Science and Technology Vol.73 (nickel, cobalt, lithium, etc.)


https://twitter.com/NickelInstitute/status/1397465281224642560


https://twitter.com/twitandrewking/status/1197183415034040328
https://twitter.com/Andrestrujado/status/1397877871494959107
https://twitter.com/IntEngineering/status/1347921067638214657


https://twitter.com/IntEngineering/status/1289168934437031936


https://twitter.com/IntEngineering/status/1268724219791020033


https://twitter.com/IntEngineering/status/1415083622755758083


https://twitter.com/WIRED/status/1408045199088046083


https://twitter.com/WIRED/status/1229585496508190722


https://twitter.com/b_orzy/status/1334682846544465920


https://twitter.com/ShefUniNews/status/1412407773585887237


https://twitter.com/cheddar/status/1381710838487203840


World Vol.159 (U.S., etc.)


https://twitter.com/HudsonInstitute/status/1416080192997519361


https://twitter.com/France24_en/status/1415989597306335232
https://twitter.com/France24_en/status/1415997138702671873
https://twitter.com/France24_en/status/1415975747856912387
https://twitter.com/France24_en/status/1416065086490247169


https://twitter.com/AFP/status/1416027338588962817


Science and Technology Vol.72 (cobalt, etc.)


https://twitter.com/ORNLCleanEnergy/status/1225547215290191872
https://twitter.com/EnergyUT/status/1283427004239548424


https://twitter.com/energigune_brta/status/1276078176268095488


https://twitter.com/kiteandkeymedia/status/1410017989529853955

https://twitter.com/UNCTAD/status/1117782638121635840


https://twitter.com/JackPosobiec/status/1410717662225780745


https://twitter.com/Cambridge_Eng/status/1399640610584268800


https://twitter.com/NASA/status/1410270726729388039


World Vol.155 (U.S., EU, etc.)

Metals for a Green and Digital Europe | @GEF_Europe
EU green deal could transform metals demand (03/01/2021) | @argusmedia
European Green Deal | @euromines
The green transition challenged by the metal supply chain | @SultanEtn
The metal supply chain challenging the EU Green Deal and put forward policy recommendations (04/07/2020) | @INNOVATION_PL
EU’s ‘green mining’ concept? – there’s no such thing | @euobs
A Policy Mix for Dematerialisation | @EcologicBerlin
Metals recycling in EU could collapse under new rules, companies say (06/03/2021) | @reuters
The geopolitics of the European Green Deal (03/02/2021) | @ecfr
Fortescue Metals Eyes 15 Million Tons of EU Green Hydrogen by 2030 (Video; 05/26/2021) | @bsurveillance


https://twitter.com/ClarkCountyNV/status/1411749334517882882
https://twitter.com/KTNV/status/1411767014285262858


https://twitter.com/KOLOTimko/status/1411750334184099840
https://twitter.com/KOLOTimko/status/1411736900797300737

https://twitter.com/letterboxd/status/1411614784735178756
https://twitter.com/patrickdextervc/status/1411633722101800963


https://twitter.com/MagrinyaJordi/status/1409576651067908103


Science and Technology Vol.71 / World Vol.154 (The Role of Critical Minerals in Clean Energy Transitions @IEA)

This is a very useful open-access report. I appreciate @IEA’s contribution to all the human beings.
(It is the first time to paste as many as 20 screenshots on this website. Hope this is helpful.)





















Austria Vol.7 (cities)



https://twitter.com/alpenadriauni/status/1410508488439177219


https://twitter.com/alpenadriauni/status/1408320753636945920


https://twitter.com/cfaed_TUD/status/1298392570645680128
https://twitter.com/lakesidescitec/status/1407638930598633473


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9DQ40SVfUwY
https://twitter.com/StadtVillach/status/1354794170943229963
https://twitter.com/JosepEudald/status/1411809097725403140


https://twitter.com/chris4024/status/1411033963074883587


https://twitter.com/phoenixbookcafe/status/1410615644169461769
https://twitter.com/WagnerGerfried/status/1411053281900642306




https://twitter.com/StadtDornbirn/status/1400716490605748224


https://twitter.com/transitdiagrams/status/1369344732376272898



https://twitter.com/EUHomeAffairs/status/1410180885702393858

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UPaQga3Y08g


https://twitter.com/breakonthru234/status/1399470153528594432





https://twitter.com/PhilWe1/status/1409092411842863107




https://twitter.com/CarfreeNetwork/status/1411253894831874049


https://twitter.com/LadySileL/status/1409832616572985344


https://twitter.com/viennasymphony/status/1410519824556507137
https://twitter.com/der_heubi/status/1408785219373703171


World Vol.152 (U.S.)

https://twitter.com/Brooke_Medina_/status/1397231057053917190


https://twitter.com/FinancialXpress/status/140828354770661376
https://twitter.com/SilverElMining/status/14083190822443622411


https://twitter.com/KuyaSilver/status/1407326908317057025


Science and Technology Vol.69 (silver, etc.)


https://twitter.com/ScienceAlert/status/1240790663844827136


https://twitter.com/VXO/status/1258381348932251649


https://twitter.com/LaurelCoons/status/1139212824000028672


https://twitter.com/wef/status/1406902016543182850


https://twitter.com/cheddar/status/1407034789123739660
https://twitter.com/cheddar/status/1407142794284748802


World Vol.151 (U.S., U.K., etc.)


https://twitter.com/ABsteward/status/1405948924133888000


https://twitter.com/EvilDoctorK/status/1406949675043860483


https://twitter.com/wef/status/1407398092605997057
https://twitter.com/wef/status/1407428247596548104
https://twitter.com/wef/status/1406643001842049031
https://twitter.com/wef/status/1406537309814550528
https://twitter.com/wef/status/1406250418322083843


https://twitter.com/wef/status/1406612802664484875


https://twitter.com/tableaupublic/status/1405586268982059022


Science and Technology Vol.68 (semiconductor materials)

Semiconductor Materials | @IEEEorg
What are the most used semiconductor materials?
The most used semiconductor materials are silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide. Of the three, germanium was one of the earliest semiconductor materials used. Germanium has four valence electrons, which are electrons located on the outer shell of the atom.
The number of valence electrons in a semiconductor material determines its conductivity. While an important step in the evolution of semiconductor materials, germanium has largely fallen into disuse in favor of the current king of semiconductor materials—silicon.
Silicon has seen extensive use as a semiconductor material since the 1950s. The most abundant element on earth after carbon, silicon has four valence electrons and melts at a higher temperature than germanium (1,414 degrees Celsius in comparison to germanium’s 938.3 degrees Celsius).
Silicon is abundantly available in quartzite. Extraction, purification, and crystallization processes for silicon are both efficient and economical. The element crystallizes in a diamond form for a relatively robust bond, giving silicon crystals strong mechanical properties.
Gallium arsenide is the second most common semiconductor in use today. Unlike silicon and germanium, gallium arsenide is a compound, not an element, and is made by combining gallium, with its three valence electrons, with arsenic, which has five valence electrons.
Eight valence electrons make gallium-arsenide devices respond quickly to electric signals, making the compound well suited for amplifying the high-frequency signals seen in television satellites. Gallium arsenide has some limitations, however: the compound is more difficult to manufacture en masse than silicon, and the chemicals used in gallium arsenide production are quite toxic.
What are the most effective semiconductor materials?
In addition to gallium arsenide, the compound silicon dioxide has characteristics superior to silicon, allowing it to be used as an insulator, passivation layer, and a building layer in metal-oxide silicon (MOS) devices, a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor. Silicon dioxide has a high dielectric strength and wider band gap than silicon, making it an effective insulator, and the compound is easily deposited on other materials.

Semiconductor Materials | @MiNetTechnology

Robust Growth And Strong Outlook For Semiconductor Materials (05/20/2021) | @SemiEngineering

Silicon Wafer Manufacturers – Materials Used to Make Semiconductors (15/04/2018) | @WaferWorldInc

Beyond silicon: the search for new semiconductors (03/10/2016) | @ConversationEDU

Silicon semiconductors to convert heat into power (13/07/2012) | @dwnews

Why are Silicon Wafers Used Semiconductor Chip Production? | @UniversityWafer

Silicon Semiconductor (10/27/2020) | @electrical4u1

What is silicon wafer? | SUMCO

How a semiconductor wafer is made | USJC

What is a Semiconductor Wafer? (08/25/2016) | @WaferPro

What are SiC Semiconductors? | @ROHMsemi

What is a Silicon Carbide Semiconductor? (05/01/2019) | @wolfspeed

WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF SILICON CARBIDE IN SEMICONDUCTORS? (25/03/2019) | @EuroScientist

Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFETs | @onsemi


Germanium (Ge) Semiconductors | AZO materials

Germanium Wafer – The Different Applications of Germanium as a Semiconductor (29/10/2019) | @WaferWorldInc

Germanium as Semiconductor – Properties | Nuclear Power for Everybody

Germanium Can Take Transistors Where Silicon Can’t (29/11/2016) | @IEEESpectrum

Silicon and Germanium | Hyperphysics

Semiconductor Materials | @tuvienna

Compound Semiconductor | Sumitomo Electric

Semiconductor Materials | TOSHIBA

Semiconductor Materials | pveducation.org

Virginia Semiconductor Inc.


World Vol.147 (BBC, AFP)


https://twitter.com/BBCWorld/status/1404059137282084864


World Vol.145 (G7 Summit 2021 in Cornwall)

https://twitter.com/G7/status/1404128511640621058
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1404084216049115141


https://twitter.com/G7/status/1404030822613667841
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1404002245495115781
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403748179506565122
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403416786545131520


https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403425655530852366
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403778259964289026
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403797976061988864
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403370617257201664
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403124869882068994
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403644487587532802
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403966158546538499
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403964376512708608


https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403385808845950983
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403279268797374464


https://twitter.com/G7/status/1402639908141928453
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1402570679875145728


https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403250048847261696
https://twitter.com/G7/status/1403063567914577930


https://twitter.com/DefraGovUK/status/1404086572132098053
https://twitter.com/DHSCgovuk/status/1403038397476782082


https://twitter.com/FCDOGovUK/status/1402554812768477191
https://twitter.com/HMGSouthWest/status/1403311973098561537


https://twitter.com/ClarenceHouse/status/1403635633852194816


https://twitter.com/trussliz/status/1403404613932433415


https://twitter.com/DominicRaab/status/1403434776795754499
https://twitter.com/DominicRaab/status/1403314703548420096


World Vol.141 (U.S., etc.)


https://twitter.com/CAgovernor/status/1401966933403050007


https://twitter.com/Ekateri03519672/status/1399606903274151936


Science and Technology Vol.66 (copper, silicon…/gallium…, etc.)

https://twitter.com/BoschPress/status/1399670818246856706


https://twitter.com/CoolMagSL/status/1312346765006434309

https://twitter.com/NadWGab/status/1038741609138061314


https://twitter.com/BLMAlaska/status/1396904156422676489


https://twitter.com/CastilloCopper/status/1397530576161280006


https://twitter.com/anasalhajji/status/1396674714643357696


https://twitter.com/Long2The/status/1397949672006815746


https://twitter.com/electronicspec/status/1386270037317664775

Tech Spotlight Casebook 2021 (w PDF; 05/2021) | @BelferCenter


https://twitter.com/TheSun/status/1397424760112488449


World Vol.140 (U.S., etc.)

https://twitter.com/RevereCopper/status/1288489799188393984


https://twitter.com/joncoopertweets/status/1396306525669445635


https://twitter.com/Ohmszy/status/1400964664469594116


https://twitter.com/MassEMA/status/1399763336003215362


https://twitter.com/andyvalencianoy/status/1400618215915544577


https://twitter.com/rogue_trippers/status/1400435589611204609

Belfer Center Annual Report 2020 (w PDF; 01/2021) | @BelferCenter


World Vol.138 (G7, etc.)


https://twitter.com/TheParachuteReg/status/1400344553023016966


https://twitter.com/_The51/status/1399427389352931336


https://twitter.com/EUCouncil/status/1281310054096998403

https://twitter.com/CBItweets/status/1399244250408128513


https://twitter.com/G7/status/1398708341338263560


https://twitter.com/OECD_ENV/status/1397190858798243850


https://twitter.com/SkyNews/status/1399302473161101312


https://twitter.com/TomHall/status/1397303402858647552


https://twitter.com/Yankees/status/1390804948716302338


https://twitter.com/KOB4/status/1399777768632504320


https://twitter.com/KOB4/status/1399713599690481668


Science and Technology Vol.65 (semiconductor)




https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DvYfs6rXKuE

Semiconductor Materials Types” Groups & Classifications | @ElecNotes
Germanium; Silicon; Gallium arsenide; Silicon carbide; Gallium Nitride; Gallium phosphide; Cadmium sulphide; Lead sulphide …

What is a Semiconductor? Types, Examples & Applications | @SyedZainNasir

Semiconductor Devices and Circuits, Applications | ElProCus

Different Types of Semiconductor Devices | @eh_org

Understanding the difference between n- and p-type semiconductors (03/03/2021) | Mesago Messe Frankfurt GmbH

P-Type, N-Type Semiconductors | LibreTexts

Semiconductors | lumen

Semiconductors | The Fact Factor

Types of Semiconductor Devices | @ToshibaUSA

Semiconductors | BYJU’S

Doped Semiconductors | Hyperphysics

Semiconductor (05/18/2020) | Investopia
Types of Semiconductors
Broadly speaking, semiconductors fall into four main product categories:
Memory: Memory chips serve as temporary storehouses of data and pass information to and from computer devices’ brains. The consolidation of the memory market continues, driving memory prices so low that only a few giants like Toshiba, Samsung and NEC can afford to stay in the game.
Microprocessors: These are central processing units that contain the basic logic to perform tasks. Intel’s domination of the microprocessor segment has forced nearly every other competitor, with the exception of Advanced Micro Devices, out of the mainstream market and into smaller niches or different segments altogether.
Commodity Integrated Circuit: Sometimes called “standard chips”, these are produced in huge batches for routine processing purposes. Dominated by very large Asian chip manufacturers, this segment offers razor-thin profit margins that only the biggest semiconductor companies can compete for.
Complex SOC: “System on a Chip” is essentially all about the creation of an integrated circuit chip with an entire system’s capability on it. The market revolves around growing demand for consumer products that combine new features and lower prices. With the doors to the memory, microprocessor and commodity integrated circuit markets tightly shut, the SOC segment is arguably the only one left with enough opportunity to attract a wide range of companies.

How Semiconductors Work (02/11/2021) | @HowStuffWorks

What are semiconductors? | @HitachiGlobal

Semiconductor Industry Association | @SIAAmerica

Semiconductor | Britannica

The Chip Shortage Keeps Getting Worse. Why Can’t We Just Make More? (05/06/2021) | @business
… it takes years to build semiconductor fabrication facilities and billions of dollars—and even then the economics are so brutal that you can lose out if your manufacturing expertise is a fraction behind the competition. …
Manufacturing a chip typically takes more than three months and involves giant factories, dust-free rooms, multi-million-dollar machines, molten tin and lasers. The end goal is to transform wafers of silicon—an element extracted from plain sand—into a network of billions of tiny switches called transistors…

Can Investors Profit From the Semiconductor Shortage?: Yes, you can. Here’s how. (05/28/2021) | @TMFZahrim,@TheMotleyFoolUK

The 2021 Technology Outlook for Silicon Carbide Semiconductors (03/08/2021) | @onsemi

Electronics Basics: What Is a Semiconductor? | @ForDummies

American Semiconductor, Inc

Semiconductor | @3M

Why there is a global semiconductor shortage, how it started, who it is hurting, and how long it could last (12/05/2021) | @scmp

America’s Semiconductor Industry Doesn’t Need $52 Billion in New Subsidies To Stay Ahead of China: Industrial policy is the wrong answer to a problem that mostly doesn’t exist. (05/27/2021) | @reason

Teradyne: Robots, 5G, Semiconductors – A Winning Formula For Sustainable Growth (05/30/2021) | @Teradyneinc,@SeekingAlpha

SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING | @semiEngineering


World Vol.137 (U.S., etc.)


https://twitter.com/AIMInvestor4/status/1389283392894783492


https://twitter.com/KavangoRes/status/1387330255950581764


https://twitter.com/KSL5TV/status/1396971421440507907


https://twitter.com/TheSun/status/1396926477984157696


https://twitter.com/TheSun/status/1396994426023686144


Science and Technology Vol.64 (gold, etc.)

https://twitter.com/thisisinsider/status/959843947743883264
https://twitter.com/prasetycio/status/1393518283807199236


https://twitter.com/ScienceUoA/status/1325693103538401280


https://twitter.com/UCBerkeley/status/1382772279839322115


https://twitter.com/ScienceAlert/status/743794142673788928


https://twitter.com/TheSun/status/1396954158951911429


World Vol.135 (U.S., etc.)


https://twitter.com/PrincetonSPIA/status/1395753248410279936
https://twitter.com/PrincetonSPIA/status/1394698757988552710


https://twitter.com/rockfordw/status/1393232361886785539


https://twitter.com/KKertysova/status/1395093524639625223


World Vol.134 (Middle East, U.S., etc.)


https://twitter.com/PlattsOil/status/1392118949052129288


https://twitter.com/MiddleEastEye/status/1395550085874954240


World Vol.126 (U.S., etc.)


https://twitter.com/wics_abc20/status/1389570118636740615


https://twitter.com/wics_abc20/status/1389248389674569731


https://twitter.com/WSILNews/status/1389248389628432384


Science and Technology Vol.62 (semiconductor, battery, raw materials, etc.)


https://twitter.com/ChemicalScience/status/1387364721980952582


https://twitter.com/DonH1187/status/1385596607899574280
https://twitter.com/GuillermoRein/status/1350225063086333956


https://twitter.com/IntEngineering/status/1385549011021672450


https://twitter.com/BoschPress/status/1368837651088822278


https://twitter.com/qualitywaterNE/status/1106662875135918080


https://twitter.com/IntEngineering/status/1338755675703418882


https://twitter.com/diaqpatel/status/1288739838099947521
https://twitter.com/RexChapman/status/1386004930360655875


World Vol.123 (Biden speech, Canada, raw materials, etc.)