Canada Vol.60 (Ontario – Toronto: TorontoNewsMail)


Science and Technology Vol.72 (cobalt, etc.)


https://twitter.com/ORNLCleanEnergy/status/1225547215290191872
https://twitter.com/EnergyUT/status/1283427004239548424


https://twitter.com/energigune_brta/status/1276078176268095488


https://twitter.com/kiteandkeymedia/status/1410017989529853955

https://twitter.com/UNCTAD/status/1117782638121635840


https://twitter.com/JackPosobiec/status/1410717662225780745


https://twitter.com/Cambridge_Eng/status/1399640610584268800


https://twitter.com/NASA/status/1410270726729388039


World Vol.148 / Science and Technology Vol.67 (semiconductor)

Top USA and International Semiconductor Manufacturers | @Thomasnet

2020 STATE OF THE U.S. SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY (PDF; 06/2020) | @SIAAmerica

The Semiconductor Supply Chain: Assessing National Competitiveness (PDF; 01/2021) | Center for Security and Emerging Technology (CSET)

Overview Of The Semiconductor Capital Equipment Industry (01/15/2019) | @SeekingAlpha
Memory chips are used to store data electronically in the form of bits (8bits = 1 byte). The most common types of memory chips made by the industry today are Dynamic Random Access Memory (“DRAM”) and NAND flash. DRAM is volatile memory, which means it temporarily stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor while the associated device is powered on. DRAM is commonly used by data servers and mobile devices. NAND (short for NAND flash) is non-volatile memory (“NVM”), which means it stores data even if the power is switched off. It’s called NAND because it’s a type of memory that resembles the NAND (not-and) logic. NAND is commonly used in memory cards and solid state drives (“SSD”). The major trend in memory today is the switch to three-dimensional (3D) memory where memory cells are built vertically, instead of horizontally (planar), which increases memory bit density.
Logic chips are the fundamental building blocks for digital electronics. Logic chips are constructed from connecting individual digital logic gates that perform logical operations of AND, OR and NOT on binary numbers. (This is where the NAND or not-and comes from). Logic chips perform calculations that drive computer processing.
Semiconductor manufacturers are generally focused on designing chips for various device applications. The semiconductor capital equipment industry (“semi-cap” for short) provides the equipment for these manufacturers.
The semiconductor industry is to electronics what the mining industry is to finished metal products. Taking this one step further, the semi-cap industry supplies the “picks and shovels” for the broader semiconductor industry.

The Main Types of Chips Produced by Semiconductor Companies (05/19/2020) | @investopia
Memory Chips; Microprocessors; Graphic Processing Units (GPUs); Standard Chips (Commodity ICs); Analog Chips; Mixed Circuit Semiconductors

Understanding Memory – An inside look at different memory types and how they work. (02/15/2018) | @semiEngineering
While logic chips work as the “brains” of an electronic device, performing functions using mathematical operations, memory chips store data. The basic building block of a memory chip is a cell, a tiny circuit with a capacitor (which stores data as a charge) and one or more transistors (which activate data). The capacitor is either charged or discharged, corresponding to the two possible data values (“1” or “0”), where this smallest unit of data is known as a “bit”.
The cells are arranged in a row and have a bit line structure that connects into a memory “address” called a word line. The address provides a means of identifying a location for data storage, and the word line forms an electrical path allowing all the memory cells on that row to be activated at the same time for storage (“write”) or retrieval (“read”). Data access is initiated with electrical signals – a row address strobe (RAS) and a column address strobe (CAS) – that together pinpoint a cell’s location within an array. If a charge is stored in the selected cell’s capacitor, these signals cause the transistor to conduct, transferring the charge to the connected bit line, causing a slight voltage increase that reads as a “1”.

The basics of microchips | ASML

MARKETS & PRODUCTS | ASM

Types of Semiconductor Devices | TOSHIBA

Guide to the major types of computer chips (03/26/2019) | @theburninhub

The global semiconductor silicon wafer market is expected to reach an estimated $17.4 billion by 2026 with a CAGR of 6.4% from 2020 to 2026 (06/14/2021) | @GlobeNewswire

Global Logic Semiconductor Market to Surpass $129 Billion by 2024 – Featuring Intel, Samsung Electronics, Xilinx, and NXP Semiconductors – ResearchAndMarkets.com (05/17/2019) | @BusinessWire

Global Logic Semiconductor Market – Industry Trends and Forecast to 2028 (05/2021) | DATA BRIDGE

What is Semiconductor Memory? | @ROHMsemi


Science and Technology Vol.66 (copper, silicon…/gallium…, etc.)

https://twitter.com/BoschPress/status/1399670818246856706


https://twitter.com/CoolMagSL/status/1312346765006434309

https://twitter.com/NadWGab/status/1038741609138061314


https://twitter.com/BLMAlaska/status/1396904156422676489


https://twitter.com/CastilloCopper/status/1397530576161280006


https://twitter.com/anasalhajji/status/1396674714643357696


https://twitter.com/Long2The/status/1397949672006815746


https://twitter.com/electronicspec/status/1386270037317664775

Tech Spotlight Casebook 2021 (w PDF; 05/2021) | @BelferCenter


https://twitter.com/TheSun/status/1397424760112488449


Science and Technology Vol.65 (semiconductor)




https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DvYfs6rXKuE

Semiconductor Materials Types” Groups & Classifications | @ElecNotes
Germanium; Silicon; Gallium arsenide; Silicon carbide; Gallium Nitride; Gallium phosphide; Cadmium sulphide; Lead sulphide …

What is a Semiconductor? Types, Examples & Applications | @SyedZainNasir

Semiconductor Devices and Circuits, Applications | ElProCus

Different Types of Semiconductor Devices | @eh_org

Understanding the difference between n- and p-type semiconductors (03/03/2021) | Mesago Messe Frankfurt GmbH

P-Type, N-Type Semiconductors | LibreTexts

Semiconductors | lumen

Semiconductors | The Fact Factor

Types of Semiconductor Devices | @ToshibaUSA

Semiconductors | BYJU’S

Doped Semiconductors | Hyperphysics

Semiconductor (05/18/2020) | Investopia
Types of Semiconductors
Broadly speaking, semiconductors fall into four main product categories:
Memory: Memory chips serve as temporary storehouses of data and pass information to and from computer devices’ brains. The consolidation of the memory market continues, driving memory prices so low that only a few giants like Toshiba, Samsung and NEC can afford to stay in the game.
Microprocessors: These are central processing units that contain the basic logic to perform tasks. Intel’s domination of the microprocessor segment has forced nearly every other competitor, with the exception of Advanced Micro Devices, out of the mainstream market and into smaller niches or different segments altogether.
Commodity Integrated Circuit: Sometimes called “standard chips”, these are produced in huge batches for routine processing purposes. Dominated by very large Asian chip manufacturers, this segment offers razor-thin profit margins that only the biggest semiconductor companies can compete for.
Complex SOC: “System on a Chip” is essentially all about the creation of an integrated circuit chip with an entire system’s capability on it. The market revolves around growing demand for consumer products that combine new features and lower prices. With the doors to the memory, microprocessor and commodity integrated circuit markets tightly shut, the SOC segment is arguably the only one left with enough opportunity to attract a wide range of companies.

How Semiconductors Work (02/11/2021) | @HowStuffWorks

What are semiconductors? | @HitachiGlobal

Semiconductor Industry Association | @SIAAmerica

Semiconductor | Britannica

The Chip Shortage Keeps Getting Worse. Why Can’t We Just Make More? (05/06/2021) | @business
… it takes years to build semiconductor fabrication facilities and billions of dollars—and even then the economics are so brutal that you can lose out if your manufacturing expertise is a fraction behind the competition. …
Manufacturing a chip typically takes more than three months and involves giant factories, dust-free rooms, multi-million-dollar machines, molten tin and lasers. The end goal is to transform wafers of silicon—an element extracted from plain sand—into a network of billions of tiny switches called transistors…

Can Investors Profit From the Semiconductor Shortage?: Yes, you can. Here’s how. (05/28/2021) | @TMFZahrim,@TheMotleyFoolUK

The 2021 Technology Outlook for Silicon Carbide Semiconductors (03/08/2021) | @onsemi

Electronics Basics: What Is a Semiconductor? | @ForDummies

American Semiconductor, Inc

Semiconductor | @3M

Why there is a global semiconductor shortage, how it started, who it is hurting, and how long it could last (12/05/2021) | @scmp

America’s Semiconductor Industry Doesn’t Need $52 Billion in New Subsidies To Stay Ahead of China: Industrial policy is the wrong answer to a problem that mostly doesn’t exist. (05/27/2021) | @reason

Teradyne: Robots, 5G, Semiconductors – A Winning Formula For Sustainable Growth (05/30/2021) | @Teradyneinc,@SeekingAlpha

SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING | @semiEngineering


U.S. universities and colleges Vol.75 (Mizzou) / Missouri Vol.21

https://twitter.com/Mizzou/status/1363249362814586880


https://twitter.com/Mizzou/status/1375189330600267786


https://twitter.com/MizzouWrestling/status/1373475399120916485


https://twitter.com/jennieci/status/1374436814811922433


https://twitter.com/HistoryatMizzou/status/1324794108284674051


World Vol.105 (U.S. diplomacy, etc.)


https://twitter.com/RUSI_org/status/1369981601325666307
https://twitter.com/RUSI_org/status/1370363727543947265


https://twitter.com/cepa/status/1371456991273574402

https://twitter.com/cheddar/status/1372315055417655301

https://twitter.com/KRCG13/status/1371877945195778055


https://twitter.com/graceekrcg13/status/1372145028634710017


U.S. universities and colleges Vol.57 (KU) / Kansas Vol.10


https://twitter.com/KUCollege/status/1367129142236438537


https://twitter.com/KUCollege/status/1364953585595928582
https://twitter.com/KUCollege/status/1364674717756518404
https://twitter.com/KUCollege/status/1364613578616143875


https://twitter.com/KUCollege/status/1363956782616498178
https://twitter.com/KUCollege/status/1362450580283744259


https://twitter.com/KUCollege/status/1360735003139784708


https://twitter.com/KUCollege/status/1359237893936599044


https://twitter.com/KUCollege/status/1357705598092136450


https://twitter.com/KUCollege/status/1356248588960092160
https://twitter.com/KUCollege/status/1354563730785398790


https://twitter.com/KUCollege/status/1346866639392927752


https://twitter.com/KUCollege/status/1339304547097972742


https://twitter.com/KUTechnology/status/1367878337587200003


https://twitter.com/KUTechnology/status/1363955711915536397


https://twitter.com/KUTechnology/status/1317144565078511624


https://twitter.com/KansanNews/status/1365376084607311872


U.S. universities and colleges Vol.36 (GMU Schar School, etc.) / Virginia Vol.15


Science and Technology Vol.55 (Artificial Intelligence, Coronavirus, etc.)


https://twitter.com/jgi/status/1354460960665133057

https://twitter.com/PawlowskiMario/status/1347257011327668225


https://twitter.com/SAPIMC/status/1356199120973819906


https://twitter.com/ncedigital/status/1354414113598951424


https://twitter.com/BeemsterUS/status/1326208078027644928
https://twitter.com/lelyrobotman/status/1309574626520035335


https://twitter.com/CORDIS_EU/status/1348910929388437506


https://twitter.com/BBCNorthampton/status/1331861711238868995

https://twitter.com/NFUtweets/status/1354826608503365635
https://twitter.com/farmingfirst/status/1357018563752714242


https://twitter.com/FAOKnowledge/status/1355430297320312835


https://twitter.com/IntEngineering/status/1282404393116225537
https://twitter.com/IntEngineering/status/1327370660641910784
https://twitter.com/IntEngineering/status/1184771199404007429
https://twitter.com/IntEngineering/status/1190660171648905219


U.S. universities and colleges Vol.22 (Georgia Institute of Technology) / Georgia Vol.10


https://twitter.com/emilygrubert/status/1334573362358706176


https://twitter.com/GTSciences/status/1356668939699429376
https://twitter.com/GTSciences/status/1354869771993546754


https://twitter.com/GTaerospace/status/1352013785419063297
https://twitter.com/GTaerospace/status/1347312273241595906


https://twitter.com/GeorgiaTech/status/1354866419633188869
https://twitter.com/GeorgiaTech/status/1354114224679772161
https://twitter.com/GeorgiaTech/status/1351600842562945024


World Vol.95 (World Economic Forum)


https://twitter.com/WEFUpLink/status/1354844411037962243


https://twitter.com/wef/status/1355199024748490759


https://twitter.com/wef/status/1355093334465757186


https://twitter.com/wef/status/1354776243753906176


https://twitter.com/wef/status/1354731556196257792


https://twitter.com/wef/status/1354715842966134785


https://twitter.com/wef/status/1354503188410363906


https://twitter.com/wef/status/1354471074201792512


World Vol.94 (World Economic Forum – videos)


World Vol.92 (World Economic Forum)


https://twitter.com/wef/status/1354368552434720770


https://twitter.com/wef/status/1354129450993070080


https://twitter.com/wef/status/1354096912018845698


https://twitter.com/wef/status/1353673977114353666


Science and Technology Vol.54 (Artificial Intelligence, Coronavirus, etc.)

https://twitter.com/CNET/status/1350950528998490112


https://twitter.com/ATTBusiness/status/1352333522271424514


https://twitter.com/DT_IoT/status/1329449372413779976


https://twitter.com/BoschPress/status/1349281792600154115


https://twitter.com/MargaretSiegien/status/1348778296872493056
https://twitter.com/DSMeu/status/1348994421933617152


https://twitter.com/AliNouriPhD/status/1346168276552986626


U.S. universities and colleges Vol.11 (UF) / Florida Vol.13

https://twitter.com/UFTheHub/status/1346815051211137027
https://twitter.com/UFTheHub/status/1344647021442031617
https://twitter.com/UFTheHub/status/1339571298851303425
https://twitter.com/UFTheHub/status/1335226187514253314
https://twitter.com/UFTheHub/status/1334496375703269381
https://twitter.com/UFTheHub/status/1334131482269454341
https://twitter.com/UFTheHub/status/1333801782187761667
https://twitter.com/UFTheHub/status/1332681921277665281
https://twitter.com/UFTheHub/status/1332319552898801665


https://twitter.com/UFiHealLab/status/1347560176287707136
https://twitter.com/UFExplore/status/1346852237369176065


https://twitter.com/UFExplore/status/1349752022648696834


https://twitter.com/UFBiodiversity/status/1350080642747346944


https://twitter.com/DrJtotheMastro/status/1349372695142690821


https://twitter.com/UF_ICBR/status/1350102716165488643


https://twitter.com/UF_ICBR/status/1341730526374350859


https://twitter.com/UFPharmacy/status/1334165427950260225
https://twitter.com/UFPharmacy/status/1333781112632406018


https://twitter.com/UFCOTA/status/1337457130983583744


Science and Technology Vol.53 (Coronavirus, Artificial Intelligence, etc.)


https://twitter.com/EvaSmartAI/status/1343423800298401794


https://twitter.com/BoschGlobal/status/1337079038213386240


https://twitter.com/Tanguy_lrx/status/1343610220254277633


https://twitter.com/EvaSmartAI/status/1345968034410860544


https://twitter.com/TheInsaneApp/status/1346096857982795776


https://twitter.com/Qualcomm/status/1341799924653043718


https://twitter.com/HaroldSinnott/status/1342983543325130758


Northern Europe Vol.5 (incl coronavirus, fish, 2019)

https://twitter.com/lvmfi/status/1334065598851117057
https://twitter.com/FinlandinEU/status/1333695819636232193
https://twitter.com/ukinfinland/status/1336702375877283841


https://twitter.com/BusinessFinland/status/1328965347383373824


https://twitter.com/BusinessFinland/status/1330871938227507201

https://twitter.com/DKinEU/status/1334754737045069825


https://twitter.com/UKinDenmark/status/1334804163864256512


https://twitter.com/denmarkdotdk/status/1319577884693024768


https://twitter.com/AU_Bxl/status/1111562420886142976
https://twitter.com/AarhusUni/status/1092892962793684993


https://twitter.com/NorwayEU/status/1333406390694588425
https://twitter.com/NorwayEU/status/1336283580771807232
https://twitter.com/NorwayEU/status/1336960598387666945
https://twitter.com/NorwayinUK/status/1334820147454996481
https://twitter.com/StormchaserUKEU/status/1330620702555312136


https://twitter.com/uibgeo/status/1113898823892520961


https://twitter.com/MattHCunliffe/status/1334134437815201793

https://twitter.com/EFTAsecretariat/status/1335170047539634182
https://twitter.com/UKinIceland/status/1336322269501476866


https://twitter.com/BiIndia/status/1333810589966077952


https://twitter.com/HealthBuzzBE/status/1337175886832033797


https://twitter.com/MFAIceland/status/1317117301704056833
https://twitter.com/JudithBuntingLD/status/1335536371696623617


https://twitter.com/SITEStockholm/status/1304360308572598272


https://twitter.com/CaixaCienciaCAT/status/1200708546448515072


https://twitter.com/swedense/status/1328593792589570048


Pennsylvania Vol.15 (corporations: MSA Safety Incorporated)


Science and Technology Vol.49


https://twitter.com/JGPharmD/status/1333398262578114561
https://twitter.com/AndyWeberNCB/status/1331597936380305409


https://twitter.com/techopcode/status/1330006364291092483

https://twitter.com/InsiderFood/status/1323985184295915521
https://twitter.com/engineers_feed/status/1330482725774630919
https://twitter.com/engineers_feed/status/1328311840682676224


https://twitter.com/ShefUniNews/status/1327627349697945601