World Vol.160 (U.S., etc.)

World Vol.159 (U.S., etc.)

World Vol.157 (U.S., etc.)

World Vol.155 (U.S., EU, etc.)

Metals for a Green and Digital Europe | @GEF_Europe
EU green deal could transform metals demand (03/01/2021) | @argusmedia
European Green Deal | @euromines
The green transition challenged by the metal supply chain | @SultanEtn
The metal supply chain challenging the EU Green Deal and put forward policy recommendations (04/07/2020) | @INNOVATION_PL
EU’s ‘green mining’ concept? – there’s no such thing | @euobs
A Policy Mix for Dematerialisation | @EcologicBerlin
Metals recycling in EU could collapse under new rules, companies say (06/03/2021) | @reuters
The geopolitics of the European Green Deal (03/02/2021) | @ecfr
Fortescue Metals Eyes 15 Million Tons of EU Green Hydrogen by 2030 (Video; 05/26/2021) | @bsurveillance

Science and Technology Vol.71 / World Vol.154 (The Role of Critical Minerals in Clean Energy Transitions @IEA)

This is a very useful open-access report. I appreciate @IEA’s contribution to all the human beings.
(It is the first time to paste as many as 20 screenshots on this website. Hope this is helpful.)

Austria Vol.7 (cities)

World Vol.153 (U.S., etc.)

Canada Vol.34

Science and Technology Vol.69 (silver, etc.)

World Vol.151 (U.S., U.K., etc.)

UK Vol.186

World Vol.150 (U.S., Australia, etc.)

Science and Technology Vol.68 (semiconductor materials)

Semiconductor Materials | @IEEEorg
What are the most used semiconductor materials?
The most used semiconductor materials are silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide. Of the three, germanium was one of the earliest semiconductor materials used. Germanium has four valence electrons, which are electrons located on the outer shell of the atom.
The number of valence electrons in a semiconductor material determines its conductivity. While an important step in the evolution of semiconductor materials, germanium has largely fallen into disuse in favor of the current king of semiconductor materials—silicon.
Silicon has seen extensive use as a semiconductor material since the 1950s. The most abundant element on earth after carbon, silicon has four valence electrons and melts at a higher temperature than germanium (1,414 degrees Celsius in comparison to germanium’s 938.3 degrees Celsius).
Silicon is abundantly available in quartzite. Extraction, purification, and crystallization processes for silicon are both efficient and economical. The element crystallizes in a diamond form for a relatively robust bond, giving silicon crystals strong mechanical properties.
Gallium arsenide is the second most common semiconductor in use today. Unlike silicon and germanium, gallium arsenide is a compound, not an element, and is made by combining gallium, with its three valence electrons, with arsenic, which has five valence electrons.
Eight valence electrons make gallium-arsenide devices respond quickly to electric signals, making the compound well suited for amplifying the high-frequency signals seen in television satellites. Gallium arsenide has some limitations, however: the compound is more difficult to manufacture en masse than silicon, and the chemicals used in gallium arsenide production are quite toxic.
What are the most effective semiconductor materials?
In addition to gallium arsenide, the compound silicon dioxide has characteristics superior to silicon, allowing it to be used as an insulator, passivation layer, and a building layer in metal-oxide silicon (MOS) devices, a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor. Silicon dioxide has a high dielectric strength and wider band gap than silicon, making it an effective insulator, and the compound is easily deposited on other materials.

Semiconductor Materials | @MiNetTechnology

Robust Growth And Strong Outlook For Semiconductor Materials (05/20/2021) | @SemiEngineering

Silicon Wafer Manufacturers – Materials Used to Make Semiconductors (15/04/2018) | @WaferWorldInc

Beyond silicon: the search for new semiconductors (03/10/2016) | @ConversationEDU

Silicon semiconductors to convert heat into power (13/07/2012) | @dwnews

Why are Silicon Wafers Used Semiconductor Chip Production? | @UniversityWafer

Silicon Semiconductor (10/27/2020) | @electrical4u1

What is silicon wafer? | SUMCO

How a semiconductor wafer is made | USJC

What is a Semiconductor Wafer? (08/25/2016) | @WaferPro

What are SiC Semiconductors? | @ROHMsemi

What is a Silicon Carbide Semiconductor? (05/01/2019) | @wolfspeed


Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFETs | @onsemi

Germanium (Ge) Semiconductors | AZO materials

Germanium Wafer – The Different Applications of Germanium as a Semiconductor (29/10/2019) | @WaferWorldInc

Germanium as Semiconductor – Properties | Nuclear Power for Everybody

Germanium Can Take Transistors Where Silicon Can’t (29/11/2016) | @IEEESpectrum

Silicon and Germanium | Hyperphysics

Semiconductor Materials | @tuvienna

Compound Semiconductor | Sumitomo Electric

Semiconductor Materials | TOSHIBA

Semiconductor Materials |

Virginia Semiconductor Inc.

World Vol.149 (U.S., New Zealand, etc.)

World Vol.148 / Science and Technology Vol.67 (semiconductor)

Top USA and International Semiconductor Manufacturers | @Thomasnet


The Semiconductor Supply Chain: Assessing National Competitiveness (PDF; 01/2021) | Center for Security and Emerging Technology (CSET)

Overview Of The Semiconductor Capital Equipment Industry (01/15/2019) | @SeekingAlpha
Memory chips are used to store data electronically in the form of bits (8bits = 1 byte). The most common types of memory chips made by the industry today are Dynamic Random Access Memory (“DRAM”) and NAND flash. DRAM is volatile memory, which means it temporarily stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor while the associated device is powered on. DRAM is commonly used by data servers and mobile devices. NAND (short for NAND flash) is non-volatile memory (“NVM”), which means it stores data even if the power is switched off. It’s called NAND because it’s a type of memory that resembles the NAND (not-and) logic. NAND is commonly used in memory cards and solid state drives (“SSD”). The major trend in memory today is the switch to three-dimensional (3D) memory where memory cells are built vertically, instead of horizontally (planar), which increases memory bit density.
Logic chips are the fundamental building blocks for digital electronics. Logic chips are constructed from connecting individual digital logic gates that perform logical operations of AND, OR and NOT on binary numbers. (This is where the NAND or not-and comes from). Logic chips perform calculations that drive computer processing.
Semiconductor manufacturers are generally focused on designing chips for various device applications. The semiconductor capital equipment industry (“semi-cap” for short) provides the equipment for these manufacturers.
The semiconductor industry is to electronics what the mining industry is to finished metal products. Taking this one step further, the semi-cap industry supplies the “picks and shovels” for the broader semiconductor industry.

The Main Types of Chips Produced by Semiconductor Companies (05/19/2020) | @investopia
Memory Chips; Microprocessors; Graphic Processing Units (GPUs); Standard Chips (Commodity ICs); Analog Chips; Mixed Circuit Semiconductors

Understanding Memory – An inside look at different memory types and how they work. (02/15/2018) | @semiEngineering
While logic chips work as the “brains” of an electronic device, performing functions using mathematical operations, memory chips store data. The basic building block of a memory chip is a cell, a tiny circuit with a capacitor (which stores data as a charge) and one or more transistors (which activate data). The capacitor is either charged or discharged, corresponding to the two possible data values (“1” or “0”), where this smallest unit of data is known as a “bit”.
The cells are arranged in a row and have a bit line structure that connects into a memory “address” called a word line. The address provides a means of identifying a location for data storage, and the word line forms an electrical path allowing all the memory cells on that row to be activated at the same time for storage (“write”) or retrieval (“read”). Data access is initiated with electrical signals – a row address strobe (RAS) and a column address strobe (CAS) – that together pinpoint a cell’s location within an array. If a charge is stored in the selected cell’s capacitor, these signals cause the transistor to conduct, transferring the charge to the connected bit line, causing a slight voltage increase that reads as a “1”.

The basics of microchips | ASML


Types of Semiconductor Devices | TOSHIBA

Guide to the major types of computer chips (03/26/2019) | @theburninhub

The global semiconductor silicon wafer market is expected to reach an estimated $17.4 billion by 2026 with a CAGR of 6.4% from 2020 to 2026 (06/14/2021) | @GlobeNewswire

Global Logic Semiconductor Market to Surpass $129 Billion by 2024 – Featuring Intel, Samsung Electronics, Xilinx, and NXP Semiconductors – (05/17/2019) | @BusinessWire

Global Logic Semiconductor Market – Industry Trends and Forecast to 2028 (05/2021) | DATA BRIDGE

What is Semiconductor Memory? | @ROHMsemi

World Vol.147 (BBC, AFP)

World Vol.146 (TorontoStar, AP, etc.)

World Vol.145 (G7 Summit 2021 in Cornwall)

World Vol.144 (G7 Summit 2021 in Cornwall)

World Vol.143 (U.S., etc.)

World Vol.142

World Vol.141 (U.S., etc.)

Science and Technology Vol.66 (copper, silicon…/gallium…, etc.)

Tech Spotlight Casebook 2021 (w PDF; 05/2021) | @BelferCenter

World Vol.140 (U.S., etc.)

Belfer Center Annual Report 2020 (w PDF; 01/2021) | @BelferCenter