Canada Vol.60 (Ontario – Toronto: TorontoNewsMail)

Science and Technology Vol.72 (cobalt, etc.)

World Vol.148 / Science and Technology Vol.67 (semiconductor)

Top USA and International Semiconductor Manufacturers | @Thomasnet


The Semiconductor Supply Chain: Assessing National Competitiveness (PDF; 01/2021) | Center for Security and Emerging Technology (CSET)

Overview Of The Semiconductor Capital Equipment Industry (01/15/2019) | @SeekingAlpha
Memory chips are used to store data electronically in the form of bits (8bits = 1 byte). The most common types of memory chips made by the industry today are Dynamic Random Access Memory (“DRAM”) and NAND flash. DRAM is volatile memory, which means it temporarily stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor while the associated device is powered on. DRAM is commonly used by data servers and mobile devices. NAND (short for NAND flash) is non-volatile memory (“NVM”), which means it stores data even if the power is switched off. It’s called NAND because it’s a type of memory that resembles the NAND (not-and) logic. NAND is commonly used in memory cards and solid state drives (“SSD”). The major trend in memory today is the switch to three-dimensional (3D) memory where memory cells are built vertically, instead of horizontally (planar), which increases memory bit density.
Logic chips are the fundamental building blocks for digital electronics. Logic chips are constructed from connecting individual digital logic gates that perform logical operations of AND, OR and NOT on binary numbers. (This is where the NAND or not-and comes from). Logic chips perform calculations that drive computer processing.
Semiconductor manufacturers are generally focused on designing chips for various device applications. The semiconductor capital equipment industry (“semi-cap” for short) provides the equipment for these manufacturers.
The semiconductor industry is to electronics what the mining industry is to finished metal products. Taking this one step further, the semi-cap industry supplies the “picks and shovels” for the broader semiconductor industry.

The Main Types of Chips Produced by Semiconductor Companies (05/19/2020) | @investopia
Memory Chips; Microprocessors; Graphic Processing Units (GPUs); Standard Chips (Commodity ICs); Analog Chips; Mixed Circuit Semiconductors

Understanding Memory – An inside look at different memory types and how they work. (02/15/2018) | @semiEngineering
While logic chips work as the “brains” of an electronic device, performing functions using mathematical operations, memory chips store data. The basic building block of a memory chip is a cell, a tiny circuit with a capacitor (which stores data as a charge) and one or more transistors (which activate data). The capacitor is either charged or discharged, corresponding to the two possible data values (“1” or “0”), where this smallest unit of data is known as a “bit”.
The cells are arranged in a row and have a bit line structure that connects into a memory “address” called a word line. The address provides a means of identifying a location for data storage, and the word line forms an electrical path allowing all the memory cells on that row to be activated at the same time for storage (“write”) or retrieval (“read”). Data access is initiated with electrical signals – a row address strobe (RAS) and a column address strobe (CAS) – that together pinpoint a cell’s location within an array. If a charge is stored in the selected cell’s capacitor, these signals cause the transistor to conduct, transferring the charge to the connected bit line, causing a slight voltage increase that reads as a “1”.

The basics of microchips | ASML


Types of Semiconductor Devices | TOSHIBA

Guide to the major types of computer chips (03/26/2019) | @theburninhub

The global semiconductor silicon wafer market is expected to reach an estimated $17.4 billion by 2026 with a CAGR of 6.4% from 2020 to 2026 (06/14/2021) | @GlobeNewswire

Global Logic Semiconductor Market to Surpass $129 Billion by 2024 – Featuring Intel, Samsung Electronics, Xilinx, and NXP Semiconductors – (05/17/2019) | @BusinessWire

Global Logic Semiconductor Market – Industry Trends and Forecast to 2028 (05/2021) | DATA BRIDGE

What is Semiconductor Memory? | @ROHMsemi

Science and Technology Vol.66 (copper, silicon…/gallium…, etc.)

Tech Spotlight Casebook 2021 (w PDF; 05/2021) | @BelferCenter

Science and Technology Vol.65 (semiconductor)

Semiconductor Materials Types” Groups & Classifications | @ElecNotes
Germanium; Silicon; Gallium arsenide; Silicon carbide; Gallium Nitride; Gallium phosphide; Cadmium sulphide; Lead sulphide …

What is a Semiconductor? Types, Examples & Applications | @SyedZainNasir

Semiconductor Devices and Circuits, Applications | ElProCus

Different Types of Semiconductor Devices | @eh_org

Understanding the difference between n- and p-type semiconductors (03/03/2021) | Mesago Messe Frankfurt GmbH

P-Type, N-Type Semiconductors | LibreTexts

Semiconductors | lumen

Semiconductors | The Fact Factor

Types of Semiconductor Devices | @ToshibaUSA

Semiconductors | BYJU’S

Doped Semiconductors | Hyperphysics

Semiconductor (05/18/2020) | Investopia
Types of Semiconductors
Broadly speaking, semiconductors fall into four main product categories:
Memory: Memory chips serve as temporary storehouses of data and pass information to and from computer devices’ brains. The consolidation of the memory market continues, driving memory prices so low that only a few giants like Toshiba, Samsung and NEC can afford to stay in the game.
Microprocessors: These are central processing units that contain the basic logic to perform tasks. Intel’s domination of the microprocessor segment has forced nearly every other competitor, with the exception of Advanced Micro Devices, out of the mainstream market and into smaller niches or different segments altogether.
Commodity Integrated Circuit: Sometimes called “standard chips”, these are produced in huge batches for routine processing purposes. Dominated by very large Asian chip manufacturers, this segment offers razor-thin profit margins that only the biggest semiconductor companies can compete for.
Complex SOC: “System on a Chip” is essentially all about the creation of an integrated circuit chip with an entire system’s capability on it. The market revolves around growing demand for consumer products that combine new features and lower prices. With the doors to the memory, microprocessor and commodity integrated circuit markets tightly shut, the SOC segment is arguably the only one left with enough opportunity to attract a wide range of companies.

How Semiconductors Work (02/11/2021) | @HowStuffWorks

What are semiconductors? | @HitachiGlobal

Semiconductor Industry Association | @SIAAmerica

Semiconductor | Britannica

The Chip Shortage Keeps Getting Worse. Why Can’t We Just Make More? (05/06/2021) | @business
… it takes years to build semiconductor fabrication facilities and billions of dollars—and even then the economics are so brutal that you can lose out if your manufacturing expertise is a fraction behind the competition. …
Manufacturing a chip typically takes more than three months and involves giant factories, dust-free rooms, multi-million-dollar machines, molten tin and lasers. The end goal is to transform wafers of silicon—an element extracted from plain sand—into a network of billions of tiny switches called transistors…

Can Investors Profit From the Semiconductor Shortage?: Yes, you can. Here’s how. (05/28/2021) | @TMFZahrim,@TheMotleyFoolUK

The 2021 Technology Outlook for Silicon Carbide Semiconductors (03/08/2021) | @onsemi

Electronics Basics: What Is a Semiconductor? | @ForDummies

American Semiconductor, Inc

Semiconductor | @3M

Why there is a global semiconductor shortage, how it started, who it is hurting, and how long it could last (12/05/2021) | @scmp

America’s Semiconductor Industry Doesn’t Need $52 Billion in New Subsidies To Stay Ahead of China: Industrial policy is the wrong answer to a problem that mostly doesn’t exist. (05/27/2021) | @reason

Teradyne: Robots, 5G, Semiconductors – A Winning Formula For Sustainable Growth (05/30/2021) | @Teradyneinc,@SeekingAlpha


U.S. universities and colleges Vol.75 (Mizzou) / Missouri Vol.21

World Vol.105 (U.S. diplomacy, etc.)

U.S. universities and colleges Vol.57 (KU) / Kansas Vol.10

U.S. universities and colleges Vol.36 (GMU Schar School, etc.) / Virginia Vol.15

Science and Technology Vol.55 (Artificial Intelligence, Coronavirus, etc.)

U.S. universities and colleges Vol.22 (Georgia Institute of Technology) / Georgia Vol.10

World Vol.95 (World Economic Forum)

World Vol.94 (World Economic Forum – videos)

World Vol.92 (World Economic Forum)

Science and Technology Vol.54 (Artificial Intelligence, Coronavirus, etc.)

U.S. universities and colleges Vol.11 (UF) / Florida Vol.13

Science and Technology Vol.53 (Coronavirus, Artificial Intelligence, etc.)

Northern Europe Vol.5 (incl coronavirus, fish, 2019)

Pennsylvania Vol.15 (corporations: MSA Safety Incorporated)

Science and Technology Vol.49