014) | Newsha K. Ajami, Barton H. Thompson Jr., David G. Victor @hamiltonproj,@StanfordWoods
Abstract
… Today, it provides sufficient water to support over 315 million people, almost 55 million acres of irrigated farmland, and a $16 trillion economy. …
… Yet, in comparison to the electric power sector, investment in water innovation is extremely low. …
… Among the main management and policy barriers are (1) unrealistically low water pricing rates; (2) unnecessary regulatory restrictions; (3) the absence of regulatory incentives; (4) lack of access to capital and funding; (5) concerns about public health and possible risks associated with adopting new technologies with limited records; (6) the geographical and functional fragmentation of the industry; and (7) the long life expectancy, size, and complexity of most water systems. …
We focus on several recommendations: (1) pricing policies that would both better align with the full economic cost of supplying water and decouple revenues from the volume of water supplied; (2) regulatory frameworks to create an open and flexible governance environment that is innovation friendly and encourages valuable new technologies; and (3) financing and funding mechanisms, such as a public benefit charge on water, that can help raise sufficient funds to implement innovative solutions.

Chapter 1: Introduction
…almost 40 percent of the pipes used in the nation’s water distribution systems are forty years old or older, and some key infrastructure is a century old. On average, about 16 percent of the nation’s piped water is lost due to leaks and system inefficiencies, wasting about 7 billion gallons of clean and treated water every day…
… Research and development (R&D) is a public good that is likely to be suboptimal in scale without public financial support…
… First… Improper water pricing undercuts both the incentive for water-conserving technologies by water users and the financial stability needed to finance the adoption and implementation of new water technologies by the water suppliers. …
Second… …many current regulations frequently hinder the adoption of cost-effective technologies.
Third, we call for a public benefit charge on water to allow for more public funding for water innovation.

Chapter 2: Background
THE WATER SECTOR
FIGURE 1. Water Distribution and Use Cycle
…155,000 drinking-water systems and 15,000 wastewater systems exist…
… While private water suppliers still outnumber public suppliers in the United States, public suppliers today furnish water to about 80 percent of the nation’s domestic and commercial users and almost 20 percent of its industrial users. …
Public water entities are seldom subject to regulation by state public utility commissions. As a result, local political processes provide the principal oversight of public water suppliers. …
COMPARISONS TO THE ENERGY SECTOR
… First…
Second…
…the nature of ownership. …
…state-owned enterprises (SOEs)…
FIGURE 2. Comparison of U.S. Patents Filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty for Clean Energy and Water Purification, 1999–2011

Chapter 3: State of Innovation in the Water Sector
…53 percent of the water sector’s capital spending goes to system expansion, followed by 37 percent for replacing existing infrastructure and 10 percent for compliance. …
INNOVATION FRONTIERS IN THE WATER SECTOR
FIGURE 3. Size of the Major International Water Markets, 2010
… First, water managers assumed that demand for fresh water would increase with population and that the only way to ensure a balance between supply and demand was to find new sources of supply. …
… Water managers, moreover, generally looked to large-scale, centralized infrastructure projects to increase supply, on the assumption that large-scale projects would generate significant economies of scale and provide greater operational flexibility…
… Finally…if they designed water systems to meet current hydrologic conditions, those systems would also meet future conditions. …
1. Supply enhancement. …technologies that promise more-drought-resistant water supplies, such as reclaimed water or desalination; or that can reduce energy use, such as recycling technologies that extract significant energy from wastewater… …technologies that allow more-localized resource enhancement strategies, such as rainwater and storm water capture, and small-scale water reclamation.
2. Demand management. …technologies that encourage or enable water-use efficiency…or water conservation… Examples range from water-efficient appliances to drip irrigation to smart irrigation controllers. …smart meters…
3. Governance improvement. … Smart metering and advanced data collection methodologies…
These three categories cover a wide variety of technological innovations including:
• Smart water.
• Efficiency and conservation.
• Purification.
• Alternative sources.
• Storage (surface and ground).
• Groundwater.
EVALUATING PATTERNS OF INNOVATION IN WATER AND CLEAN ENERGY
Innovation Indicators: Investment Trends
…clean energy and water…
… In the United States, investments are dominated by venture capital activity in both sectors, but especially in the water sector where venture capital and corporate ventures account for 53 and 24 percent, respectively, of total investment dollars (figure 4b). By comparison, investment banking is the largest global contributor to both clean energy and water, at 31 and 27 percent, respectively, of total investment dollars (figure 4a).
… The United States accounts for approximately 50 percent of global investment deals in both the clean energy and water sectors…
… There were 4,193 venture capital deals for clean energy, raising $20 billion at an average of $4.8 million per deal. By contrast, 372 deals raised $800 million in venture capital for the water sector, at an average of $2.2 million per deal…
FIGURE 4. Sources of Investment Dollars for Global and U.S. Innovation in the Clean Energy and Water Sectors, 2000–13
Venture Capital Investment
FIGURE 5. Number of Deals and Relative Contribution of Investment Types for Global and U.S. Innovation in the Clean Energy and Water Sectors, 2000–13
FIGURE 6. Global and U.S. Investments in Clean Energy and Water by Venture, Corporate and Corporate Venture, and Public Sources, 2000–13
Corporate Investment
… First, some corporations might be seeking to improve their own internal operations. … Second, corporations might be looking for new market opportunities. …
FIGURE 7. Number of Patents Relative to Market Size for Solar and Wind Power Industry, 2000–11
Public Investment
…in the United States the clean energy sector has benefited from about $8 billion in public investment over the past thirteen years, while only $28 million in public dollars has gone to the water sector over the same period. …
Innovation Indicators: Patents
FIGURE 8. Patent Filings with Patent Cooperation Treaty for Water Purification and Clean Energy by Country, 1999–2011
FIGURE 9. Number of U.S. Patents Filed in the Clean Energy and Water Subsectors, 1999–2012

Chapter 4: Explaining Patterns of Innovation
PRICING PRACTICES
FIGURE 10. Tariff Price and Domestic Use per Capita, 2012
The pricing of water in the United States affects innovation in several ways. First, it reduces the revenue available to water suppliers to invest in innovation. …
…about 16 percent of the treated water in the United States is lost to leaky pipes and system inefficiencies. This translates to 7 billion gallons of clean water per day that is produced without generating any revenue for the water service providers…
…about 30 percent of the water in the United States falls under the category of nonrevenue water, meaning water that has been extracted, treated, and distributed, but that has never generated any revenue because it has been lost to leaks, metering inaccuracies, or the like…
Second…the extraction of water from a river or stream can have significant environmental costs. Because prices do not reflect such costs, however, analyses to decide whether to extract additional water for a growing city or to invest instead in water recycling and reuse…
Third, the underpricing of water can undercut incentives that water users would otherwise have to invest in new technologies to reduce water use. …
FIGURE 11. Relative Capital Investment to Revenue Ratio for Several Utility Services
… States with the highest electricity costs—such as Hawaii and California—have seen the most active programs to advance wind, solar, and other forms of renewable electricity. …
REGULATIONS
…(1) ensuring a significant market for recycling technology, (2) encouraging the diffusion of such technology, (3) enabling the refinement and improvement of recycling technology through actual use, and (4) driving the development of less-expensive recycling technologies.
TABLE 1. Regulatory Drivers and Barriers to Adoption of Water-Recycling Innovations
FIGURE 12. Importance of Industry Issues, 2012
LACK OF ACCESS TO CAPITAL

Chapter 5: Infusing Innovation into the Water Sector
IMPROVE WATER PRICING POLICIES
FIGURE 13. Number of Clean Energy Patents and Price of Electricity, 2001–11
BOX 1. California’s Decoupling Experience
DEVELOP INNOVATION-FRIENDLY REGULATION
…each state conduct a systematic review of its regulatory practices relating to the water sector. …:
• State legislators and regulators should avoid geographically inconsistent regulations. …
• Legislators and regulators also should consider crosssector impacts when adopting new regulations. …
• State regulations should provide sufficient flexibility to avoid blocking the timely adoption of new and innovative technologies. …
• State legislators and regulators should consider the appropriateness of rules that encourage the adoption of new technologies. …
INSTITUTE A MECHANISM FOR RAISING PUBLIC FUNDS FOR INNOVATION
FIGURE 14. Governance Structure of Public Good Charge for Electricity in California

Chapter 6: Conclusion

Chapter 7: Questions and Concerns
How can states and local agencies be encouraged or incentivized to implement the proposed reforms?
Would states need to build additional capacity or provide additional funding for these reforms?
Should there be a mandate for these pricing reforms?
What will be the potential obstacles or resistance to these reforms?
• Salience.
• Financial Impacts.
• Complexity.


US Policy Changes Vol.8 (Infrastructure/Economy Vol.1)

Here are articles on infrastructure. Excerpts are on our own.

Trump’s Infrastructure Fix: Let Somebody Else Spend $1 Trillion (11/10/2016) | @adavies47 @wired
… It’s a great investment, especially in an age of low interest rates: Putting just $18 billion a year into roads, bridges, and waterways could create a $29 billion jump in GPD and more than 200,000 jobs in the first year, says @joshbivens_DC, research and policy director of @EconomicPolicy.
…details on how he’ll do that in Trump Versus Clinton On Infrastructure (PDF; 10/27/2016) | Wilbur Ross & Peter Navarro
The idea is to trigger $1 trillion in private sector infrastructure spending with $140 billion in tax credits for the companies willing to do the work.
“Getting the private sector involved is terribly important,” says Brian Pallasch, managing director at @ASCETweets… …the US is among the most attractive nations for those looking to invest in infrastructure, according to THIRD GLOBAL INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT INDEX 2016: BRIDGING THE INVESTMENT GAP | @ArcadisGlobal.
…@edwardalden, a senior fellow with ‏@CFR_org. Indeed: A June survey found 71 percent of Southern California drivers would pay up to $20 per commute if they could drive a traffic-free, new expressway.
… “With privatized infrastructure, you can run the risk of giving the private asset holders weirdly too-much power over future investment decisions,” says @joshbivens_DC, at @EconomicPolicy. …

TO FAILURE TO ACT: THE IMPACT OF INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT ON AMERICA’S ECONOMIC FUTURE (PDF; May 2016) | Economic Development Research Group, Inc. (@ASCETweets)
p4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
… From 2016 to 2025, each household will lose $3,400 each year in disposable income due to infrastructure deficiencies; and if not addressed, the loss will grow to an average of $5,100 annually from 2026 to 2040, resulting in cumulative losses up to almost $34,000 per household from 2016 to 2025 and almost $111,000 from 2016 to 2040 (all dollars in 2015 value).
Over time, these impacts will also affect businesses’ ability to provide well-paying jobs, further reducing incomes. If this investment gap is not addressed throughout the nation’s infrastructure sectors by 2025, the economy is expected to lose almost $4 trillion in GDP, resulting in a loss of 2.5 million jobs in 2025.
p5-7, 10, 26

Trump’s plan to rebuild America will be a lot harder to pay for than it sounds (w Video; 11/14/2016) | @johnwschoen @CNBC
DRIVERS OF INFRASTRUCTURE: FAST Act; States & local government secular trend; Huge Trump infrastructure trend

Conservatives vs. Trump’s infrastructure plan: The president-elect’s $1 trillion proposal is getting a welcome from Democrats but not from conservative groups. (11/11/2016) | @kathrynwolfe,@Gardner_LM @politico
… “Conservatives do not view infrastructure spending as an economic stimulus, and congressional Republicans rightly rejected that approach in 2009,” said @danholler (@Heritage_Action)…
“There is little evidence that these public works projects promote long-run economic growth,” @ceidotorg fellow @marcscribner…
@BAFuture…pledged to work with Trump and Congress “to tackle this unifying issue in the first 100 days.” @PeterARuane, CEO of @ARTBA… “the bipartisan aspect of this is compelling.”
…Bud Wright, executive director of @aashtospeaks… “We certainly believe that we need additional federal investment, but really finding funding to do that — using some traditional or creative sources to generate new revenues — is important.”
The only way to fix the Highway Trust Fund long term… Kathryn B. Thomson (@MoFoLLP)… “There’s a fundamental unwillingness to make politically difficult choices.”
Ed Mortimer, executive director of transportation infrastructure for @ChamberMoves… some kind of sustainable funding fix should be part of whatever plan the new president offers. …

Trump’s plan to spend on infrastructure leads companies to pitch their products as infrastructure (11/18/2016) | @StevenMufson @latimes
…Mrinalini Ingram, vice president of smart communities at @verizon… Verizon networking technology embedded in LED street lights and blue-light kiosks where pedestrians in danger can call police.
…Richard Lukas, director of federal grants and program development at @tpl_org, was worrying about the fate of federal grants used to fund a riverside park in Newark, N.J., a three-mile park along an abandoned rail line in Chicago, and a trail and bike system in Cleveland.
… “Infrastructure doesn’t just mean roads and bridges. Infrastructure means a lot of different things to a lot of different people,” said @JasonGrumet @BPC_Bipartisan…
…the Trump administration should use the tax credit to let the private market decide which projects to undertake. ‏@GinniRometty @IBM… “As we build big, let’s also build smart,”…”The country should focus on infrastructure investments that incorporate Internet of Things (IoT) technology and artificial intelligence to improve performance.” “And as infrastructure gets smarter, it also increases the need for cybersecurity…
“It’s a huge opportunity,” said @API_News President Jack Gerard, “that doesn’t cost taxpayers money.”
…Sean McGarvey, president of @BldgTrdsUnions…
…@usmayors…

The Trump factor: can infrastructure rebuild your investments?- UK and US governments need the private sector to help finance projects (11/17/2016) | @Aime_Williams,@naomi_rovnick @ft
… While the American Society of Civil Engineers has projected a $1.44tn funding investment gap between 2016 and 2025 on infrastructure, consultancy McKinsey estimates that $57tn is needed globally by 2030 to finance infrastructure projects.
… In the UK, Philip Hammond, the chancellor, is expected to announce a boost for infrastructure projects in his first Autumn Statement this month. …
…Jorge Rodríguez (Deutsche Asset Management)… subsectors include energy and utilities businesses such as those providing gas, water and waste disposal, alongside those involved in improving transport. This could be building or operating motorways, airports, seaports…
…“social” infrastructure, such as schools, hospitals and court rooms, as well as more specialised infrastructure that requires high levels of technological prowes…
… In the UK, pension funds have piled into infrastructure following years of low bond yields, encouraged by hopes that the government reforms might make it easier for them to pool assets and invest in big projects. The problem…
If Mr Trump carries through his plan to spend “double” what Mrs Clinton had promised on infrastructure, the US construction industry should see an uplift of around 30 per cent, says Mr Simon Clinch (@InvescoUS). Even so, he warns that just as infrastructure is a long-term investment, the benefits may not show up on the balance sheets of construction companies for quite some time.


US Policy Changes Vol.5 (Energy Vol.1)

Here are articles on energy. Excerpts are on our own.

Trump presidency bullish long term for oil and gas, energy CEO says (w Video; 11/10/2016) | @MFoxCNBC (@johnwschoen)
… “We haven’t seen a decline in drilling in this country because of EPA regulations. We’ve seen a decline in drilling in this country because of two years of low prices,” @WarwickEnergy said. …

Trump Can’t Stop the Energy Revolution (11/9/2016) | @chrismbryant @Bfly
see an interactive graph ofelectricity generation by fuel

@CVEPLLC’s Book (@CSISEnergy) talks energy winners and losers, future of power plan (w Video & Transcript; 11/10/2016) | @MonicaTrauzzi ‏@EENewsUpdates
… the fossil energy value chain is the clear winner, from extraction to the midstream especially, but also downstream processing …
… Seas will rise no matter who’s in the White House if they’re rising for scientific reasons, and that discussion doesn’t go away just because a regulatory agenda shifts. On the other hand, the conservative climate movement, which has reared its head a couple of different times, hasn’t been incredibly successful because it needs a catalyst. …
… MSHA inspections interrupting profitable, continuous operation in underground mines — that could change. Guidance — conductivity guidance, and for that matter the stream protection rule, probably …

Trump choosing leaders to roll back environmental, energy policies: Fracking billionaire Howard Hamm, venture capitalist Robert Grady tipped for key energy file (11/14/2016) | @AP @CBCBusiness
…considering an oil billionaire and a North Dakota lawmaker for top posts…
Trump also is targeting recent Obama administration efforts to reduce air and water pollution that have been opposed by Republicans and industries that profit from the extraction and burning of fossil fuels, including a rule to protect small streams and wetlands and ozone regulations designed to cut down on smog.
Harold Hamm… Kevin Cramer… Robert Grady…

Where Donald Trump Will Make An Immediate Impact On The Energy Sector (11/14/2016) | @RRapier @Forbes
…there is one area where Trump is likely to have an immediate impact. That is in the midstream oil and gas business. Midstream businesses are those that move oil and gas from the site of production to processing plants, storage facilities, and end customers. Midstream consists largely of the oil and gas pipelines that crisscross underneath North America.
…Energy Transfer Partners…

What a Trump Presidency Might Mean for Your Electric Bill (11/15/2016) | @BobStump @NRO
…To vastly simplify: Solar power has decreased in price and, in some marketplaces, has proven cheaper than fossil fuels. … Renewable-energy tax breaks, the source of relatively broad bipartisan support, will likely survive until the date of their scheduled phase-out, in 2020. …
Trump has emphasized the pressing need for infrastructure investments, and modernizing the nation’s power grid to accommodate electricity generated at homes and businesses (“distributed energy”)… the Trump administration should refrain from the federal regulatory micromanagement that might hinder them.
Repeal can occur through a voluntary remand to the D.C. Circuit Court or the issuance of new rules. …would involve congressional action precluding the regulation of CO2 via the Clean Air Act by redefining what constitutes a pollutant.
… Altering power plants’ new-source pollution rules is a likely quiver in President Trump’s arsenal of options for boosting coal. …

Keep Arctic Alaska In Play For America’s Economic, Energy Security (11/11/2016) | @Mark_J_Perry @AEI ‏@IBDinvestors
… Through an otherwise obscure federal offshore leasing program, which is reviewed every five years by the U.S. Interior Department, the Obama Administration may slam the door shut on opportunities to produce American energy in Alaska’s offshore waters. …
The Alaskan Beaufort and Chukchi seas are estimated to hold nearly 24 billion — yes, billion — barrels of oil and more than 104 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. That’s enough to meet oil demand for a state like California for 38 years and natural gas demand for 45 years. …
… Alaskan offshore energy resources would generate $193 billion in federal government revenues over a 50-year period and would support nearly 55,000 jobs nationwide. The leases themselves will generate $97 billion in federal revenue…

Trump’s New Old Energy Order (11/9/2016) | @liamdenning (@markgongloff) @Bfly
Oil and gas
…could actually be bearish for oil prices.
…Exploration and production companies… Pipeline companies… Refiners…
…may not necessarily fill Riyadh with unalloyed confidence. …
… Rolling back sanctions could potentially reopen Russia to Exxon…
Utilities
…that could support the sector as investors stick with high dividend payers. …
… Any policy restraining those new entrants and prolonging the life of existing power plants will boost utilities’ bottom lines.
Renewables and … coal
…@TeslaMotors…@solarcity…

The Voters Who Gave Trump the White House (11/9/2016) | @AP @bpolitics (@DavidIngold,@BlackiLi,@mhkeller,@_jsdiamond,@hannah_recht,@aubergene)

What Just Happened in Solar Is a Bigger Deal Than Oil Exports-The impact: $73 billion in new investment in the U.S (12/17/2016) | @tsrandall @BloombergNRG

Trump Can’t Make Coal And Fracking Great Again (5/28/2016) | @liamdenning (@markgongloff) @Bfly

Clinton, Trump Both Support Nuclear Energy (10/19/2016) | @NEI

What a Trump presidency means for U.S. and global climate policy (11/9/2016) | @natehultman @BrookingsInst


Australia Vol.4 (Coalition – Liberal Party of Australia, Liberal National Party of Queensland, National Party of Australia, Country Liberal Party (NT) – 2016 Election Policies)

Here is the manifesto of the ruling coalition (@LiberalAus, @LNPQLD, @The_Nationals & Country Liberals) in July 2016. Excerpts are on our own.

[More Jobs and Growth through Increased Trade and Investment]
KEY COMMITMENTS
… Up to 10,000 new jobs are expected to be created in the financial services sector alone by 2030. In the first year of operation, our agreements with Korea and Japan delivered real benefits for the agricultural sector: the value of Australian exports of fresh beef to Japan increased by 22 per cent to just over $1 billion; exports of bottled wine to Korea increased 53 per cent; and China’s imports of fresh Australian lobster between January and March were triple those of 12 months ago.
Australia’s economy will be $24 billion larger by 2035 because of the Coalition’s free trade agreements with China, Japan and South Korea. The free trade agreements with China, Japan and South Korea are forecast to create some 7,900 jobs this year and over 14,500 jobs in 2020. …
We will continue to drive job growth through trade and investment by:
– delivering a company tax cut for Australia’s small businesses
– establishing a single window for all export documentation
– implementing the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement
– negotiating free trade agreements with India, Indonesia, the European Union, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, and Pacific Island countries under PACER Plus, as well as pursuing new trade opportunities, including in the Indo-Pacific region.
– connecting businesses with export markets
– establishing a Professional Services Mutual Recognition Unit
– actioning the recently released ‘National Strategy for International Education 2025’ and the marketing plan ‘Australian International Education 2025’
– securing access for local exporters to the multi-billion dollar government procurement markets of 45 economies by joining the WTO Government Procurement Agreement

THE CHOICE
… Labor had six years to conclude these agreements and achieved little. The Coalition’s three free trade agreements will add billions in additional income year-on-year and thousands of additional jobs. Real wages will be higher. …
Labor closed Australia’s live animal trade overnight, damaging our reputation as a reliable supplier of quality agricultural produce.
Labor let free trade agreement negotiations languish while our exporters lost market share to our competitors. …
Labor damaged our reputation as an investment destination when it introduced the mining and carbon taxes. The Coalition abolished the mining and carbon taxes. Under Labor, the number of unemployed increased by 200,000, productivity declined by 0.7 per cent per year, working days lost to strikes doubled, and business red tape increased.
Labor’s policies threaten the successful transition to the new economy, through damaging tax changes that will cut existing property values, a 50 per cent increase in Capital Gains Tax that will hurt investment, and refusal to support re-establishing the ABCC.
Bill Shorten has promised around $60 billion worth of additional spending on top of what is currently in the Budget, leaving a massive black hole in Labor’s books. …

[Support Innovative New Businesses and Jobs]
KEY COMMITMENTS
… The Coalition has a strong record supporting innovation and startup businesses, investing around $10 billion a year on innovation, science and research.
We are also delivering a $1.1 billion National Innovation and Science Agenda to boost innovation in Australia.
As part of the National Innovation and Science Agenda, the Coalition has delivered tax incentives for investors in innovative startup businesses. These tax incentives make it easier for startup businesses to raise the funding they need to hire new employees and grow their business into new markets. …
The Coalition will continue to support Australia’s startup businesses by investing $23 million to:
– increase the number of startup incubators and accelerators in Australia
– support the expansion of existing high-performing incubators and accelerators
– attract ‘experts in residence’ to provide specialist advice to startup businesses …

[Smart Cities]
KEY COMMITMENTS
Australia’s cities are home to the majority of our population and responsible for more than 80 per cent of national economic output. Liveable, accessible cities with clean environments are now essential economic assets.
In the knowledge economy, people are our greatest resource, and smart cities put people first. The Coalition will innovate with smart policy, smart investment and smart technology to ensure our cities are more liveable, more productive, and more prosperous.
Our cities are at the frontline of action on climate change. That is why the Coalition will establish an investment fund to accelerate the deployment of clean energy, renewable energy and energy efficiency technology in cities through the Clean Energy Finance Corporation.
These investments will drive new jobs and enterprise, reducing greenhouse emissions while making our cities more resilient, liveable and putting downward pressure on energy bills.
Projects must demonstrate value for money and earn a financial return for taxpayers.
Financial returns will be reinvested in new projects, creating a sustainable pool of funding with an annual investment target of up to $100 million each year.
The Coalition will also establish a $50 million competitive Smart Cities Program for local governments to collaborate and apply innovative technology-based approaches to improve the liveability of cities and their suburbs. …

[a Safe and Prosperous Australia]
KEY COMMITMENTS
The Government is strengthening Australia’s national security and enhancing our prosperity after years of mismanagement by Labor.
Our economic diplomacy strategy is delivering real benefits to Australian businesses and our economy and is generating jobs.
The Coalition’s emphasis on consultation and mutual respect is building trust in Australia as a reliable partner of choice in the Indo-Pacific region.
We are broadening and deepening our bilateral relationships with key strategic and economic partners including the United States, China, Japan, South Korea, India, Singapore and Indonesia.
We are keeping Australians safe from terrorism by cancelling the passports of foreign fighters, making it an offence for Australians to enter declared terrorist-controlled areas in Syria and Iraq and working closely with regional friends and partners.
We are refocusing Australia’s diplomatic, trade and development efforts on our region.
We are delivering a sustainable, effective and affordable aid program that helps developing countries reduce poverty and promote sustainable economic growth, giving priority to women and girls, education, health and aid-for-trade.
The Government’s student overseas study program, the New Colombo Plan, is supporting Australian university students to study and undertake internships in more than 35 countries in our region. This is building a generation of future Australian leaders with deeper understanding of our region and relationships to last a lifetime.
The Coalition’s foreign policy prepares Australia for the opportunities and challenges of the 21st century by:
– expanding Australia’s overseas diplomatic presence
– boosting Australia’s crisis response capability
– establishing regional health security partnerships
– supporting a Pacific Women Mentoring Programme
– developing a contemporary foreign policy strategy that builds on our achievements and focuses on 21st century challenges and opportunities

[a Stronger Agriculture Sector]
KEY COMMITMENTS
A strong agriculture sector will boost Australia’s productivity, jobs and exports.
The Coalition has delivered a $4 billion Agriculture White Paper that will support jobs growth in our regions, drive export opportunities for agricultural businesses, and encourage investment to ensure Australia remains a globally competitive agriculture producer.
We are delivering significant commitments to the agriculture sector, including a $200 million increase in biosecurity funding, $190 million for rural research and development for profit, $100 million for pest and weed management, a $2.5 billion concessional loan programme for farmers, and a $500 million National Water Infrastructure Fund to provide future water security for our farmers.
Australian agriculture is stronger under the Coalition.
The Coalition will continue to support jobs and growth in the agriculture sector by:
– delivering a $2 billion National Water Infrastructure Loan Facility to support major water infrastructure projects over 10 years
– building the Rookwood Weir, upgrading the Macalister Irrigation District and laying the south-west Loddon pipeline
– investing $20 million to help eradicate invasive pests through Invasive Animals Solutions
– encouraging investment by the Clean Energy Finance Corporation in agriculture
– committing $8.3 million to complete implementation of the Livestock Export Global Assurance programme
– providing $1.2 million to boost research and development for thoroughbred breeders
– delivering $4 million to establish a Northern Australian rice industry
– establishing a Regional Investment Corporation
– providing $4 million to support Casino Beef Week and ensure the Beef Australia 2018 event occurs in Rockhampton
– investing $2 million to establish a commodity milk price index
– developing leadership capacity in agricultural industries
– providing $1.8 million in additional funding for the Animal Management in Rural and Remote Indigenous Communities programme
– creating centres of excellence in agriculture

THE CHOICE
… When in government, Labor short-changed Australia’s agricultural sector, costing jobs and investment opportunities.
Labor cut funding to Australian agriculture by $2.1 billion.
Labor’s panicked reaction to an ABC TV programme devastated the Northern Australian cattle industry.
Labor’s super trawler fiasco damaged Australia’s reputation as a trade partner.

[Jobs and Growth in Regional Australia]
KEY COMMITMENTS
Regional Australia is critical to Australia’s economic prosperity and is home to around one third of Australia’s population.
Regional Australia accounts for around 65 per cent of Australia’s export earnings by value and is a major source of domestic and international tourism. 45 cents in every tourism dollar is spent in regional Australia.
Regional communities are benefitting from the Coalition’s economic plan.
Our export trade deals have made it easier for regional businesses to export to Asia and our tax cuts for small business are creating new job opportunities.
Regional communities are an attractive place to live and invest.
They have a strong culture of innovation, offer diverse employment options, and attract the skills and talent needed to build successful businesses.
While the opportunities for regional Australia have never been greater, the Coalition recognises that some regions have been impacted by the slowdown in mining, falling commodity prices and changes to the manufacturing sector.
The Coalition will boost jobs, investment and growth in regional Australia.
We will establish a $200 million Regional Jobs and Investment package to deliver regional jobs and growth.
The Regional Jobs and Investment package will incentivise local businesses to invest and employ, enable regional communities to upgrade local infrastructure and deliver new skills and training programmes.
The package will be delivered in partnership with local communities.
Community leaders and local experts will be engaged to assess the needs of regional communities and develop local investment plans covering the following three areas:
– Business innovation grants
– Local infrastructure
– Skills and training programmes
The package will support regional communities to diversify their economies, create new export opportunities and help boost regional jobs.
The Coalition will contribute $200 million to the Regional Jobs and Investment package and will leverage a further $200 million in matched funding. Individual regions will be able to access up to $30 million in funding.
Our commitment will boost confidence, jobs, investment, and growth in regional Australia.

THE CHOICE
… Labor’s policies will fail to deliver jobs and opportunities for regional Australia.

[A Stronger Economy and Balanced Budget]
KEY COMMITMENTS
The Coalition’s policies are fully costed and we will deliver an improvement to the Budget bottom line.
Our responsible and transparent approach to fiscally sound policy means that, compared to the Budget bottom-line in the Pre-Election Fiscal and Economic Outlook (PEFO), we will deliver a net improvement of $1.1 billion over the next four years.
By contrast, Labor worsens the PEFO results by $16.5 billion over the four years, despite increasing taxes.
Only the Coalition has a credible, fully-costed economic plan that will deliver jobs, promote economic growth, and deliver a secure future for Australian families.
Our economic plan is seeing results. Since the start of the election campaign several updates to economic indicators have been released by the Australian Bureau of Statistics:
– latest growth figures show Australia’s economy grew at more than 3 per cent over the last year
– our economy is growing faster than the US, UK, Canada and well above the OECD average
– export volumes and trade balance improved in April
– the current account balance strengthened in March
– household consumption remained solid, growing at 0.7 per cent through the March quarter and 3 per cent over the year
– the number of employed Australians has increased by 225,000 over the year to May 2016 and more than 460,000 jobs have been created since the Coalition came to government
– the unemployment rate is 5.7 per cent, down from its peak of 6.3 per cent in July 2015
– consumer confidence as measured by the Westpac Index remains elevated at a level of 102.2 in June – above the 10 year average and nearly 7 points above the confidence level a year ago
– business conditions and business confidence as indicated in the respected NAB survey remain positive and the AIG Performance of Services Index is stabilising
– our credit rating remains stable at the top level of Triple-A
The Coalition’s fiscally responsible and transparent approach to policy will mean lower taxes for families and businesses, greater certainty and stability, and more opportunities for job and real wage growth.
Our approach guarantees the protection of Medicare and funding for health, education and infrastructure.

THE CHOICE
The Coalition has a strong economic record and a plan to continue to grow our economy in order to provide jobs into the future.
The Coalition inherited a Budget in chaos from the Rudd-Gillard-Rudd years.
Living within our means is a key part of our National Economic Plan.
Unlike Labor, all our policies are fully funded.
This means we guarantee the protection of Medicare and funding for health, education and infrastructure.
Labor have rejected this commitment. They are instead raising taxes and at the same time make the Budget deficit worse over the next four years.
Under Labor, the deficit will be $16.5 billion higher than under the Coalition.
This means Labor will be borrowing an average of $11 million more than the Coalition each and every day over the next four years.
Three eminent economists have confirmed Labor will put Australia’s AAA credit rating at greater risk.
This is simply not fair to Australia’s youth.
High levels of debt shift the burden of paying for services Australian’s enjoy today on to our children and our grandchildren.
It’s the same old Labor – higher spending, higher deficits, despite increased taxes and higher debt.

cf Federal Platform

aus-manifesto-coalition


Canada Vol.15 (Manifesto 2015 of Green Party of Canada)

Here is Canada’s Green Party’s manifesto in October 2015. Excerpts are on our own.

VISION GREEN 2015 (PDF) | @CanadianGreens

p.9-10: The Green Economy
… A smart economy is one that is resilient. A smart economy is diversified, less vulnerable to global shifts. A smart economy enriches localized value chains, producing more goods and employing more Canadians. According to numerous studies, notably Michael E. Porter’s work at Harvard Business School, the more ambitious environmental standards and regulations are adopted, the more competitive and productive is your economy. …
… Unfortunately, employed Canadians are also among the most overworked citizens in the industrialized world. A report from the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA) states that the richest 10% of Canadians are the only ones not working longer hours. The report concludes that, despite being better educated and working harder, Canadian families are now “running faster just to stay put and the bottom half is actually falling behind.” …

p.13: 1.3 Reporting the well-being of the nation more accurately
By some accounts, the Canadian economy is performing quite well. But national prosperity is more than just the exchange of dollars. The gross domestic product (GDP) – our national bottom line – is a measure of money changing hands without regard to whether we are reducing social inequalities, advancing sustainability, or safeguarding our natural capital of primary resources such as wild fish populations, natural forests, and fertile soils. Oil spills and clean-up costs actually increase local GDP, as Kinder-Morgan’s submission to the National Energy Board boasted in an ill-conceived appeal to silver linings in the event of disaster. Most economists agree that GDP is a poor measure of economic well-being or quality of life, yet our government continues to use it as the basis for its most important taxation and policy decisions.
The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) is a new and innovative accounting method that embraces a more systematic and comprehensive definition of well-being. Literacy, health and fitness, housework, family time, public infrastructure, cultural institutions, community volunteerism, water and air quality, forests, farmland, wetlands, and employment are all measured by the GPI. Other countries, led by France following a ground-breaking study by Nobel award winners in economics Joseph Stiglitz and Amartya Sen, are working to broaden measurements of prosperity beyond the GDP. Canada needs to catch up.

p.15: 1.4 Fair taxes – fiscal reform
… However, the evidence is now in. Corporations have not used the extra cash to create jobs. They have not re-invested it in the Canadian economy. In the words of Mark Carney, former Governor of the Bank of Canada, the money that would have gone to pay for critical infrastructure, veterans’ benefits, and environmental research is “dead money.” It has not created jobs. It is sloshing around in the bank accounts of Canada’s biggest corporations. It is an astonishing $629 billion – 35% of Canada’s GDP. …

p.23-25: 1.12 Railways – re-establishing the national dream
Canada’s national rail systems are in decline. We are the only country in the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with no national transportation strategy. While Europeans have highly efficient inter-modal connectivity, with high speed rail linking downtown cores to airports, with bicycle lanes allowing people to move around cities safely, efficiently and pollution-free, with streetcars in the downtowns and even rural areas serviced by bus and rail, Canadian communities are increasingly stranded. Except for Vancouver, which has a downtown to airport rapid transit line built for the 2010 Olympics, and Toronto with a system currently under construction, nothing links our downtowns to airports other than a stretch of gridlocked traffic. Even along the Windsor-Quebec corridor, passenger rail is increasingly infrequent and outmoded. In much of Canada, rail routes that once moved thousands of people are abandoned. Edmonton to Calgary, Saskatoon to Regina, Halifax to Sydney have all been axed, despite their profitability. Even the tracks for freight between Truro and Cape Breton are being abandoned, and with them any hope of re-establishing passenger rail service.
Sir John A. Macdonald understood that to be a nation, to have a sense of shared identity and common purpose, Canada needed effective east-west links in communications, in energy delivery, and in transportation.
To renew this ‘national dream’ today requires a complete overhaul of our rail system for both passenger and freight. It will mean wherever possible shifting cargo containers off highways and onto freight trains, driving the development of freight distribution nodes (off-loading containers onto local trucks) along new ‘green corridors’. It will require a comprehensive plan for Alberta’s bitumen to increasingly process it in Alberta and stop over-burdening our rail system with rail cars loaded with bitumen for export.
The rail system changes will, over time, move to separate lines for passenger trains, particularly in well populated corridors. At the moment, freight owns the tracks and controls the traffic signals.
Passengers are at the mercy of freight. New high-speed commuter trains will almost halve the travel time between Toronto and Ottawa and Toronto and Montreal to about two and a half hours. With downtown-to-downtown service, the train will be faster than the plane, when security and other airport delays are factored in. Reducing air travel will reduce greenhouse gases and remove the needto expand airports or build new ones, including the Pickering airport near Toronto. Better rail service will take cars off the roads between major cities, reducing air pollution, congestion, and loss of life in traffic accidents. An improved rail system will make Canada more economically competitive and provide thousands of new jobs.

Green Party MPs will re-establish Canada’s National Dream and:
• Re-invest in our national rail systems, building more train cars in Canada, increasing train speeds and phasing in high speed rail where feasible, and creating green transportation and energy infrastructure corridors in key regions;
• Give VIA Rail a statute-based mandate, modeled on the U.S.-laws that govern Amtrak;
• Improve rail infrastructure and intermodal connections, increasing joint federal-municipal light rail investments, as well as improving VIA Rail service nationwide;
• Work with railway companies to improve rail infrastructure and to restore VIA rail service to all major regional cities;
• Create a national clean freight initiative, using both regulation and financial incentives to improve fleet efficiency and safety;
• Bring forward regulations for Positive Train Control systems for passenger and freight, ensuring safer transport;
• Support the trucking industry, reducing pollution through add-on generators to avoid the need to idle to maintain air conditioning and refrigeration, while ensuring the right fit of trucking in a more efficient, rail-based intermodal system.

p.25: 1.13 Green urban transportation
Urban sprawl means commuters crawl. More roads don’t solve the problem; they make it worse. Gridlock means more air pollution and more GHG emissions. A transition to efficient light rail transit and coordinated buses will take cars off our roads, breaking the cycle of an increasing number of cars on increasingly-crowded roads to make our cities more livable.
We must build our way out of the problem of clogged roads and smog-choked cities, not by building more roads and bridges and more distant suburbs, but by building ‘smart growth’ infrastructure. Excellent public transit and efficient housing in high-density nodes along existing transit corridors will make cities more livable and people-friendly. The federal government must take the lead in funding the ‘greening’ of Canada’s cities. (see Section 1.14  Infrastructure and Communities for more on federal-municipal relations.)

Green Party MPs will:
• Increase federal funding for pedestrian, cycle, and car-sharing infrastructure in towns and cities;
• Increase existing funding to stimulate a massive re-investment in public transportation infrastructure in all Canadian towns and cities to make it convenient, safe, comfortable, and affordable; …

p.26-27: 1.14 Infrastructure and communities
At Confederation, Canada was a predominantly rural country where fewer than one in ten people lived in cities. Our constitution set up a taxation system that greatly favoured the federal and provincial governments over municipal governments. The municipal order of government is not even mentioned in our Constitution, yet today eight in ten Canadians live in urban areas. …
Urban Canadians need their garbage collected, good transit services, safe roads, and dependable water supplies. They also want new investment in green urban infrastructure including recycling, mass transit, energy efficiency upgrades to buildings, water conservation, and community amenities like parks, sports fields, and arts, culture and community centres. Underlying this is an urgent need to replace aging sewer systems, roadways, and water pipes.
All of these are municipal responsibilities, but Canadian municipalities simply don’t have enough money to do it all. According to the Federation of Canadian Municipalities, 50% of Canadian tax revenue is spent on federal programs, 42% goes to the provinces and only 8% goes to municipal governments. Canada’s biggest fiscal imbalance is the imbalance between municipal governments and everyone else.
As Jane Jacobs pointed out in Dark Age Ahead, taxes are collected disproportionately at the wrong level. Most Canadians’ experience their government at the level where it collects their recycling, runs their buses, and provides their water. …
Green Party MPs will:
• Increase the Gas Tax Transfer to municipalities to five cents/litre to be used in funding the above sustainable transportation initiatives such as public transit, cycling and pedestrian infrastructure, and rural roads;
• Recognize that access to high-speed internet connections is now a critical aspect of infrastructure and work to expand access to address the ‘digital divide’;
• Make employer-provided transit passes tax-free by exempting them from taxable benefit status, thereby encouraging workers and businesses to use public transport, and make employee parking a taxable benefit;
• Change tax policy to create a new pool of long-term municipal infrastructure funding by allowing municipalities to issue new Municipal Registered Retirement Savings Plans Bonds which can be held in RRSPs and self-directed RRSPs;
• Fund ‘Green Cities’ initiatives, ensuring (through contractual agreements) that the funding is not used in ways that encourage urban sprawl, but instead to reduce sprawl and GHG emissions, conserve electricity and water, increase densification, expand convenient, safe, reliable and affordable public transit, and build cycling and walking paths.

p.30-32: 1.15 Agriculture and food
… Green Party MPs will develop a National Agricultural and Food Policy which will:
• Improve food safety and boosts nutritional health by:
o Amending the Canadian Food Inspection Agency mandate to remove any obligation to promote Canadian agri-business, ensuring the focus is on food safety and food safety only, with enhanced resources for inspection and monitoring;
o Eliminating conflict of interest by removing food and agri-business representatives from federal food policy advisory bodies;
o Acting to label sodium, sugar, and trans fats on food products;
o Regulating the amount of trans fats in our food supply;
o Removing tax deductibility from junk food advertising aimed at children;
o Placing a manufacturer’s levy on sugary drinks, earmarking the revenue to fund healthy living initiatives;
o Ensuring the quality and wholesomeness of food by strengthening the monitoring of pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, growth hormones, non-therapeutic antibiotics, and insecticides in food production, processing and storage, with the goal of an orderly reduction in detectable residues of these substances until they reach undetectable limits;
o Establishing federally funded, community-guided school lunch programs across Canada to ensure that our children have daily access to healthy local food and can learn about sustainable food production and healthy eating;
o Strengthening Plant Protection and Health of Animals Programs with measures to ensure the integrity of farm food products;
o Improving and strengthening the Canadian Organic Standard;
o Providing transitional assistance for those switching to certified organic farming practices;
o Ensuring that no animal by-products are used in ruminant animal feed;
o Strengthening testing for BSE by implementing 100% testing (testing of every slaughtered animal) as soon as the process of detecting BSE in blood samples is perfected.
(Note: please refer to Health promotion in section 4.7 for greater detail on health promotion aspects of some measures listed here.)

• Provide food security by:
o Moving towards regional food self-sufficiency across Canada, as we begin the shift to organic agriculture as the dominant model of production;
o Supporting the ‘200 kilometre diet’ and locally grown food through expansion of farmers’ markets and local culinary tourism activities;
o Promoting rooftop gardens, cultivation of green urban space for agriculture, food production in cities and suburbs, and community gardens;
o Protecting the right of farmers to save their own seed;
o Promoting heritage seed banks and seed exchange programs.

• Reduce corporate control of the food supply by:
o Reforming agriculture regulations to challenge corporate concentration;
o Ensuring that farm support payments are farm-based (not production-based) to encourage more farms and more farmers;
o Encouraging organic farming methods to improve farm profitability and sustainability.

• Support local food markets by:
o Enabling local areas without industrial-scale agriculture to develop area-specific food safety regulations meeting national standards without placing undue financial burdens on local farmers and food processors;
o Assisting in re-establishing the architecture of local food production in canneries, slaughterhouses, and other value-added food processing;
o Encouraging and supporting the consumption of locally-grown food by promoting adequate shelf space in grocery chains for products from local farms and local food processors.

• Improve agricultural research by:
o Ensuring that new plant cultivars and animal breeds remain in the public domain;
o Shifting government-supported research away from biotechnology and energy-intensive farming and towards organic food production;
o Increasing publicly-funded research into organic farming techniques;
o Establishing new policies for private research efforts to ensure that they are in the best interests of family farmers and consumers;
o Preventing the patenting of life forms;
o Ensuring that developers of genetically engineered crops are liable for any damage those crops cause.

• Ensure fair trade by:
o Prioritizing fair trade in agricultural exports and imports;
o Ensuring that supply management systems provide stable domestic markets, provide viable farm income and permit unregulated production by smaller and family farms that sell to local market;
o Reviewing the impacts of abolishing the Canadian Wheat Board and considering re-establishing it to ensure the fair trading of high quality Canadian grains;
o Eliminating the dumping of food into the economies of developing countries.

• Stop the loss of agricultural land to development by:
o Calling for negotiated agreements with the provinces to secure the preservation of the prime agricultural land in Canada;
o Reinstating the Canada Land Inventory program with adequate funding to update and keep current a comprehensive record of land capability and land use as a vital ongoing aid to local planning;
o Providing sufficient fiscal incentives to other levels of government, including municipalities, to preserve farmlands under their jurisdictions.

• Support environmental stewardship by:
o Protecting and improving the quality of water in our streams, lakes, and aquifers;
o Restoring the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Board and its conservation measures;
o Working with provinces to ensure that all livestock waste is recycled safely and contamination by agricultural run-off is avoided;
o Introducing cost-shared programs to help farmers protect wildlife habitat areas and marginal lands, maintain water quality in streams, lakes and aquifers, and retain and improve soil quality;
o Creating a national Environmental Farm Plan Program to provide new funding sources for implementation at the farm level.

• Assist farmers in climate change adaptation by:
o Encouraging farming methods that increase carbon sequestration and decrease water requirements;
o Establishing GHG emission targets for all components of the agri-food system, and collaborating with industry to meet targets;
o Restructuring Canada’s Business Risk Management Programs to help farmers cope with climate risk, especially in disaster assistance. …

p.35-36: 1.17 Fisheries
… Green Party MPs will work to:
• Sign and ratify the global treaty to ban bottom-trawling;
• Repeal changes to the federal Fisheries Act found in spring 2012’s omnibus budget bill C-38.

• Strengthen the Fisheries Act to:
1. Require evaluation of threats to fish stocks and include provisions to protect fish stocks and the marine environment;
2. Make protection of critical stocks and habitat mandatory;
3. Require that the management and conservation of wild fisheries take precedence over aquaculture, wherever there are conflicts;
4. Increase penalties for contravening the Fisheries Act;
5. Improve public participation in decision making, under the principles of the Oceans Act, in particular engaging coastal communities in local fisheries management.

• Restructure Fisheries and Oceans Canada into three separate branches: Management, Monitoring and Enforcement, and Research;
• Strengthen legislation that protects fish habitats and fish stocks from over-fishing and pollution;
• Implement measures to quickly phase out open-ocean net-cage fish farms and ensure that this aquaculture industry does not continue to harm wild fisheries;
• Give funding priority to small-scale projects to restore and enhance wild fish stocks, especially with Aboriginal peoples and traditional fishing communities using traditional technologies;
• Enforce sustainable harvesting technologies such as long lines, cod traps, or significantly modified mobile gear to reduce by-catch of untargeted and threatened species and monitor results to ensure the return of healthy stocks and stop the loss of biodiversity;
• Shift from interception fisheries management practices to selective terminal fisheries;
• Ban bottom-trawling in domestic waters and work internationally to institute a global ban;
• Appraise and support development of different kinds of fishing gear that make a profit, while minimizing by-catch and habitat impact;
• Support development of more sustainable ways of harvesting marine resources, including value-added processing, and developing environmentally-friendly biochemical and pharmaceutical products;
• Support Research and Development of ecotourism as a non-consumptive use of marine biodiversity;
• Provide funding and support to ecological research to discover what factors have enabled natural marine ecosystems to work so well in the past with the objective of restoring abundant stocks and rehabilitating degraded systems;
• Establish an Independent Review Commission made up of marine biologists, ecologists, and resource economists to investigate (with input from fishermen, fishing communities and indigenous peoples) the causes of the enormous decline in Canada’s fisheries resources, and recommend policies and programs to restore offshore and inshore fisheries;
• Repeal the Canada Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Act and the Canada Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Act and adjust regional agreements to give fisheries greater protection from petroleum exploration and development;
• Extend permanent bans on oil and gas exploration and development in ecologically-sensitive areas, particularly the coast of British Columbia and the Gulf of St. Lawrence;
• Encourage a greater role for fishermen and Aboriginal peoples in managing fisheries through co-management provisions in the Oceans Act;
• Ensure that lighthouses remain staffed to perform the essential safety and security work they perform;

• Work with provincial governments to eliminate aquaculture practices that damage the marine environment and threaten human health and seek:
1. A moratorium on new open-ocean net-pen salmon farms and a phase-out of existing farms within ten years;
2. In the meantime, the fallowing of sea pens during wild-hatch salmon runs. …

p.42-43: 1.20 Mining
… Green Party MPs will:
• Call for government action to require life-cycle product stewardship of metals to ensure that once mined they remain in economic service for generations;
• Actively encourage value-added upgrading and manufacturing, to create more jobs and other local economic benefits;
• Work with provinces and territories to ensure that First Nations, Metis and Inuit communities participate in a socially, environmentally and economically meaningful way in mineral development and mining in their traditional areas;
• Vigorously oppose the permitting of any new uranium mines and notify current uranium-permit holders of plans to phase out this industry in Canada, including exports;
• Prohibit the export of fissionable nuclear material;
• Develop plans to fast-track the end to asbestos mining in Canada and assist the Quebec government and industry in phasing out the chrysotile mining industry, providing transition support for affected workers, families and communities;
• Shift Canada’s position to support Prior Informed Consent rules under the Rotterdam Convention for asbestos;
• Push for full-cost accounting for mining and prospecting. Review the benefits of flow-through shares promoting prospecting and exploration in unlikely areas;
• Work with provinces, territories, and industry to ensure that all mining operations are insured for environmental liabilities, and have an adequate pre-funded plan for remediation, both for the short and long-term, when a mine closes, and ensure that waters are not contaminated during mining operations and after a mine closes; …

p.51-53: 2.1.3 Buildings
… Green Party MPs will:
• Develop a national energy retrofit standard designed for a post-carbon economy that will reduce energy use in existing buildings by an average of at least 80% below that of 2009 average structures;
• Develop timelines and targets for raising existing building stock to the new standard with the goal of retrofitting 100% of Canada’s buildings to a high level of energy efficiency by 2030;

• Promote the adoption of this high efficiency standard by:
1. Restore the EcoENERGY program and provide revolving federal loans for retrofits to homeowners, as well as create cooperative programs with other orders of government, aimed at retrofitting the majority of homes across Canada in the coming decade;
2. Dedicate $250 million/year for five years for a low-income retrofit grant program (propose 50% cost sharing with provinces aiming to retrofit 50,000 homes/year, assuming an average cost of $10,000/home);
3. Funding a nation-wide program to upgrade all low-income rental housing on a phased year-by-year basis to be completed by 2030, as Germany is doing;
4. Identifying the barriers to sustainable energy retrofits and eliminating them;
5. Providing refundable tax credits for all energy retrofit costs, based on before-and-after EnerGuide or infrared heat tests for residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional buildings;
6. Promoting tax-deductible Green Mortgages for homeowner energy retrofit costs;
7. Introducing a national program of energy retrofits to public sector buildings such as universities, schools, museums, and hospitals;
8. Establishing a 100% Accelerated Capital Cost Allowance for all businesses for energy retrofit costs;
9. Providing revolving federal loans for residential or business energy retrofits;
10.Instituting mandatory energy audits of buildings that become available for sale and requiring that the audit results be made available.

• Work with provinces and territories to develop and implement within two years, and update annually after that, a new national building code that:
1. Reduces overall energy demand to 15% of current conventional structures;
2. Minimizes the use of fossil fuel based heating and cooling systems;
3. Considers the embodied energy of construction materials;
4. Results in structures, where possible, that produce more energy than they consume;
5. Promotes structures that harvest, reuse, and purify their own water;
6. Is performance-based, opening the way to innovation and unlocking barriers to green design;
7. Require mandatory installation of solar hot water systems and pre-wiring for solar PV on all new buildings;
8. Provide grants of 50% of the cost of solar thermal roofs or walls including solar hot water, as in Sweden;
9. Promote Green Mortgage loans for the remainder of the cost. Establish free energy audits;
10. Provide GST credits for all materials used in buildings that are LEED® Silver or better.

p.54-55: 2.1.5 Renewable energy
… Green Party MPs will:
• Ensure Canada joins the International Renewable Energy Agency;
• Establish the design and management principles of a trans-Canada nationally integrated electrical power grid capable of efficiently transporting high electrical loads and accommodating many diverse sources of renewable electrical energy;
• Develop a transition plan that will transform the existing electrical distribution system into a high efficiency national grid;
• Work with Canada’s wind industry and the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CANWEA) to accelerate the rapid deployment of wind turbines to achieve 20% of Canada’s energy needs by 2025;
• Restore the Wind Power Production Incentive and incentives for projects with approved Advanced Renewable Tariffs that provide power purchase contracts for a diversity of small renewable energy projects;
• Provide a two cent/kWh subsidy for renewable energy produced in any province or territory adopting ART+ (Advanced Renewable Tariffs, net metering, peak power pricing, and plans for renewable grid extensions);
• Support local energy co-operatives forming in provinces or territories adopting ART+;
• Provide substantial Research and Development (R&D) funding for ocean energy technologies in provinces and territories adopting ART+;
• Provide substantial R&D funding for electricity storage technologies in provinces adopting ART+;
• Provide support for power grid extensions to bring wind and ocean power from remote areas in provinces and territories adopting ART+;
• Work with the solar industry to rapidly install 25 gigawatts (GW) of solar PV;
• Work with the solar industry to help them achieve their goal of installing over 5GWp by 2017;
• Work with renewable energy industries to introduce 12 GW MW of ocean energy and to set specific goals for production of biomass and micro hydro energy;
• Work with the geothermal energy industry and the oil industry (for their drilling expertise) in a well-funded R&D program to develop Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), drilling down to ten km to extract 25 GW of power;
• Develop co-generation and peak power production from methane obtained from the anaerobic digestion of organic waste;
• Develop peak power production from burning demonstrably sustainable agricultural and forest waste as necessary to meet peak power demands but within the constraints of maintaining soil nutrients.

p.57: 2.1.6 Transport
… Green Party MPs will:
• Work with the motor industry, provinces, territories, and other partners to develop a sustainable vehicles strategy, leading to an 85% reduction in emissions below today’s level by 2040;
• Adopt California standards requiring a 30% reduction in GHG emissions from new vehicles sold in Canada by 2020, 50% by 2025, and 90% by 2030. This will drive the manufacture of zero-emission vehicles and the infrastructure to support them. It will also create fuel efficiency standards in line with leading U.S. states for the 2011 model year;
• Kick-start a national fast-charging electric vehicle infrastructure by investing $12 million into travel corridor pilot projects around major urban centres;
• Provide tax incentives to electricity storage, to benefit renewable energy development in every province and territory and maximize the efficient use of existing infrastructure, specifically by amending Classes 43.1 and 43.2 of the Income Tax Act to specify that capital cost allowances apply to expenditures on tangible stand-alone electricity storage assets, regardless of the electricity source;
• Accelerate the market arrival of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and fully electric vehicles by signing the Plug-In Partners advanced purchasing agreement (creating a federal buying pool) with a commitment to buy large numbers of PHEVs for federal government use as soon as they are available. Carbon conditionality clauses in federal contracts will include a requirement for the purchase of plug-in vehicles as soon as they are more readily available;
• Work with all governments and businesses in Canada to join a Canadian green car buying pool and to join the Plug-In Partners buying pool;
• Offer scale-based rebates of up to $5,000 for the purchase of the most efficient vehicles, including electric vehicles, and scale-based fees on the purchase of inefficient vehicles;
• Require mandatory vehicle fuel efficiency labelling, adopting the European system;
• Allow tax write-off benefits only for energy efficient company cars;
• Provide incentives for Canadian manufacturers of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles;
• Establish a new authority to create a just transition fund for the automobile sector, funded by an additional fee on all sales of inefficient cars in Canada. …

p.61: 2.1.10 Fossil fuels
Green Party MPs will:
• Remove all subsidies and supports to the oil, coal, gas, and coalbed methane industries in Canada;
• Apply escalating Carbon Fee and Dividend to all CO2, methane, N2O, fugitive, and other GHG emissions;
• Apply a carbon fee to all producers of fossil fuels, redistributed as a dividend to every Canadian, as above;
• Work with provinces to ensure no new coal-fired electrical generation plants;
• Work with provinces to place a moratorium on horizontal fracking;
• Pass legislation to keep Canada’s west coast crude oil supertanker-free, ensuring both that a new West Coast oil bitumen-diluent port will not be built and that current bitumen-diluent tanker traffic in the Port of Vancouver be rapidly phased out;
• Work to establish a Federal Ministry of Energy Transition Plan to co-ordinate the transition from a fossil fuel based economy to one based on renewable energy;
• Work to establish a Strategic Petroleum and Natural Gas Reserve to address secure domestic petroleum supply in the event of shortages both short term and long-term, a Natural Gas Emergency Preparedness Plan that addresses potential natural gas supply shortages, and an Emergency Preparedness Plan to address other energy supply crises.

p.66-69: 3.2 Water protection and conservation
… We advocate a renewed federal government role in water management, focused on strong regulations and programs created in collaboration with provincial and municipal governments.
When it comes to our vision for freshwater, the Green message is clear: Keep it. Conserve it. Protect it.
• Keep it. Pressure is mounting to export freshwater south of the border, with trade agreements such as the North American Trade Agreement (NAFTA) leaving us susceptible to relinquishing control over our water. The Green Party supports current Federal Water Policy that emphatically opposes large-scale exports (bulk exports) of our freshwater.
• Conserve it. The federal government must work to ensure sustainable use of our water resources and at the same time maintain and improve access to safe water for all Canadians. This includes water metering and pricing that both reflect a fair value for water and foster efficient use, and regulations that protect and enhance water quality and ensure that Canada does not become a haven for water-wasting industrial technologies.
• Protect it. To protect and restore freshwater ecosystems and their ecological services (e.g. as habitats for fish and freshwater species, as domestic water supplies for energy-generation and recreation, as sources of water for irrigation and other economic uses) the federal government has to use its powers, including the Fisheries Act, and its role in inter-jurisdictional water sharing. This is especially important when considering the changes in quality and quantity of Canada’s freshwater that will occur due to climate change. The Great Lakes’ levels will fall, resulting in higher concentrations of toxic chemicals and other pollutants. B.C. rivers will become over-heated, preventing salmon spawning; and farmers will face increasing drought. The Athabasca River is already experiencing significant declines in flow and water quality due to climatic impacts and oil sands developments.
The federal government needs to ensure that watershed protection is the first priority of water protection and establish in-stream flow needs in every 1st and 2nd order stream in Canada. Ecological function of river basins must be protected through strict land use management in those river basins.

Green Party MPs will:
• Protect the fundamental right to clean freshwater for all Canadians today and in future generations by amending the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms to enshrine the right of future Canadians to an ecological heritage that includes breathable air and drinkable water;
• Establish a Canada Water Fund of $215 million per year for five years to focus on long-term watershed health, alleviating the problem of run-off of pollutants and nutrients, and to fund the continuation of the Great Lakes Water Quality Protocol;

• Push government to strategically implement the 1987 Federal Water Policy to meet the requirements of sustainable water management – equity, efficiency, and ecological integrity – by:
1. Passing federal legislation to prohibit bulk water exports, building on the current law banning exports from transboundary basins, and immediately remove water from the scope of the Canada-EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) currently being negotiated;
2. Take action to prevent radioactive waste shipments such as the highly radioactive worn out steam generators from nuclear reactors approved to be shipped out of the Owen Sound harbour, through the St. Lawrence Seaway and to Sweden;
3. Establishing regulations and product standards to promote water-efficient technologies in Canada;
4. Ensuring secure, safe water supplies for all citizens, with a focus on First Nations communities, through establishing regulations requiring protection of drinking water at its source, public inspection of domestic water supplies, and mandatory and regular drinking water testing;
5. Provide funding to municipalities through a new ‘Water and Waste Treatment Facilities Municipal Superfund’ (see Section 1.14 Infrastructure and Communities for more on federal-municipal relations) to enable replacement of chlorination systems with ozonation, ultraviolet sterilization, sand filtration, and other safe water purification systems;
6. Conduct an inventory of all polluted groundwater and water bodies. Develop and implement strategies for cleaning them;
7. Enhance the capacity of federal departments and agencies to protect and restore the health of aquatic ecosystems.

• Ensure that water is managed in a way that helps create healthy, sustainable communities and fosters sustainable livelihoods by demanding that government:
1. Replace federal guidelines for drinking water quality with binding national standards that secure clean drinking water and human health;
2. Make federal funding for urban water infrastructure contingent on water efficiency plans that include measurable and enforceable goals and objectives;
3. Provide adequate funding for local and regional flood protection and drought management planning;
4. Provide strategic climate change program funding for water conservation on the basis that water conservation results in energy savings and reduced GHG emissions;
5. Revive the InfraGuide program providing internships in leading-edge municipal infrastructure projects;
6. Shift subsidies and funding away from dams and diversions (including feasibility studies) toward comprehensive ‘ground to the glass’ drinking water protection strategies, especially source water protection, watershed restoration, and community-based water conservation and efficiency planning and programs;
7. Review federal agricultural subsidies and develop transitional strategies to shift production away from water-intensive crops toward less water-intensive local sustainable agriculture.

• Address inter-provincial/territorial and international water-related concerns by demanding that government:
1. Restore ecosystem health to Canada’s coastline and inland watersheds by funding improvements to municipal wastewater treatment systems, with particular emphasis on ensuring shoreline communities and industries stop dumping untreated waste into rivers, lakes, and oceans;
2. Ensure that binding water-sharing agreements among provincial, territorial and federal governments are created within the Mackenzie Basin (within one year). The agreements must reflect contemporary scientific knowledge and principles of social equity, efficiency and ecological integrity. Elements to include:
a. Capping withdrawals from the Athabasca River based on assessment of instream flow needs;
b. Ensuring oil sands developers deal responsibly with polluted waters in oil sands tailings storage ponds (the largest man-made structures on Earth);
c. Placing a moratorium on further oil sands development (i.e. increases in annual production).
3. Review the Prairie Provinces Water Board Master Agreement on Apportionment to ensure it is consistent with contemporary scientific knowledge and principles of social equity, efficiency, and ecological integrity;
4. Address invasive species in the Great Lakes by developing stringent, science-based protocols for ballast water flushing prior to entering the St. Lawrence waterway, and funding for monitoring and enforcement of these protocols;
5. Strengthen the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement to ensure it deals with emerging issues such as endocrine disrupters and pharmaceuticals.

• Support international momentum for the human right to water by establishing a national legally binding human right to basic water requirements for all Canadians (both quality and quantity);
• Increase Canadian aid for access to basic water requirements and sanitation consistent with the Millennium Development Goals;

• Fulfill the need to increase science capacity related to water issues by demanding the government:
1. Enhance funding for data collection and integrated information systems on water use, availability and quality;
2. Link research spending in the natural and social sciences to water policy goals to ensure our higher education institutions create the knowledge base needed for 21st century water management (e.g. emerging issues such as endocrine disrupters, pharmaceuticals and toxics, instream flows and sustainable groundwater yield, climate change adaptation).

p.183: 6.13 Quebec’s place in Canada
… Green Party MPs will:
• Ensure Quebec’s unique place within Canada is recognized and affirmed in all agreements between various levels of government;
• Respect Quebec’s right to opt out of social programs and be fully compensated by the federal government if it provides a reasonably similar program;
• Promote a form of federal-provincial tax-shifting that would gradually reduce the fiscal imbalance;
• Support Quebec’s official representation at UNESCO and ensure that if Quebec and the federal representative do not agree upon a matter then Canada would abstain;
• Rebalance the funding formula to ensure fairness across regions and provinces;
• Recognize the legitimate right of the people of Quebec to freely and democratically determine its full and undiminished sovereignty through a clear majority vote in Quebec on a clear question in favour of secession, provided it is politically and legally recognized by the international community.


Canada Vol.14 (Manifesto 2015 of Liberal Party of Canada)

Here is Canada’s current ruling party’s manifesto in October 2015. Excerpts are on our own.

Real CHANGE: A NEW PLAN FOR A STRONG MIDDLE CLASS [PDF] | @liberal_party

Chapter 1.  Growth for the Middle Class
~ Economic security for the middle class
~ Investing to strengthen the middle class
p.12: PUBLIC TRANSIT
We will invest in public transit to shorten commute times, cut air pollution, strengthen our communities, and grow our economy.
Canadian cities have been growing at a rapid rate, but investment in public transit has not kept pace.
Stephen Harper’s failure to invest has led to worsening traffic congestion, making it harder for families to spend time together. This gridlock also costs our economy billions of dollars in lost productivity each year.
We will get our communities moving again, by giving our provinces, territories, and municipalities the long-term, predictable federal funding they need to make transit plans a reality.
Over the next decade, we will quadruple federal investment in public transit, investing almost $20 billion more in transit infrastructure.

In communities all across Canada, transit projects are ready to go.
In British Columbia’s Lower Mainland, for example, plans are in place to:
• increase SeaBus service to every ten minutes during morning and afternoon rushes;
• extend rapid transit service along Broadway, currently the busiest bus corridor in North America; and
• bring light rail transit to Surrey, one of the fastest growing parts of the region.
We will work with provinces and municipalities across the country to get projects like these done.

p.13-14: GREENER COMMUNITIES
We will invest in sustainable infrastructure that makes our communities safer and more resilient.
Responsible governments do not walk away from challenges, or pretend they do not exist. We will protect our communities from the challenges of climate change and grow our economy by making significant new investments in green infrastructure.
This includes investments in local water and wastewater facilities; clean energy; climate resilient infrastructure, including flood mitigation systems; and infrastructure to protect against changing weather.
We will boost investment in green infrastructure by nearly $6 billion over the next four years, and almost $20 billion over ten years.
When it comes to infrastructure that will help keep Canadians safe and better prepared for emergencies, local leaders know what needs to be done. What they need is a federal partner willing to invest to help build stronger, more resilient communities.
In St. John’s, this means upgrades to its wastewater plant.
In Trois-Rivières, this means improving the Maples and Cardinal-Roy reservoirs, and finding ways to mitigate the regular flooding of the Millette, Bettez, and Lacerte rivers.
In Calgary and Southern Alberta, this means investments in flood mitigation projects, to help protect local families and businesses.

p.16: AGRICULTURE
We will help Canada’s agriculture sector be more innovative, safer, and stronger.
Canada’s farmers and ranchers are the foundation of our food sector. The work that they do to feed Canada and the world is vital, but government support is needed to help them with challenges ranging from transportation to water management to research and food safety.
To attract investment and create good jobs in food processing, we will invest $160 million, over four years, in an Agri-Food Value Added Investment Fund. This will provide technical and marketing assistance to help food processors develop new
value-added products that reflect changing tastes and market opportunities.
To support innovation in the agricultural sector, we will invest an additional $100 million, over four years, in agricultural research. To better allocate research funding, we will establish a transparent process that involves food producers.
We will invest an additional $80 million, over four years, in the Canadian Food Inspection Agency for more food safety inspections of domestic and imported foods.
We will continue to defend Canadian interests during trade negotiations, including supply management.
We will also work with provinces, territories, and other willing partners, to better address water and soil conservation and development issues, including investments in appropriate infrastructure.

~ Help that works for modern Canadian families
p.21-22: CANADA’S NORTH
We will invest in Canada’s North, to help northern Canadians with the high cost of living, and help our northern economies grow.
Canada’s North is a vast and beautiful part of the world, home to a rich culture and tremendous economic potential. Because of its isolation, however, it is also a very expensive place to live.
The Northern Residents Deduction was designed to help mitigate these higher costs, and help attract workers to the North. Unfortunately, the deduction amount has not kept pace with inflation, making its help less valuable to those who need it.
To help northern residents with higher costs of living, and to help our northern economies grow, we will increase the residency component of the deduction by 33 percent to a maximum of $22 per day. We will also index this benefit so that it keeps pace with inflation.
To ensure that northern families have access to affordable, healthy food, we will increase investments in the Nutrition North program by $40 million, over four years. We will also work with northern and remote communities to ensure that the program is more transparent, effective, and accountable to northerners and other Canadians.
As part of new, ten-year investments in social infrastructure and green infrastructure, we will prioritize investment in affordable housing and climate change preparedness, both of which are important to the quality of life for northern Canadians.

For residents in Canada’s Northern Zone, our enhanced Northern Residents Deduction will provide a new annual maximum deduction of $8,000 per year, from the $6,022 currently available.
Those living in the Intermediate Zone will see their annual maximum deduction rise to $4,000 from $3,011 per year.
In total, this enhanced deduction represents a $50 million annual tax savings for Northern Canadians.

Chapter 2.  Fair and Open Government
~ Open and transparent government
~ Open and fair elections
~ Giving Canadians a voice in Ottawa
~ Better service for Canadians
~ Evidence-based policy

Chapter 3.  A Clean Environment and a Strong Economy
p.40-41: CLEAN JOBS
We will make it easier and more financially rewarding for Canadian businesses to invest in creating clean jobs.
Clean technology can deliver real benefits for our environment and our economy, including more good, middle class jobs.
We will invest $100 million more each year in clean technology producers, so that they can tackle Canada’s most pressing environmental challenges, and create more opportunities for Canadian workers.
We will deliver more support to emerging clean tech manufacturing companies, making it easier for them to conduct research and bring new products to market.
We will also invest $200 million more each year to support innovation and the use of clean technologies in our natural resource sectors, including the forestry, fisheries, mining, energy, and agricultural sectors.
To support both large- and community-scale renewable energy projects, the new Canada Infrastructure Bank will issue Green Bonds to fund projects like electric vehicle charging stations and networks, transmission lines for renewable energy, building retrofits, and clean power storage.
We will enhance existing tax measures to generate more clean technology investments, and work with the provinces and territories to make Canada the world’s most competitive tax jurisdiction for investments in the research, development, and manufacturing of clean technology.
We will deliver a better quality of life for all Canadians by working with the provinces to set stronger air quality standards, monitor emissions, and provide incentives for investments that lead to cleaner air and healthier communities.
As the country’s single largest employer, customer, and landlord, we will lead by example and increase government use of clean technologies. This will boost domestic demand for clean technology, support entrepreneurs, and fuel new jobs.
We will improve energy efficiency standards for consumer and commercial products, and use new financing instruments to encourage investments in energy-saving retrofits to Canada’s industrial, commercial, and residential buildings.
We will provide more support for our clean technology companies to successfully export their products by training trade officials and leading trade missions focused on clean technology. These companies will also be provided with useful training, data, and technical assistance on export opportunities in a more coordinated way.
We will look for ways for government to be an “early adopter” of emerging green technologies, and will support clean transportation by adding electric vehicle charging stations at federal parking lots, and rapidly expanding the federal fleet of electric vehicles.
To foster the creativity that leads to cutting-edge research, we will establish Canada Research Chairs in sustainable technology.
We will also work closely with the provinces and territories to develop a Canadian Energy Strategy to protect Canada’s energy security; encourage energy conservation; and bring cleaner, renewable energy onto the electricity grid.

p.43-44: WATER
We will protect our freshwater and oceans.
Canada is uniquely blessed with an abundance of freshwater, and marine and coastal areas that are not only ecologically diverse, but also economically significant: our ocean-based industries contribute nearly $40 billion each year to the Canadian economy.
To protect these valuable natural resources, we will deliver more robust and credible environmental assessments for all projects that could impact our freshwater and oceans.

Freshwater
We will treat our freshwater as a precious resource that deserves protection and careful stewardship. We will work with other orders of government to protect Canada’s freshwater using education, geo-mapping, watershed protection, and investments in the best wastewater treatment technologies.
To protect our freshwater ecosystems, we will renew our commitment to protect the Great Lakes, the St. Lawrence River Basin, and the Lake Winnipeg Basin. We will also act on the recommendations of the Cohen Commission on restoring sockeye salmon stocks in the Fraser River.
To aid in making the best possible decisions, we will restore $1.5 million in annual federal funding for freshwater research – a program that was cut by the Conservatives – and make new investments in Canada’s world-leading IISD Experimental Lakes Area.

Oceans
Stephen Harper’s failure to meet our international commitments to protect marine and coastal areas puts these areas and our international reputation at risk.
We will make up for Conservative inaction and increase the amount of Canada’s marine and coastal areas that are protected – to five percent by 2017, and ten percent by 2020.
To help achieve this, we will invest $8 million per year in community consultation and science.

Chapter 4.  A Strong Canada
~ A renewed relationship with Indigenous Peoples
~ The future we owe our veterans
~ Keeping Canadians safe
~ Investing in our cultural and creative industries
~ Supporting strong communities

Chapter 5.  Security and Opportunity
~ Opening the door to prosperity
~ A more compassionate Canada

~ Expanding exports and opportunities for Canadians
p.66-67: THE UNITED STATES AND MEXICO
We will renew and repair our relationships with our North American partners.
For the past decade, Stephen Harper has led a government that is increasingly partisan, suspicious, and hostile when dealing with our closest neighbours: the United States and Mexico. We will end this antagonism and work with our partners to advance our shared interests.
As a first step, we will immediately lift the Mexican visa requirement that unfairly restricts travel to Canada, and commit to rescheduling and hosting a new trilateral leaders’ summit with the United States and Mexico.
We will work with the United States and Mexico to develop a continent-wide clean energy and environment agreement.
Because Canada relies on international trade to create jobs and grow our economy, we will work to reduce the barriers that limit trade. With a re-focused Building Canada Fund, we will promote a steadier flow of goods and business travellers by modernizing border infrastructure and streamlining cargo inspections.
To underscore the importance of the United States to Canada, we will also create a Cabinet committee to oversee and manage our relationship.

~ Renewing Canada’s place in the world and strengthening our security

Chapter 6.  Fiscal Plan and Costing
p.74-75: OUR FISCAL APPROARCH
… In 2019/20, we will:
• Reduce the federal debt-to-GDP ratio to 27 percent
• Balance the budget …

p.76-77: PLANNING FRAMEWORK
With the Liberal plan, the federal government will have a modest short-term deficit of less than $10 billion in each of the next two fiscal years – less than half the average Harper deficit of over $20 billion per year. After the next two fiscal years, the deficit will decline and our investment plan will return Canada to a balanced budget in 2019/20. Combining fiscal prudence with investments in economic growth, we will end the Harper legacy of chronic deficits and reduce Canada’s federal debt-to-GDP ratio each year.
The Conservatives and the NDP have based their planning framework on assumptions from the April 2015 budget, before it was understood that Canada was in a recession. Our plan is transparent and honest about the weakened fiscal position that the federal government is facing.
Our plan includes measures that, according to Department of Finance multiplier projections, will have positive impacts on economic growth, particularly infrastructure investment and measures for lower-income Canadians.
This new economic growth would in turn improve the fiscal position of the federal government. With our plan’s level of investment, this would translate into additional billions per year for the fiscal bottom line. While these improvements to the bottom line would be material, consistent with Department of Finance practices, we have not included them in our planning framework.


Africa Vol.3 (Accelerating South Africa’s Economic Transformation)