Science and Technology Vol.73 (nickel, cobalt, lithium, etc.)

World Vol.159 (U.S., etc.)

Science and Technology Vol.72 (cobalt, etc.)

World Vol.155 (U.S., EU, etc.)

Metals for a Green and Digital Europe | @GEF_Europe
EU green deal could transform metals demand (03/01/2021) | @argusmedia
European Green Deal | @euromines
The green transition challenged by the metal supply chain | @SultanEtn
The metal supply chain challenging the EU Green Deal and put forward policy recommendations (04/07/2020) | @INNOVATION_PL
EU’s ‘green mining’ concept? – there’s no such thing | @euobs
A Policy Mix for Dematerialisation | @EcologicBerlin
Metals recycling in EU could collapse under new rules, companies say (06/03/2021) | @reuters
The geopolitics of the European Green Deal (03/02/2021) | @ecfr
Fortescue Metals Eyes 15 Million Tons of EU Green Hydrogen by 2030 (Video; 05/26/2021) | @bsurveillance

Science and Technology Vol.71 / World Vol.154 (The Role of Critical Minerals in Clean Energy Transitions @IEA)

This is a very useful open-access report. I appreciate @IEA’s contribution to all the human beings.
(It is the first time to paste as many as 20 screenshots on this website. Hope this is helpful.)

Austria Vol.7 (cities)

World Vol.152 (U.S.)

Science and Technology Vol.69 (silver, etc.)

World Vol.151 (U.S., U.K., etc.)

Science and Technology Vol.68 (semiconductor materials)

Semiconductor Materials | @IEEEorg
What are the most used semiconductor materials?
The most used semiconductor materials are silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide. Of the three, germanium was one of the earliest semiconductor materials used. Germanium has four valence electrons, which are electrons located on the outer shell of the atom.
The number of valence electrons in a semiconductor material determines its conductivity. While an important step in the evolution of semiconductor materials, germanium has largely fallen into disuse in favor of the current king of semiconductor materials—silicon.
Silicon has seen extensive use as a semiconductor material since the 1950s. The most abundant element on earth after carbon, silicon has four valence electrons and melts at a higher temperature than germanium (1,414 degrees Celsius in comparison to germanium’s 938.3 degrees Celsius).
Silicon is abundantly available in quartzite. Extraction, purification, and crystallization processes for silicon are both efficient and economical. The element crystallizes in a diamond form for a relatively robust bond, giving silicon crystals strong mechanical properties.
Gallium arsenide is the second most common semiconductor in use today. Unlike silicon and germanium, gallium arsenide is a compound, not an element, and is made by combining gallium, with its three valence electrons, with arsenic, which has five valence electrons.
Eight valence electrons make gallium-arsenide devices respond quickly to electric signals, making the compound well suited for amplifying the high-frequency signals seen in television satellites. Gallium arsenide has some limitations, however: the compound is more difficult to manufacture en masse than silicon, and the chemicals used in gallium arsenide production are quite toxic.
What are the most effective semiconductor materials?
In addition to gallium arsenide, the compound silicon dioxide has characteristics superior to silicon, allowing it to be used as an insulator, passivation layer, and a building layer in metal-oxide silicon (MOS) devices, a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor. Silicon dioxide has a high dielectric strength and wider band gap than silicon, making it an effective insulator, and the compound is easily deposited on other materials.

Semiconductor Materials | @MiNetTechnology

Robust Growth And Strong Outlook For Semiconductor Materials (05/20/2021) | @SemiEngineering

Silicon Wafer Manufacturers – Materials Used to Make Semiconductors (15/04/2018) | @WaferWorldInc

Beyond silicon: the search for new semiconductors (03/10/2016) | @ConversationEDU

Silicon semiconductors to convert heat into power (13/07/2012) | @dwnews

Why are Silicon Wafers Used Semiconductor Chip Production? | @UniversityWafer

Silicon Semiconductor (10/27/2020) | @electrical4u1

What is silicon wafer? | SUMCO

How a semiconductor wafer is made | USJC

What is a Semiconductor Wafer? (08/25/2016) | @WaferPro

What are SiC Semiconductors? | @ROHMsemi

What is a Silicon Carbide Semiconductor? (05/01/2019) | @wolfspeed


Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFETs | @onsemi

Germanium (Ge) Semiconductors | AZO materials

Germanium Wafer – The Different Applications of Germanium as a Semiconductor (29/10/2019) | @WaferWorldInc

Germanium as Semiconductor – Properties | Nuclear Power for Everybody

Germanium Can Take Transistors Where Silicon Can’t (29/11/2016) | @IEEESpectrum

Silicon and Germanium | Hyperphysics

Semiconductor Materials | @tuvienna

Compound Semiconductor | Sumitomo Electric

Semiconductor Materials | TOSHIBA

Semiconductor Materials |

Virginia Semiconductor Inc.

World Vol.147 (BBC, AFP)

World Vol.145 (G7 Summit 2021 in Cornwall)

World Vol.141 (U.S., etc.)

Science and Technology Vol.66 (copper, silicon…/gallium…, etc.)

Tech Spotlight Casebook 2021 (w PDF; 05/2021) | @BelferCenter

World Vol.140 (U.S., etc.)

Belfer Center Annual Report 2020 (w PDF; 01/2021) | @BelferCenter

World Vol.138 (G7, etc.)

Science and Technology Vol.65 (semiconductor)

Semiconductor Materials Types” Groups & Classifications | @ElecNotes
Germanium; Silicon; Gallium arsenide; Silicon carbide; Gallium Nitride; Gallium phosphide; Cadmium sulphide; Lead sulphide …

What is a Semiconductor? Types, Examples & Applications | @SyedZainNasir

Semiconductor Devices and Circuits, Applications | ElProCus

Different Types of Semiconductor Devices | @eh_org

Understanding the difference between n- and p-type semiconductors (03/03/2021) | Mesago Messe Frankfurt GmbH

P-Type, N-Type Semiconductors | LibreTexts

Semiconductors | lumen

Semiconductors | The Fact Factor

Types of Semiconductor Devices | @ToshibaUSA

Semiconductors | BYJU’S

Doped Semiconductors | Hyperphysics

Semiconductor (05/18/2020) | Investopia
Types of Semiconductors
Broadly speaking, semiconductors fall into four main product categories:
Memory: Memory chips serve as temporary storehouses of data and pass information to and from computer devices’ brains. The consolidation of the memory market continues, driving memory prices so low that only a few giants like Toshiba, Samsung and NEC can afford to stay in the game.
Microprocessors: These are central processing units that contain the basic logic to perform tasks. Intel’s domination of the microprocessor segment has forced nearly every other competitor, with the exception of Advanced Micro Devices, out of the mainstream market and into smaller niches or different segments altogether.
Commodity Integrated Circuit: Sometimes called “standard chips”, these are produced in huge batches for routine processing purposes. Dominated by very large Asian chip manufacturers, this segment offers razor-thin profit margins that only the biggest semiconductor companies can compete for.
Complex SOC: “System on a Chip” is essentially all about the creation of an integrated circuit chip with an entire system’s capability on it. The market revolves around growing demand for consumer products that combine new features and lower prices. With the doors to the memory, microprocessor and commodity integrated circuit markets tightly shut, the SOC segment is arguably the only one left with enough opportunity to attract a wide range of companies.

How Semiconductors Work (02/11/2021) | @HowStuffWorks

What are semiconductors? | @HitachiGlobal

Semiconductor Industry Association | @SIAAmerica

Semiconductor | Britannica

The Chip Shortage Keeps Getting Worse. Why Can’t We Just Make More? (05/06/2021) | @business
… it takes years to build semiconductor fabrication facilities and billions of dollars—and even then the economics are so brutal that you can lose out if your manufacturing expertise is a fraction behind the competition. …
Manufacturing a chip typically takes more than three months and involves giant factories, dust-free rooms, multi-million-dollar machines, molten tin and lasers. The end goal is to transform wafers of silicon—an element extracted from plain sand—into a network of billions of tiny switches called transistors…

Can Investors Profit From the Semiconductor Shortage?: Yes, you can. Here’s how. (05/28/2021) | @TMFZahrim,@TheMotleyFoolUK

The 2021 Technology Outlook for Silicon Carbide Semiconductors (03/08/2021) | @onsemi

Electronics Basics: What Is a Semiconductor? | @ForDummies

American Semiconductor, Inc

Semiconductor | @3M

Why there is a global semiconductor shortage, how it started, who it is hurting, and how long it could last (12/05/2021) | @scmp

America’s Semiconductor Industry Doesn’t Need $52 Billion in New Subsidies To Stay Ahead of China: Industrial policy is the wrong answer to a problem that mostly doesn’t exist. (05/27/2021) | @reason

Teradyne: Robots, 5G, Semiconductors – A Winning Formula For Sustainable Growth (05/30/2021) | @Teradyneinc,@SeekingAlpha


World Vol.137 (U.S., etc.)

Science and Technology Vol.64 (gold, etc.)

World Vol.135 (U.S., etc.)

World Vol.134 (Middle East, U.S., etc.)

World Vol.126 (U.S., etc.)

Science and Technology Vol.62 (semiconductor, battery, raw materials, etc.)

World Vol.123 (Biden speech, Canada, raw materials, etc.)