World Vol.160 (U.S., etc.)


World Vol.159 (U.S., etc.)


https://twitter.com/HudsonInstitute/status/1416080192997519361


https://twitter.com/France24_en/status/1415989597306335232
https://twitter.com/France24_en/status/1415997138702671873
https://twitter.com/France24_en/status/1415975747856912387
https://twitter.com/France24_en/status/1416065086490247169


https://twitter.com/AFP/status/1416027338588962817


World Vol.157 (U.S., etc.)


https://twitter.com/IAJournal_CH/status/1412776945650221056


World Vol.155 (U.S., EU, etc.)

Metals for a Green and Digital Europe | @GEF_Europe
EU green deal could transform metals demand (03/01/2021) | @argusmedia
European Green Deal | @euromines
The green transition challenged by the metal supply chain | @SultanEtn
The metal supply chain challenging the EU Green Deal and put forward policy recommendations (04/07/2020) | @INNOVATION_PL
EU’s ‘green mining’ concept? – there’s no such thing | @euobs
A Policy Mix for Dematerialisation | @EcologicBerlin
Metals recycling in EU could collapse under new rules, companies say (06/03/2021) | @reuters
The geopolitics of the European Green Deal (03/02/2021) | @ecfr
Fortescue Metals Eyes 15 Million Tons of EU Green Hydrogen by 2030 (Video; 05/26/2021) | @bsurveillance


https://twitter.com/ClarkCountyNV/status/1411749334517882882
https://twitter.com/KTNV/status/1411767014285262858


https://twitter.com/KOLOTimko/status/1411750334184099840
https://twitter.com/KOLOTimko/status/1411736900797300737

https://twitter.com/letterboxd/status/1411614784735178756
https://twitter.com/patrickdextervc/status/1411633722101800963


https://twitter.com/MagrinyaJordi/status/1409576651067908103


Science and Technology Vol.71 / World Vol.154 (The Role of Critical Minerals in Clean Energy Transitions @IEA)

This is a very useful open-access report. I appreciate @IEA’s contribution to all the human beings.
(It is the first time to paste as many as 20 screenshots on this website. Hope this is helpful.)





















Austria Vol.7 (cities)



https://twitter.com/alpenadriauni/status/1410508488439177219


https://twitter.com/alpenadriauni/status/1408320753636945920


https://twitter.com/cfaed_TUD/status/1298392570645680128
https://twitter.com/lakesidescitec/status/1407638930598633473


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9DQ40SVfUwY
https://twitter.com/StadtVillach/status/1354794170943229963
https://twitter.com/JosepEudald/status/1411809097725403140


https://twitter.com/chris4024/status/1411033963074883587


https://twitter.com/phoenixbookcafe/status/1410615644169461769
https://twitter.com/WagnerGerfried/status/1411053281900642306




https://twitter.com/StadtDornbirn/status/1400716490605748224


https://twitter.com/transitdiagrams/status/1369344732376272898



https://twitter.com/EUHomeAffairs/status/1410180885702393858

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UPaQga3Y08g


https://twitter.com/breakonthru234/status/1399470153528594432





https://twitter.com/PhilWe1/status/1409092411842863107




https://twitter.com/CarfreeNetwork/status/1411253894831874049


https://twitter.com/LadySileL/status/1409832616572985344


https://twitter.com/viennasymphony/status/1410519824556507137
https://twitter.com/der_heubi/status/1408785219373703171


World Vol.153 (U.S., etc.)


https://twitter.com/UoE_Sus/status/1391679589974425600


https://twitter.com/IMD_Bschool/status/1401903232977408011


Canada Vol.34


https://twitter.com/tylermeredith/status/1410608780212011017


https://twitter.com/MonaFortier/status/1409998438062768137
https://twitter.com/JonathanWNV/status/1409941987365638152
https://twitter.com/SeamusORegan/status/1409894440651608069
https://twitter.com/trevortombe/status/1410386932039778314


https://twitter.com/ubi_works/status/1402728682171600900


Science and Technology Vol.69 (silver, etc.)


https://twitter.com/ScienceAlert/status/1240790663844827136


https://twitter.com/VXO/status/1258381348932251649


https://twitter.com/LaurelCoons/status/1139212824000028672


https://twitter.com/wef/status/1406902016543182850


https://twitter.com/cheddar/status/1407034789123739660
https://twitter.com/cheddar/status/1407142794284748802


World Vol.151 (U.S., U.K., etc.)


https://twitter.com/ABsteward/status/1405948924133888000


https://twitter.com/EvilDoctorK/status/1406949675043860483


https://twitter.com/wef/status/1407398092605997057
https://twitter.com/wef/status/1407428247596548104
https://twitter.com/wef/status/1406643001842049031
https://twitter.com/wef/status/1406537309814550528
https://twitter.com/wef/status/1406250418322083843


https://twitter.com/wef/status/1406612802664484875


https://twitter.com/tableaupublic/status/1405586268982059022


UK Vol.186


https://twitter.com/ChathamHouse/status/1405888306483810304


https://twitter.com/ChathamHouse/status/1405855079979261952


https://twitter.com/RUSI_org/status/1407345252642459667


https://twitter.com/RUSI_org/status/1407706693425930246


https://twitter.com/BBCWales/status/1408077544096682002


World Vol.150 (U.S., Australia, etc.)


https://twitter.com/ANUBellSchool/status/1393053501530546176


https://twitter.com/ANUCrawford/status/1405099589796089856
https://twitter.com/ANUWarStudies/status/1402189917623664640


https://twitter.com/CFR_org/status/1405929520008466436


https://twitter.com/PVDMonthly/status/1404506038519357448


https://twitter.com/PVDStreets/status/1404433750944063490


Science and Technology Vol.68 (semiconductor materials)

Semiconductor Materials | @IEEEorg
What are the most used semiconductor materials?
The most used semiconductor materials are silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide. Of the three, germanium was one of the earliest semiconductor materials used. Germanium has four valence electrons, which are electrons located on the outer shell of the atom.
The number of valence electrons in a semiconductor material determines its conductivity. While an important step in the evolution of semiconductor materials, germanium has largely fallen into disuse in favor of the current king of semiconductor materials—silicon.
Silicon has seen extensive use as a semiconductor material since the 1950s. The most abundant element on earth after carbon, silicon has four valence electrons and melts at a higher temperature than germanium (1,414 degrees Celsius in comparison to germanium’s 938.3 degrees Celsius).
Silicon is abundantly available in quartzite. Extraction, purification, and crystallization processes for silicon are both efficient and economical. The element crystallizes in a diamond form for a relatively robust bond, giving silicon crystals strong mechanical properties.
Gallium arsenide is the second most common semiconductor in use today. Unlike silicon and germanium, gallium arsenide is a compound, not an element, and is made by combining gallium, with its three valence electrons, with arsenic, which has five valence electrons.
Eight valence electrons make gallium-arsenide devices respond quickly to electric signals, making the compound well suited for amplifying the high-frequency signals seen in television satellites. Gallium arsenide has some limitations, however: the compound is more difficult to manufacture en masse than silicon, and the chemicals used in gallium arsenide production are quite toxic.
What are the most effective semiconductor materials?
In addition to gallium arsenide, the compound silicon dioxide has characteristics superior to silicon, allowing it to be used as an insulator, passivation layer, and a building layer in metal-oxide silicon (MOS) devices, a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor. Silicon dioxide has a high dielectric strength and wider band gap than silicon, making it an effective insulator, and the compound is easily deposited on other materials.

Semiconductor Materials | @MiNetTechnology

Robust Growth And Strong Outlook For Semiconductor Materials (05/20/2021) | @SemiEngineering

Silicon Wafer Manufacturers – Materials Used to Make Semiconductors (15/04/2018) | @WaferWorldInc

Beyond silicon: the search for new semiconductors (03/10/2016) | @ConversationEDU

Silicon semiconductors to convert heat into power (13/07/2012) | @dwnews

Why are Silicon Wafers Used Semiconductor Chip Production? | @UniversityWafer

Silicon Semiconductor (10/27/2020) | @electrical4u1

What is silicon wafer? | SUMCO

How a semiconductor wafer is made | USJC

What is a Semiconductor Wafer? (08/25/2016) | @WaferPro

What are SiC Semiconductors? | @ROHMsemi

What is a Silicon Carbide Semiconductor? (05/01/2019) | @wolfspeed

WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF SILICON CARBIDE IN SEMICONDUCTORS? (25/03/2019) | @EuroScientist

Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFETs | @onsemi


Germanium (Ge) Semiconductors | AZO materials

Germanium Wafer – The Different Applications of Germanium as a Semiconductor (29/10/2019) | @WaferWorldInc

Germanium as Semiconductor – Properties | Nuclear Power for Everybody

Germanium Can Take Transistors Where Silicon Can’t (29/11/2016) | @IEEESpectrum

Silicon and Germanium | Hyperphysics

Semiconductor Materials | @tuvienna

Compound Semiconductor | Sumitomo Electric

Semiconductor Materials | TOSHIBA

Semiconductor Materials | pveducation.org

Virginia Semiconductor Inc.


World Vol.149 (U.S., New Zealand, etc.)


https://twitter.com/AFP/status/1405731183527219205


World Vol.148 / Science and Technology Vol.67 (semiconductor)

Top USA and International Semiconductor Manufacturers | @Thomasnet

2020 STATE OF THE U.S. SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY (PDF; 06/2020) | @SIAAmerica

The Semiconductor Supply Chain: Assessing National Competitiveness (PDF; 01/2021) | Center for Security and Emerging Technology (CSET)

Overview Of The Semiconductor Capital Equipment Industry (01/15/2019) | @SeekingAlpha
Memory chips are used to store data electronically in the form of bits (8bits = 1 byte). The most common types of memory chips made by the industry today are Dynamic Random Access Memory (“DRAM”) and NAND flash. DRAM is volatile memory, which means it temporarily stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor while the associated device is powered on. DRAM is commonly used by data servers and mobile devices. NAND (short for NAND flash) is non-volatile memory (“NVM”), which means it stores data even if the power is switched off. It’s called NAND because it’s a type of memory that resembles the NAND (not-and) logic. NAND is commonly used in memory cards and solid state drives (“SSD”). The major trend in memory today is the switch to three-dimensional (3D) memory where memory cells are built vertically, instead of horizontally (planar), which increases memory bit density.
Logic chips are the fundamental building blocks for digital electronics. Logic chips are constructed from connecting individual digital logic gates that perform logical operations of AND, OR and NOT on binary numbers. (This is where the NAND or not-and comes from). Logic chips perform calculations that drive computer processing.
Semiconductor manufacturers are generally focused on designing chips for various device applications. The semiconductor capital equipment industry (“semi-cap” for short) provides the equipment for these manufacturers.
The semiconductor industry is to electronics what the mining industry is to finished metal products. Taking this one step further, the semi-cap industry supplies the “picks and shovels” for the broader semiconductor industry.

The Main Types of Chips Produced by Semiconductor Companies (05/19/2020) | @investopia
Memory Chips; Microprocessors; Graphic Processing Units (GPUs); Standard Chips (Commodity ICs); Analog Chips; Mixed Circuit Semiconductors

Understanding Memory – An inside look at different memory types and how they work. (02/15/2018) | @semiEngineering
While logic chips work as the “brains” of an electronic device, performing functions using mathematical operations, memory chips store data. The basic building block of a memory chip is a cell, a tiny circuit with a capacitor (which stores data as a charge) and one or more transistors (which activate data). The capacitor is either charged or discharged, corresponding to the two possible data values (“1” or “0”), where this smallest unit of data is known as a “bit”.
The cells are arranged in a row and have a bit line structure that connects into a memory “address” called a word line. The address provides a means of identifying a location for data storage, and the word line forms an electrical path allowing all the memory cells on that row to be activated at the same time for storage (“write”) or retrieval (“read”). Data access is initiated with electrical signals – a row address strobe (RAS) and a column address strobe (CAS) – that together pinpoint a cell’s location within an array. If a charge is stored in the selected cell’s capacitor, these signals cause the transistor to conduct, transferring the charge to the connected bit line, causing a slight voltage increase that reads as a “1”.

The basics of microchips | ASML

MARKETS & PRODUCTS | ASM

Types of Semiconductor Devices | TOSHIBA

Guide to the major types of computer chips (03/26/2019) | @theburninhub

The global semiconductor silicon wafer market is expected to reach an estimated $17.4 billion by 2026 with a CAGR of 6.4% from 2020 to 2026 (06/14/2021) | @GlobeNewswire

Global Logic Semiconductor Market to Surpass $129 Billion by 2024 – Featuring Intel, Samsung Electronics, Xilinx, and NXP Semiconductors – ResearchAndMarkets.com (05/17/2019) | @BusinessWire

Global Logic Semiconductor Market – Industry Trends and Forecast to 2028 (05/2021) | DATA BRIDGE

What is Semiconductor Memory? | @ROHMsemi


World Vol.147 (BBC, AFP)


https://twitter.com/BBCWorld/status/1404059137282084864


World Vol.146 (TorontoStar, AP, etc.)


https://twitter.com/EUDataNewsHub/status/1404026576048644096
https://twitter.com/EUDataNewsHub/status/1403726136710995970
https://twitter.com/EUDataNewsHub/status/1403662373194448897
https://twitter.com/EUDataNewsHub/status/1403311065136574467
https://twitter.com/EUDataNewsHub/status/1402588219011649542


World Vol.145 (G7 Summit 2021 in Cornwall)

https://twitter.com/G7/status/1404128511640621058
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1404084216049115141


https://twitter.com/G7/status/1404030822613667841
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1404002245495115781
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403748179506565122
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403416786545131520


https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403425655530852366
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403778259964289026
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403797976061988864
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403370617257201664
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403124869882068994
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403644487587532802
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403966158546538499
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403964376512708608


https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403385808845950983
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403279268797374464


https://twitter.com/G7/status/1402639908141928453
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1402570679875145728


https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403250048847261696
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403063567914577930


https://twitter.com/DefraGovUK/status/1404086572132098053
https://twitter.com/DHSCgovuk/status/1403038397476782082


https://twitter.com/FCDOGovUK/status/1402554812768477191
https://twitter.com/HMGSouthWest/status/1403311973098561537


https://twitter.com/ClarenceHouse/status/1403635633852194816


https://twitter.com/trussliz/status/1403404613932433415


https://twitter.com/DominicRaab/status/1403434776795754499
https://twitter.com/DominicRaab/status/1403314703548420096


World Vol.144 (G7 Summit 2021 in Cornwall)


https://twitter.com/vonderleyen/status/1403385150231166982


https://twitter.com/vonderleyen/status/1403296851961516037


https://twitter.com/BorisJohnson/status/1403772740931293200


https://twitter.com/BorisJohnson/status/1402879830413217795


https://twitter.com/10DowningStreet/status/1403804404231327748


https://twitter.com/CyrilRamaphosa/status/1403757356937367556
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1404065340569628672
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1404050956204101640


https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403759156943798283


https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403735108255989760


https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403422862636163073
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403404829196705800
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403383647504408577
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403310433583484934
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403305679587364864
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403300400934146048
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403299613172551680
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403267878263136257


https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403099429293465602
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1402867510823866371


World Vol.143 (U.S., etc.)


World Vol.142


https://twitter.com/dw_sports/status/1403263237869785090
https://twitter.com/France24_en/status/1403348619537829888


https://twitter.com/France24_en/status/1403304544440827908


https://twitter.com/France24_en/status/1403028678993498119


https://twitter.com/johnhamdavidson/status/1394657321851269125
https://twitter.com/PortsChamber/status/1402749950203682820


https://twitter.com/olgatuleninova/status/1399459214611861506


World Vol.141 (U.S., etc.)


https://twitter.com/CAgovernor/status/1401966933403050007


https://twitter.com/Ekateri03519672/status/1399606903274151936


Science and Technology Vol.66 (copper, silicon…/gallium…, etc.)

https://twitter.com/BoschPress/status/1399670818246856706


https://twitter.com/CoolMagSL/status/1312346765006434309

https://twitter.com/NadWGab/status/1038741609138061314


https://twitter.com/BLMAlaska/status/1396904156422676489


https://twitter.com/CastilloCopper/status/1397530576161280006


https://twitter.com/anasalhajji/status/1396674714643357696


https://twitter.com/Long2The/status/1397949672006815746


https://twitter.com/electronicspec/status/1386270037317664775

Tech Spotlight Casebook 2021 (w PDF; 05/2021) | @BelferCenter


https://twitter.com/TheSun/status/1397424760112488449


World Vol.140 (U.S., etc.)

https://twitter.com/RevereCopper/status/1288489799188393984


https://twitter.com/joncoopertweets/status/1396306525669445635


https://twitter.com/Ohmszy/status/1400964664469594116


https://twitter.com/MassEMA/status/1399763336003215362


https://twitter.com/andyvalencianoy/status/1400618215915544577


https://twitter.com/rogue_trippers/status/1400435589611204609

Belfer Center Annual Report 2020 (w PDF; 01/2021) | @BelferCenter